Biodiversity in a Changing Climate

Biodiversity in a Changing Climate: Linking Science and Management in Conservation

Terry L. Root
Kimberly R. Hall
Mark P. Herzog
Christine A. Howell
Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: 1
Pages: 244
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt14btfxx
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  • Book Info
    Biodiversity in a Changing Climate
    Book Description:

    One major consequence of climate change is abrupt, dramatic changes in regional biodiversity. Even if the most optimistic scenarios for mitigating climate change transpire, the fate of many wild species rests on the shoulders of people engaged in conservation planning, management, and policy. Providing managers with the latest and most useful climate change research is critical and requires challenging the conventional divide between scientists and managers.Biodiversity in a Changing Climatepromotes dialogue among scientists, decision makers, and managers who are grappling with climate-related threats to species and ecosystems in diverse forms. The book includes case studies and best practices used to address impacts related to climate change across a broad spectrum of species and habitats-from coastal krill and sea urchins to prairie grass and mountain bumblebees. Focused on California, the issues and strategies presented in this book will prove relevant to regions across the West, as well as other regions, and provide a framework for how scientists and managers in any region can bridge the communication divide to manage biodiversity in a rapidly changing world.Biodiversity and a Changing Climatewill prove an indispensable guide to students, scientists, and professionals engaged in conservation and resource management.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-96180-7
    Subjects: Environmental Science, Physics

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Terry L. Root and Kimberly R. Hall
  5. CHAPTER 1 A New Era for Ecologists: INCORPORATING CLIMATE CHANGE INTO NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
    (pp. 1-14)
    Kimberly R. Hall

    Rapid climate change is one of the most pressing challenges facing resource managers and conservation practitioners in California and around the globe. Since the 1880s, the linear trend in average global surface temperature suggests an increase of approximately 0.85°C in the Northern Hemisphere, and the last 30 years were likely the warmest period in the last 1400 years (IPCC 2013). It is critical that we accelerate efforts to reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere (mitigate the causes of climate change). However, even if drastic reductions are achieved, the emissions that have already been released through the burning...

  6. Part I Key Changes in Climate and Life
    • CHAPTER 2 Climate Change from the Globe to California
      (pp. 17-26)
      Michael D. Mastrandrea and William R. L. Anderegg

      California’s climate regions range from the coastal, moist redwood forests in the north to the high mountainous regions of the Sierras to the arid deserts of southern California. Over time, the state’s communities and economy have developed strategies to manage climate stresses and to prosper within the state’s diverse climatic zones. Likewise, California’s native flora and fauna have thrived in this variety of climatic regions, making the state one of the world’s most important biodiversity hotspots of species found nowhere else (Myers et al. 2000).

      However, the rapidly changing climate is now threatening to exceed the limits of species’ natural...

    • CHAPTER 3 Climatic Influences on Ecosystems
      (pp. 27-40)
      William R. L. Anderegg and Terry L. Root

      All across the planet, from the shallow waters of tropical coral reefs to boreal forests and arctic tundra, species are already changing in response to anthropogenic climate change. Birds and butterflies are moving poleward and higher in elevation with warmer temperatures (Root et al. 2003). Amphibians in tropical cloud forests have gone extinct with warming, drying, and having no habitat into which to expand (Pounds et al. 2006). Alpine mammal populations in North America have been disappearing at the lower edges of their ranges due to temperature stress (Beever et al. 2003). The observed impacts of climate change on ecosystems...

  7. Part II Learning from Case Studies and Dialogues between Scientists and Resource Managers
    • CHAPTER 4 Modeling Krill in the California Current: A 2005 CASE STUDY
      (pp. 43-60)
      Jeffrey G. Dorman

      The California Current System (CCS) is one of the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world’s oceans. These regions are some of the climost productive ecosystems in the ocean, and despite occupying less than 1% of the ocean’s surface area, they contribute over 20% of the global commercial fish catch. Within California, there are over 100 commercial fisheries that account for annual revenues of over 100 million dollars (Pacific Fisheries Information Network 1981–2011) and large numbers of coastal jobs. As such, it is of great interest to understand how climate change could impact these important coastal resources.

      In...

    • CHAPTER 5 Shifts in Marine Biogeographic Ranges
      (pp. 61-74)
      Christopher J. Osovitz and Gretchen E. Hofmann

      California’s marine ecosystems are already being effected by current ocean warming, and future warming may challenge the survivorship of many members of the California marine ecological community, including fish, sea urchins, mussels, macroalgae, and sea stars, among others (e.g., Harley et al. 2006, Brierley and Kingsford 2009, Hoegh-Guldberg and Bruno 2010). As a result, scientists face a pressing need to understand and predict the nature of current and future biological impacts of climate change in order to best manage and preserve the state’s natural marine ecosystems and fisheries. The biological impact of ocean warming on marine species may mirror that...

    • CHAPTER 6 Integrating Global Climate Change and Conservation: A KLAMATH RIVER CASE STUDY
      (pp. 75-92)
      Rebecca M. Quiñones

      The suitability of rivers in the United States for supporting salmon and trout (salmonids) is estimated to decrease by 4–20% by 2030 and by as much as 60% by 2100 (Eaton and Scheller 1996), with the greatest loss projected for California (O’Neal 2002). Because climate change will affect the efficacy of existing and future conservation efforts, resource managers who consider the impacts of climate change on Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchusspp.) are more likely to reach their conservation goals (Battin et al. 2007, Schindler et al. 2008).

