Sediment Quality Assessment and Management

Sediment Quality Assessment and Management: Insight and Progress

Edited by Mohiuddin Munawar
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  • Book Info
    Sediment Quality Assessment and Management
    Book Description:

    Sediment contamination is an issue of concern throughout the world, and a major goal of the AEHMS has been to encourage the exchange of scientific knowledge on a worldwide basis. This is reflected in the global distribution of papers presented in this book, which summarizes the key findings of the Fourth International Symposium on Sediment Quality Assessment, held in Otsu, Japan, in October 2000.Sediment Quality Assessment and Managementdemonstrates how sediments and the organisms living in them provide an indication of spatial and temporal trends in contamination, how bioaccumulation is used to measure the bioavailable fraction of these contaminants, how toxicity tests can be used to measure environmental impacts, and how the cause of these effects can be identified.

    eISBN: 978-0-9939184-5-2
    Subjects: General Science, Chemistry, Environmental Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Editorial
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Mohiuddin Munawar
  4. Welcome to Otsu (from SQA2000 Book of abstracts)
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Michio Kumagai, Mohiuddin Munawar and Tom Murphy
  5. Foreword
    (pp. xv-xvi)
    U. Borgmann

    Why sediments? What makes them so special and in need of “Quality Assessment”? Human activity has resulted in extensive contamination of the environment on which life, and ultimately we, depend. Some of these contaminants are natural components of the earth, but mobilized and redistributed in potentially toxic forms through our industrial activities (e.g. metals), and others are manmade and have not existed previously in the natural world. With the exception of some, which are volatile or degrade rapidly, many of these contaminants ultimately wash into the aquatic environment. Furthermore, a great many of these have a strong tendency to adsorb...

  6. Overview of Bioassessment and Management of Sediments
    • A tiered, weight-of-evidence approach for evaluating aquatic ecosystems
      (pp. 3-22)
      G.A. Burton Jr., C.D. Rowland, M.S. Greenberg, D.R. Lavoie, J.F. Nordstrom and L.M. Eggert

      The traditional methods of assessing water and sediment quality have successfully identified polluted areas for decades. These approaches have been an essential component of regulatory programs that have resulted in improved water quality (USEPA, 1993). These methods include: physicochemical characterizations with comparisons to water quality criteria, benthic macroinvertebrate and fish community analyses, and laboratory toxicity testing of effluents, ambient waters, and sediments (Grothe et al., 1996). However, there continues to be controversy surrounding the accuracy and usefulness of these traditional assessment methods, as evidenced by challenges to the applicability of water quality standards and the relationship of whole effluent toxicity...

    • Assessing metal impacts in sediments: key questions and how to answer them
      (pp. 23-38)
      U. Borgmann

      There are four key questions that need to be answered when environmental impact assessments of contaminants are made.

      These are:

      1. Are contaminants getting in the system?

      2. Are contaminants bioavailable?

      3. Is there a measurable response?

      4. Are the contaminants causing this response?

      These questions were articulated in the Aquatic Effects Technology Evaluation (AETE) program, a Canadian government-industry program which reviewed appropriate technologies for assessing the impacts of mine effluents on the aquatic environment (AETE, 1997; ESG, 1999). Although AETE focused on mine effluents, the four questions which provided the focus for evaluating assessment tools are equally valid for other forms of metal...

    • Canadian application of bioassays for environmental management: a review
      (pp. 39-58)
      C. Blaise

      Ecotoxicological approaches for managing aquatic environments can call for use of bioassays, biomarkers or in situ indicators, depending on the issues at stake and on the questions being asked (Fig. 1). In all cases, chemical analysis becomes an essential component of ecotoxicological investigations in an attempt to relate observed effects to putative causes of contamination. In situ approaches essentially strive to determine the health status of particular aquatic ecosystems by measuring structural or functional indices at the level of biotic populations. Such investigations are useful, for example, in evaluating a previously unstudied milieu or one in which (non) point sources...

    • Eutrophication control by sediment treatment: common assumptions and misconceptions
      (pp. 59-78)
      T.P. Murphy, M. Kumagai and K. Ishikawa

      Sediments are a major problem in aquatic ecosystem management and restoration. Sediments contain a much higher concentration of nutrients than the water column and can be a major source of nutrients to the water column. Recent studies in Sweden indicate that in summer, as much as 99% of the gross nutrient flux comes from the sediments (Rydin and Brunberg, 1998). Typhoon sediment agitation in Lake Biwa, Japan seems to be associated with the initiation ofMicrocystisblooms (Frenette et al., 1996). The southern basin of Lake Biwa has become more eutrophic and part of the problem appears to be related...

