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Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective

WILLIAM W. TAYLOR
ABIGAIL J. LYNCH
NANCY J. LEONARD
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 880
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.14321/j.ctt7ztc19
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  • Book Info
    Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management
    Book Description:

    To maintain thriving, sustainable fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, an understanding of the numerous and complex ecological, societal, economic, management, and policy issues surrounding them is critical. This incisive study provides a collaborative, interjurisdictional, and multi-use perspective that is shaped by the United states and Canada together as part of their shared governance of these waters. This book offers an informed look at the Great Lakes fisheries and their ecosystems, as the contributors examine both the threats they have faced and the valuable opportunities they provide for basin citizens and industries. Divided into four sections-the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes Fisheries, Fisheries case studies, and outlook for the Future-this is a valuable and up-to-date tool for students, researchers, policymakers, and managers alike.

    eISBN: 978-1-60917-335-7
    Subjects: Political Science, Environmental Science, Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-xii)
    Chris Goddard

    One of the most well recognized landmarks in the world, the Laurentian Great Lakes, is known for its fish and fisheries as much as for its stunning beauty and vast quantities of cold, clear fresh water. Indeed, much of the history of the Great Lakes reflects a close connection between the people, the fish, and the management actions that shaped the fisheries.

    Today, these fish attract millions of tourists and day-trippers and support tens of thousands of jobs, such that the recreational and commercial fisheries are worth billions of dollars annually to the people of the region. Moreover, fishing is...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Part 1. The Great Lakes Region
    • The Great Lakes: An Overview of Their Formation, Geology, Physics, and Chemistry
      (pp. 3-30)
      Russell A. Moll, Cynthia Sellinger, Edward S. Rutherford, Jennifer Lee Johnson, Michael Ryan Fainter and John E. Gannon

      The Laurentian Great Lakes are the crown jewels of the freshwater systems of North America. These five large lakes, their associated lakes, and their connecting channels (fig. 1) hold about 23,000 km³ of water—enough to cover the contiguous United States to a depth of about 3 meters (Great Lakes Environmental Atlas 1995). They comprise a series of ecosystems unique in the world and are the subject of considerable study, regulation, and observation. They also possess physical, chemical, and biological characteristics unique among all the largest lakes on the planet. Yet, for all their immense size and grandeur, the Great...

    • Demographic and Economic Patterns in the Great Lakes Region
      (pp. 31-50)

      The human landscape of the Great Lakes region is characterized by three important spatial and temporal patterns. First, there is considerable spatial diversity across the region in terms of the demographic characteristics of the people and the economic activities these people pursue. That diversity is evident in population density, age structure, income, and employment in agriculture, manufacturing, and other occupations. Second, the region has changed considerably since the 1950s, in terms of these characteristics: people redistributed themselves, and occupational structure and employment opportunities have altered. Although some of these spatial and temporal changes reflect national trends in the United States...

    • Issues Affecting Fish Habitat in the Great Lakes Basin
      (pp. 51-80)
      Daniel B. Hayes

      One of the primary goals of ecology is to understand the abundance and distribution of organisms. At its core, the study of fish habitat is an attempt to accomplish this goal. Fish and other aquatic organisms need habitat to survive, and the productive capacity of the environment depends on how well their needs are met. The themes developed in this chapter focus on how human activities in the Great Lakes basin have altered the quality and quantity of aquatic habitats and their resulting effects on fish populations. The issues faced by fishery managers and researchers in this region are then...

    • Landscape Change and Its Influences on Aquatic Habitats and Fisheries in the Great Lakes Basin
      (pp. 81-104)
      Kevin Wehrly, Lizhu Wang, Dana Infante, Christine Joseph, Arthur Cooper, Les Stanfield and Edward S. Rutherford

      The Laurentian Great Lakes are an economically and ecologically valuable resource. The lakes supply water for municipalities and industry, provide fishing and boating opportunities for residents and tourists, and serve as a key shipping route linking the agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers of the basin to the world. The lakes also support a diverse array of aquatic life. Owing to their large spatial extent and geologic history, the Great Lakes exhibit considerable variation in climate and bathymetry that naturally maintains differences in temperature, water quality, and biological assemblages both within and among the lakes. Humans have altered Great Lakes ecosystems...

    • Fishes and Decapod Crustaceans of the Great Lakes Basin Brian
      (pp. 105-136)
      Brian M. Roth, Nicholas E. Mandrak, Thomas R. Hrabik, Greg G. Sass and Jody Peters

      The primary goal of the first edition of this chapter (Coon 1994) was to provide an overview of the Laurentian Great Lakes fish community and its origins. For this edition, we have taken a slightly different approach. Although we have updated the checklist of fishes in each of the Great Lakes and their watersheds, we also include a checklist of decapod crustaceans. Our decision to include decapods derives from the lack of such a list for the Great Lakes in the literature and the importance of decapods (in particular, crayfishes) for the ecology and biodiversity of streams and lakes in...