      In North America, California marks the southern end of the range of six...

    • CHAPTER 7 Pollinators and Meadow Restoration
      (pp. 93-106)
      Brendan Colloran, Gretchen LeBuhn and Mark Reynolds

      Meadows, which are wetlands or semi-wetlands in the subalpine and alpine zone, are some of the most threatened habitats in the Sierra Nevada, with over 80% of the meadows degraded (McKelvey et al. 1996). Meadow systems comprise less than 10% of the land area, and over the last 150 years, the hydrology of meadow systems has been dramatically changed by stream incision resulting from overgrazing (Odion et al. 1988, Kirchner et al. 1998, Blank et al. 2006), erosion (Micheli and Kirchner 2002a, Micheli and Kirchner 2002b), logging, housing, railroad, or road development (Ffolliott et al. 2004, Loheide and Gorelick 2007)....

    • CHAPTER 8 Elevational Shifts in Breeding Birds in the Southern California Desert Region
      (pp. 107-120)
      Lori Hargrove and John T. Rotenberry

      Biogeography, or the spatial and temporal distribution of species, is a fundamental aspect of ecology and evolution, and understanding distributional change is valuable to conservation and management of species. Across the range of a species, locations with higher abundances tend to be associated with more favorable conditions, while abundances tend to taper off toward range limits where conditions become unfavorable (Brown et al. 1995, Brown et al. 1996). In vagile organisms such as birds, the behaviors of habitat selection and territoriality largely determine spatial distribution, and are expected to link adaptive traits of individuals to suitable habitat. When there are...

    • CHAPTER 9 Conserving California Grasslands into an Uncertain Future
      (pp. 121-140)
      K. Blake Suttle, Erika S. Zavaleta and Sasha Gennet

      To update management and conservation approaches in an era of climate change, we need to frame our expectations of what the future might look like, and acknowledge which aspects of this future are highly likely and which are most uncertain. Ecological responses to climate change are a challenge to predict, because they may combine many different kinds of direct and indirect effects (Walther 2010, Post 2013). Direct effects include changes in growth, reproduction, and survival rates based on physiological responses to climate itself (i. e., whether a change in physical conditions favors or disfavors an organism, such as by allowing...

    • CHAPTER 10 Species Invasions: LINKING CHANGES IN PLANT COMPOSITION TO CHANGES IN CLIMATE
      (pp. 141-158)
      Laura Koteen

      Since the onset of European settlement, California’s ecosystems have been radically altered. Among the most dramatic of changes is the widespread invasion of nonnative Eurasian grasses into the state’s grasslands. Beginning in the 18th century, this invasion has caused the near extirpation of California’s native perennial bunch grasses across millions of acres of grassland habitat. Indeed, the displacement of native-grassland vegetation in California is one of the most complete and extensively documented land-cover changes worldwide (Seabloom et al. 2003b). Yet, it is but one example of a phenomenon that is much more widespread.

      Because they are so common and a...

  8. Part III Perspectives for Framing Biological Impacts of Rapid Climate Change
    • CHAPTER 11 Evolutionary Conservation under Climate Change
      (pp. 161-182)
      Jason P. Sexton and Alden B. Griffith

      How humans can positively influence evolutionary processes to maintain diverse ecosystems is a relatively new scientific and management topic, yet it is a vital one. Evolution has produced the tremendous biodiversity that we now see rapidly disappearing through humancaused global change. Although humans cannot control evolution on a grand scale, we can take actions to protect and promote the evolutionary processes that create and maintain biodiversity; that is to say, we can manage to maximize adaptive genetic variation, which is the backbone of biological adaptation, and ultimately, biodiversity.

      We know that species are already responding to the effects of human-caused...

    • CHAPTER 12 Fossils Predict Biological Responses to Future Climate Change
      (pp. 183-196)
      Jessica L. Blois and Elizabeth A. Hadly

      Environments of the future are likely to be substantially different from past or present environments due to rapid and large-magnitude climate change (Williams et al. 2007, IPCC 2013). The predicted magnitude and rate of climate change, in the context of other human impacts, has serious implications for the persistence of California’s native ecosystems. A factor that complicates society’s ability to address these changes is that biological responses to climate change will unfold over both short (10–100 years) and long (1000–1,000,000 years) timescales, much longer than the annual to decadal timescales over which policy decisions are made. While studies...

    • CHAPTER 13 Historical Data on Species Occurrence: BRIDGING THE PAST TO THE FUTURE
      (pp. 197-212)
      Morgan W. Tingley

      Climate change during the 21st century is expected to impact species in a multitude of ways, some of which we can predict, but many of which are unknown. Based on what scientists have already observed, phenological mismatches, range shifts, and both local and regional colonizations and extinctions are occurring currently, and are expected to increase both globally (Root et al. 2003, Chen et al. 2011, Anderegg and Root, this volume) and in California (Moritz et al. 2008, Forister et al. 2010, Tingley et al. 2012). Climate change holds consequences for managed systems, as the biological value of these systems may...

  9. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 213-216)
  10. INDEX
    (pp. 217-226)
  11. CONTRIBUTOR BIOS
    (pp. 227-229)