  7. Monitoring Sediment Contamination:: Spatial and Temporal trends
    • Contaminated sediment in the Buffalo River area of concern–historical trends and current conditions
      (pp. 81-112)
      K.N. Irvine, K.M. Frothingham, M.C. Rossi, S. Pickard, J. Atkinson and T. Bajak

      The Great Lakes is the largest freshwater lake system in the world and an invaluable natural resource, but impairment of its water quality has been documented since the 1800s (IJC, 1987; Rossi, 1995). Most recently, management and remediation initiatives for the lakes have been focused through programs such as Remedial Action Plan (RAP) development for Areas of Concern (AOCs) and Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs).

      Areas of Concern are designated by the IJC because they fail to meet the general or specific objectives of the U.S.-Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and as such, exhibit some type of beneficial use impairment....

    • Heavy metals in the burrowing bivalve (Solen strictus) from tidal flats along the western coast of South Korea
      (pp. 113-124)
      G.-S. Hwang, H.-S. Shin, K. Kim, S.-K. Yeo and J.-S. Kim

      Heavy metal contamination of natural ecosystems has been of long-standing concern because even small quantities can cause health problems to humans and other living organisms. A variety of organisms have been used as bioindicators for various types of pollutions in aquatic environments: fish (Kiparissis et al., 1996), algae (Tadros et al., 1994), plankton and crab (Ayas and Kolankaya, 1996), fish parasite (Sures et al., 1997), mussel (Orren et al., 1980; Waldichuk, 1985; Phillips and Segar, 1986; Claisse, 1989; Moukrim et al., 2000), etc. Among these many organisms, bivalves likeMytilus edulisandScrobicularia planahave been regarded as suitable biological...

    • Assessment of chlorinated organic pollutants in the sediments of a coastal area of the Tyrrhenian sea (Ombrone River-Italy): a case-study of multivariate approach for marine sediment characterisation
      (pp. 125-138)
      A.M. Cicero, M.G. Finoia, M. Gabellini, E. Pietrantonio, G. Romanelli and E. Romano

      The assessment and characterisation of pollutants load in the sediments represent a critical step for the evaluation of the environmental status of marine coastal areas.

      The principal organohalogen compounds present in the Mediterranean coastal waters and sediments are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

      The principal transport routes of these compounds into the marine and coastal environment include atmospheric deposition and surface run-off (UNEP, 1996).

      PCBs are mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons produced for industrial uses. DDT is a well-known insecticide previously used world-wide; it is now banned in...

    • Geochemical and surface properties of river sediments in eastern China
      (pp. 139-156)
      J. Chen, F. Wang and Y. Zhang

      The chemical composition and properties of river sediments have received much attention since the late 1960s (Turekian and Scott, 1967; Moore, 1967; Morozov, 1969; Martin et al., 1973; Trefry and Presley, 1976; Wagemann et al., 1977; Gibbs, 1973). This is because of its role in giving insight into crustal weathering processes on local and global scales, in determining the elemental fluxes between land and ocean, and in comparing the river-borne material with the oceanic sediment (Strakhov, 1967; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971; Martin and Meybeck, 1979). It is well documented that sediments play a key role in the sorption and transport...

    • Monitoring of concentrations of heavy metals in water, sediment and fish in the River Ganga, India
      (pp. 157-166)
      M.A. Khan, R.S. Panwar, A.K. Mathur and R. Jetly

      The Ganga River originates in the Garhwal-Himalayas (300 55' N, 70 0 7' E) from the Gaumukh glacier at an altitude of 4100 m ASL. The Ganga River alongwith its tributaries (Yamuna, Ghagra, Kosi, Ramganga and Damodar etc.) are considered as the most important riverine system in Indian subcontinent, having a combined length of 12,500 km. During its course of 2525 km from Himalayas to Bay of Bengal, the river passes through 9- Indian states. The Ganga basin receives annual runoff of 48.96 million hectare meter (m ha m) from a catchment area of 96.6 m ha.

      The river with...

  8. Bioavailability, Toxicity, Risk Assessment and Treatment
    • Multi-trophic bioassessment of stressed “Areas of Concern” of the Lake Erie watershed
      (pp. 169-192)
      M. Munawar, I. F. Munawar, M. Burley, S. Carou and H. Niblock

      The Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) have been defined as geographic areas that fail to meet the general or specific objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement where such failure has caused or is likely to cause impairment of beneficial use or the area’s ability to support aquatic life (Hartig and Zarull, 1992). Forty two degraded areas have been designated as AOCs in the Great Lakes basin. Seven of these AOCs are located in the Lake Erie watershed.