    • Recent Changes in Successional State of the Deep-Water Fish Communities of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and Management Implications
      (pp. 137-166)
      Randy L. Eshenroder and Brian F. Lantry

      Of the five Great Lakes, Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario are most alike in their morphometry (fig. 1) and fish communities. All three lakes are characterized by extensive, deep off shore waters and massive hypolimnia that, before European colonization, were dominated by various forms of ciscoes (Coregonusspp.) and Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Eshenroder and Burnham-Curtis 1999). Among these fishes, the most-specialized forms were the results of partial speciation events that began at the end of the Ice Age (Pleistocene) and were driven by feeding opportunities in the deeper waters, what here we call the deep pelagia. The deep pelagia...

    • Fish Species at Risk and Non-Native Fishes in the Great Lakes Basin: Past, Present, and Future
      (pp. 167-202)
      Nicholas E. Mandrak and Becky Cudmore

      The fish fauna of the Great Lakes has changed significantly since, and as a result of, the arrival of Europeans. Europeans brought with them and stocked non-native fishes they preferred to eat and angle (e.g., Common Carp, Brown Trout; common names according to Nelson et al. 2004; see Roth et al. 2012 for scientific names; scientific names provided within this chapter for species not listed in Roth et al. 2012). Europeans also brought technology that directly (e.g., efficient fishing equipment) and indirectly (e.g., dams) impacted native fish species and led to their decline, in some cases, to the point of...

    • Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish: Historic, Current, and Emerging Concerns
      (pp. 203-258)
      Cheryl A. Murphy, Satyendra P. Bhavsar and Nilima Gandhi

      The Great Lakes basin has seen some dramatic changes over the past century. The area has experienced marked changes in land use, accelerated population and industrial growth, and a vast array of contaminants and anthropogenic stressors that have changed in composition and relative importance over time. There have been several international treaties and policy initiatives put forth to deal with contaminants and stressors, but contaminants of concern continue to change as our technology changes.

      In past, we focused on harmful effects of industrial wastes, and several policy initiatives were formulated to ameliorate these effects. Although we are still dealing with...

    • Current Status of Fish Health and Disease Issues in the Laurentian Great Lakes: 2005–2010
      (pp. 259-302)
      Mohamed Faisal, Carolyn A. Schulz, Thomas P. Loch, Robert K. Kim, John Hnath and Gary Whelan

      The Laurentian Great Lakes compose the largest freshwater ecosystem on earth, which supports a number of economically and ecologically valuable sport and commercial fisheries. A combination of habitat destruction, invasions by exotic species, and the overexploitation of the fishery decimated stocks of native fish species in the Great Lakes basin (GLB). As a result, large numbers of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho (O. kisutch) Salmon were introduced into the GLB in 1966 to rebalance the energy flow of the system and to maintain commercially-viable sport fisheries. Unfortunately, the intentional and non-intentional introduction of non-native aquatic species facilitated the invasion of...

  6. Part 2. Great Lakes Fisheries
    • Multi-Jurisdictional Management of the Shared Great Lakes Fishery: Transcending Conflict and Diffuse Political Authority
      (pp. 305-338)
      Marc Gaden, Chris Goddard and Jennifer Read

      During the late 1700s and early 1800s, the period of European colonization, the Great Lakes region was a key battleground for control of North America. World powers fought each other, colonists, and native peoples for the right to control the region and, out of these conflicts, emerged political boundaries that, eventually, defined the domains of Canada, the United States, eight U.S. states, several tribes, and the province of Ontario. Caught up in this diffusion of political authority was the Great Lakes fishery. Independent governments, each with their own philosophies and constituent pressures, led to inconsistent, ineffective, and often injurious fishery...

    • Great Lakes Commercial Fisheries: Historical Overview and Prognoses for the Future
      (pp. 339-398)
      Travis O. Brenden, Russell W. Brown, Mark P. Ebener, Kevin Reid and Tammy J. Newcomb

      Commercial fishing played an important role in the settlement of the Great Lakes region of North America and continues to be an important industry in the area. Abundant fishery resources were a key factor in the establishment of early settlements in many areas around the Great Lakes. Along with timber, trapping, and mining, commercial fishing was one of the key natural resource extraction industries that generated economic wealth to stimulate settlement and development of many Great Lake ports.

      The commercial fishing industry has had to respond to near continuous change in its technology, the Great Lakes ecosystem, and the regulations...

    • Great Lakes Recreational Fisheries and Their Role in Fisheries Management and Policy
      (pp. 399-440)
      Sarah A. Thayer and Andrew J. Loftus

      Recreational, commercial, and tribal fishing are the three sources of fishing pressure on the Great Lakes. Commercial fishers harvest and sell fish for income; tribal fishers harvest and sell fish for income and/or use them as subsistence. Recreational fishers1 catch fish for pleasure and/or food, both of which include social and economic benefits (Dann and Schroeder 2003). Recreational fishers include a minority who pay to fish on chartered boats and a majority who do not (collectively called recreational fishers, hereafter, unless specifically referring to charter or non-charter fishers). Recreational fishers share Great Lakes fishing rights with tribal and commercial fishers...

    • Aquaculture in the Great Lakes
      (pp. 441-454)
      Ted R. Batterson

      As reported by the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration (GLRC) Aquaculture Drafting Team (GLRC 2005), “aquaculture can be defined as the husbandry of aquatic organisms and implies the purposeful intent to nurture or promote the growth and survival of the targeted organism.” Therefore, in the broadest sense, aquaculture includes state, federal, provincial, and tribal fish hatcheries; the aquarium or ornamental fish industry; water gardening suppliers; private, commercial fish farms; and baitfish operations dealing with cultured organisms. This account is focused on public/tribal fish stocking and related hatchery activities, as well as private, commercial fish farms. This chapter does not address other...

    • Great Lakes Fisheries Law Enforcement
      (pp. 455-472)
      Edmund F. McGarrell, Michael Suttmoeller and Carole Gibbs

      Management of the Great Lakes fisheries involves a complex governance structure spanning nations, states, tribal authorities, and local authorities. These authorities are responsible for addressing the challenges facing the Great Lakes through promulgation of law and policy and implementing practices that balance science-based evidence, scientific uncertainty, competing interests, and budgetary constraints in a multi-jurisdictional context. All key issues facing the Great Lakes, such as allocation of fishery resources across commercial, recreational, and tribal interests; control of invasive species; and maintenance of Great Lakes water quality and habitat, are contingent on effective governance of the Great Lakes ecosystem. An often overlooked...

  7. Part 3. Fisheries Case Studies
    • Managing Inherent Complexity for Sustainable Walleye Fisheries in Lake Erie
      (pp. 475-494)
      Edward F. Roseman, Richard Drouin, Marc Gaden, Roger L. Knight, Jeffrey Tyson and Yingming Zhao

      In Lake Erie, Walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus) is king. The naturally occurring species is the foundation of commercial fishing operations on the Canadian side of the lake and is a much-prized sportfish on the U.S. side (Lloyd and Mullen 1991; Lichtkoppler 1997; Lichtkoppler et al. 2008). The species provides billions of dollars to the economies of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and the province of Ontario each year (Lichtkoppler 1997; Lichtkoppler et al. 2008) and is part of the culture of local communities. Currently, 188 commercial licenses exist in Ontario’s Lake Erie waters, employing thousands of people on boats and...

    • Rehabilitation of Lake Sturgeon in the Great Lakes: Making Progress
      (pp. 495-532)
      Bruce Manny and Lloyd Mohr

      The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) is indigenous to North America and all of the Great Lakes (Scott and Crossman 1998). Few freshwater fish in North America have a wider geographic range than the Lake Sturgeon. It is found in three drainage basins: the Mississippi River, the Great Lakes, and Hudson Bay (Priegel and Wirth 1971). Sadly, most Lake Sturgeon populations throughout their entire home range have been impacted by human activity, reducing and, in some cases eliminating, entire populations. The greatly diminished abundance and status of Lake Sturgeon in the Great Lakes is largely a function of their life history...

    • Re-Establishing Lake Trout in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Past, Present, and Future
      (pp. 533-588)
      Andrew M. Muir, Charles C. Krueger and Michael J. Hansen

      Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were native to the Laurentian Great Lakes (hereafter, Great Lakes) and were widely distributed throughout lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and the eastern basin of Lake Erie (fig. 1). Prior to European colonization, Lake Trout were an important resource for aboriginal peoples living around the Great Lakes (Bogue 2000). European colonization of the Laurentian Basin, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, resulted in rapid expansion of Lake Trout fisheries. Colonization also brought about dramatic changes to landscapes, which, ultimately, had devastating and long-lasting effects on the ecology of watersheds. Forestry and shipping were two destructive...

    • Regulation of Sport Fishery Harvest of Lake Trout: Use of Size Limits in New York’s Waters of Lake Ontario
      (pp. 589-608)
      Charles C. Krueger, Steven R. LaPan, Clifford P. Schneider and Tomas H. Eckert

      Healthy, viable, and sustainable fish stocks that have stable or increasing populations and stable fisheries are easy to manage. However, difficulties with stakeholders arise, when overfishing occurs and harvests must be reduced to protect a stock. Harvest control through fishing regulations is an important function of fishery management that can place the manager in an adversarial role with stakeholders. Disagreements between managers and fishery participants often focus on whether a real problem exists, and, if so, whether a reduction in harvest is really necessary to protect the stock. Frequently, stakeholders believe more fish exist in the population than the manager’s...