      There are 14 beneficial uses listed in the Agreement. Impairment of beneficial use is defined by the Agreement as a...

    • Contamination in intertidal areas: risks of increased bioavailability
      (pp. 193-206)
      P.J. den Besten

      As a result of river pollution, sediments in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse have become polluted with heavy metals, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs. Now that remedial action has become an option to reduce the risks for ecosystems (because present quality of suspended solids is much better), priorities should be given to high-risk situations (Den Besten et al., 2000). The ecologically important intertidal flats contain high levels of contaminants, causing high risks for wader birds that are dependent on these areas for their food. In addition, the bordering terrestrial ecosystems (river banks and floodplain meadows) have received...

    • Laboratory assay of TNT (2,4,6-trinitro-toluene) fate and toxicity in seawater and sediment
      (pp. 207-212)
      G. Dave and E. Nilsson

      Military munition has been dumped in both freshwater and seawater, but the fate and the effects of these dumpings are unknown. Dumping has often been made at considerable depths and, therefore, it is difficult to locate the material and also to study the fate and possible effects of the chemicals that may leach from the munition. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a major explosive in the dumped munition. Its fate and effects have mainly been studied in soil and freshwater systems so far.

      The objective for this study was to determine the toxicity of TNT added to a sediment water system at...

    • Field test of ammunition (TNT) dumping in the ocean
      (pp. 213-220)
      Göran Dave

      Military ammunition has been dumped in both freshwater and seawater, but the fate and the effects of this dumping so far are unknown. Ocean dumping has often been made at considerable depth, and it has been difficult to locate the material and to study the fate and possible effects of the chemicals that may leach from the ammunition. Previous studies on dumped ammunition have mainly dealt with chemical ammunition, i.e. warfare agents like mustard gas, tabun, sarin etc. (HELCOM, 1996), and only a few studies (Dave et al., 2000; Green et al., 1999) have dealt with the toxicity of explosives...

    • Weakly-bound metals and total nutrient concentrations of bulk sediments from some water reservoirs in São Paulo State, SE Brazil
      (pp. 221-240)
      A.A. Mozeto, P.F. Silvério, F.C.F. DePaula, J.E. Bevilacqua, E. Patella and W. de F. Jardim

      Suspended particulates and sediments in lakes are well known for being able to concentrate heavy metals such as Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni. In many aquatic systems throughout the world, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments are much higher than the background levels and are related to anthropogenic activity. For various reasons even in cases where the metal concentrations are higher than the background level, metal bioavailability can be minimal and adverse effects on biota (detected by laboratory bioassays and field benthic community structure surveys) may not occur (Ankley et al., 1996). Sediment physico- and biogeochemical properties have been...

    • Influence of sea cucumber on sediment improvement in a closed aquatic environment
      (pp. 241-256)
      K. Kurata, Y. Kozuki, M. Kitano, K. Otsuka and H. Murakami

      Coastal zones where the land meets the sea are often influenced by the various economic activities from the land. Especially in closed sea area such as inner bay or harbour, load of organic matter and nutrient from the river affects directly water and bottom materials in respect of physical and chemical qualities. Environmental deterioration of water and bottom qualities did damage to many organisms inhabiting closed sea areas. For example, lack of dissolved oxygen in bottom water and the emergence of red tide had a serious impact on marine organisms. The loss of balance of nature was likely to alter...

    • Decomposition of organotin compounds in dredged material from harbours by means of an electrochemical process
      (pp. 257-266)
      H. Stichnothe and W. Calmano

      Tributyltin (TBT) is used as an additive in antifouling paints, (Evans and Karpel, 1985), for the shipping industry to avoid micro-organism growth on the submerged surface of ships. Despite this economic benefit due to reduced fuel consumption, which also means a relief for the environment under the aspect of climate change, (Evans, 1999), intersex and imposex of snails (Umweltbundesamt, 1989; Porte et. al., 1998) are found to be a widespread phenomenon caused by the organotin compounds, especially TBT. Therefore organotin compounds belong to the most toxic substances for aquatic organisms, humans ever released into the environment (de Mora, 1996). The...