    • Pacific Salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin
      (pp. 609-650)
      Randall M. Claramunt, Charles P. Madenjian and David F. Clapp

      Overall, the history of Great Lakes salmonine (genusOncorhynchus) populations can be described by three distinct periods: indigenous (pre-1850), transitional (1850–1960), and recent (1960–present; Parsons 1973). During the indigenous period, the apex of Great Lakes food webs was occupied by the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), which were most abundant in Lake Ontario, the Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which were found primarily in riverine habitats, and the Lake Trout (S. namaycush,including several morphotypes), which were abundant throughout the lakes in both shallow and deepwater habitats. Substantial disruption of Great Lakes fish communities began at the end of the...

    • Sea Lamprey Control: Past, Present, and Future
      (pp. 651-704)
      Michael J. Siefkes, Todd B. Steeves, W. Paul Sullivan, Michael B. Twohey and Weiming Li

      The establishment of non-native species, whether intentional or accidental, combined with anthropogenic exploitation of fishes and their habitats have significantly and irreversibly altered the ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes (Smith 1968; Loftus and Regier 1972; Eshenroder and Burnham-Curtis 1999; Leach et al. 1999). One invasive species that has had a marked impact upon Great Lakes fish populations is the Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The history of Sea Lamprey invasion and control has been well-documented (Applegate 1950a, 1950b; Lawrie 1970; Smith et al. 1974), and the proceedings of two international symposia were published in scientific journals (Canadian Journal of Fisheries...

    • Alewife in the Great Lakes: Old Invader—New Millennium
      (pp. 705-732)
      Robert O’Gorman, Charles P. Madenjian, Edward F. Roseman, Andrew Cook and Owen T. Gorman

      Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) are unique among the many exotic species that have invaded and successfully colonized the Laurentian Great Lakes. Their burgeoning numbers could not only be reduced by management actions, but also the method used to reduce the populations, annual releases of hatchery-reared trout and salmon (salmonines), created a net economic benefit to the region by creating multi-million dollar recreational fisheries (Bence and Smith 1999; Connelly and Brown 2009). The largest of the hatcheries maintained, Alewife-based fisheries were in Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, the three lakes with an abundance of Alewife and salmonine habitats.

      Large scale releases of...

    • Double-Crested Cormorants in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Issues and Ecosystems
      (pp. 733-764)
      Mark S. Ridgway and David G. Fielder

      The debate concerning the effects of cormorant (Phalacrocoraxspp.) consumption on fish abundance shows a remarkable degree of fidelity to a common theme independent of location, language, or cultural heritage. The scope of this debate stems largely from population increase and expansion of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Europe (Bregnballe et al. 2003) and Japan (Kameda et al. 2003) and the Double-Crested Cormorant (P. auritus) in North America (Weseloh et al. 1995), including a return to earlier high abundance in some areas of North America (Wires and Cuthbert 2006). Debate develops between those interested in allocation of fish production...

  8. Part 4. Outlook for the Future
    • Aquatic Invasive Species Risks to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins: Asian Carp as a Case for Serious Consideration of Hydrologic Separation
      (pp. 767-786)
      Jerry L. Rasmussen, Henry A. Regier, Richard E. Sparks and William W. Taylor

      The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), designed in the nineteenth century to divert and dilute sewage and support navigation, cuts through a natural divide that once separated the Great Lakes ecosystem from the Mississippi River basin (MRB). Later modifications to the CSSC to incorporate the Calumet River system created a number of additional direct water connections between the Great Lakes and the MRB (USACE 2010a). The combined interconnecting waterways are known as the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS; see fig. 1).

      Today, more than a century after its construction, the CAWS remains an active transportation corridor, manages wastewater from...

    • EPILOGUE: Fisheries Sustainability and Water Policy: The Need to Think Beyond the Basin Boundaries
      (pp. 787-792)
      William W. Taylor, Katrina B. Mueller and James T. Martin

      Years ago, our view of the health of the Great Lakes ecosystem and associated fisheries was limited only to the lakes themselves and the immediate surrounding area. This rather parochial focus was a reflection of our attention to, and knowledge about, the most pressing local issues of the time, such as overharvest and pollution from within-basin sources. As seen throughout much of this book, contemporary drivers of Great Lake fisheries ecosystem health have become much more regional and global in context and, as a result, ecologically and socio-politically more complex and difficult to manage. Although some of today’s issues may...

  9. Contributors
    (pp. 793-804)
  10. Index
    (pp. 805-865)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 866-866)