  9. Sediment-Water Interactions and Eutrophication
    • Spatial and temporal trends in chlorophyll a, nutrients, and sediment in relation to avian mortality, Whitewater Lake, Manitoba, Canada
      (pp. 269-286)
      K.N. Irvine, T.P. Murphy, T. Tang, L.M. Greer and D. Walters

      Whitewater Lake, Manitoba, is an important nesting and molting ground for migratory waterfowl, but the lake also experiences frequent, large scale avian mortality. The principal cause of mortality is Type C botulism and, in fact, this type of botulism has been observed to affect waterfowl throughout the world, with significant annual losses in North America (Rocke, 1993; Rocke et al., 1999). Botulism outbreaks are common not just in Whitewater Lake, but in lakes and wetlands throughout the Canadian prairies. In response to growing concerns about large scale mortality, the Working Group on Avian Botulism was formed to look at all...

    • Surface water recruitment of bloom-forming cyanobacteria from deep water sediments of lake Biwa, Japan
      (pp. 287-306)
      K. Ishikawa, S. Tsujimura, M. Kumagai and H. Nakahara

      Lake Biwa is a large, deep, mid-latitude temperate lake (Fig. 1), and the water in the lake is phosphorus-limited (Tezuka, 1992). Several genera of cyanobacterial blooms have appeared during most summers since 1983 in the enriched South Basin (Ichise et al., 1987), and in the harbours of the North Basin from 1994 onward (Yoshida et al., 1996). Since 1997 there have also been occasional cyanobacterial blooms in offshore surface waters of the North Basin (Kumagai et al., 1999). Although the present cyanobacterial toxic concentrations in the water are below the levels that damage human health (Watanabe, 1999), the risk of...

    • Effects of palaeoclimate on chemical and mechanical erosions in watershed recorded in lake sediments: the case of Daihai Lake (northern China)
      (pp. 307-316)
      Z. Jin, S. Wang, J. Shen, F. Li and X. Lu

      Weathering and erosion are two universal behaviours at the earth’s surface. The term “weathering” implies that chemical weathering is strongly affected by climate, principally by precipitation and temperature that control its intensity and outcome (Lasaga et al., 1994; Blum et al., 1998; Taylor and Lasaga, 1999). A major uncertainty in present climate models is the sensitivity of weathering rates to climatic variables. It is important to understand surface geochemical process if we wish to correctly interpret the sediment records in oceans, rivers and/or lakes, because their inputs are chiefly from detritus and solute by weathering and erosion.

      In recent years,...

    • Estimation of phosphorus flux between bottom sediments and the water column in a shallow reservoir
      (pp. 317-336)
      K. Amano, J. Li, H. Suzuki and Y. Yasuda

      The role of internal loading of phosphorus in lakes with regard to algal growth in summer has been mentioned frequently (e.g., Larsen et al., 1981), and anoxic hypolimnia are usually described as the cause of the release of phosphorus from bottom sediments (e.g., Mortimer, 1971; Nürnberg, 1988). The mass balance of phosphorus is usually difficult to measure in natural lakes, because the change in total phosphorus concentration in lake water is controlled mainly by inflow, outflow, particulate settling, and release from bottom sediments. In particular, it is difficult to make an accurate estimate of the amount of phosphorus brought by...

    • The effects of sediment resuspension on phosphate release from sediment into the water column
      (pp. 337-352)
      J. Li, K. Amano and Y. Yasuda

      Aquatic sediments as sources of nutrients in the water column have been studied extensively for more than half a century (Mortimer, 1941, 1942; Vollenweider, 1968; Matty et al., 1987). Most studies have shown that the maintenance of high nutrient levels in overlying waters is due to internal loading from the aquatic sediments (Rossi and Premazzi, 1991; Appan and Ting, 1996). The mechanism of nutrient release from redox-induced fluxes of dissolved nutrients from sediments to the anoxic hypolimnion is well known (Fillos and Swanson, 1975; Schladow and Hamilton, 1995), but few studies have investigated the effects of sediment resuspension on soluble...

    • A physico-ecological engineering system to reduce the eutrophication in Wulihu Bay, Taihu Lake, China
      (pp. 353-361)
      C. Hu, J. Qian, G. Wang, W. Hu and P. Pu

      Lakes have become environmentally deteriorated as a result of increased eutrophication (such as Taihu Lake, in China) and a lot of cities are seriously short of drinking water because of pollution. The eutrophication of Wulihu Bay in the northern part of Taihu Lake in China has developed so rapidly in the last 20 years that submerged macrophytes were extinct in this lake area. The water was very turbid, with most of transparency (SD) ranging between 0.25 and 0.45 m. The lake water had very high nutrient concentration, with NH+4-N ranging between 3 and 19 mg l-1. The annual average concentrations...

  10. Back Matter
    (pp. 362-362)