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The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa

The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa

Getzel M. Cohen
Copyright Date: 2006
Edition: 1
Pages: 501
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnd22
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  • Book Info
    The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa
    Book Description:

    This authoritative and sweeping compendium, the second volume in Getzel Cohen's organized survey of the Greek settlements founded or refounded in the Hellenistic period, provides historical narratives, detailed references, citations, and commentaries on all the settlements in Syria, The Red Sea Basin, and North Africa from 331 to 31 BCE. Organized geographically, the volume pulls together discoveries and debates from dozens of widely scattered archaeological and epigraphic projects. Cohen's magisterial breadth of focus enables him to provide more than a compilation of information; the volume also contributes to ongoing questions and will point the way toward new avenues of inquiry.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-93102-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  4. The Scholarship and the Sources
    (pp. 1-20)

    Many of the historical investigations and reference works mentioned inThe Hellenistic Settlements in Europe,the Islands,and Asia Minordeal with (parts of) the area under discussion in this volume.¹ I will not, therefore, note them here. In addition, for particular regions under investigation in this volume, one may profitably consult a number of other works.

    In general, for Syria and Phoenicia M. Sartre’sD’Alexandre à Zénobie, F. Millar’sRoman Near East, and the various essays in J.-M. Dentzer and W. Orthmann’sArchéologie et histoire de la SyrieII provide much useful information. In addition,The Oxford Encyclopedia of...

  5. A Geographic Overview
    (pp. 21-70)

    For the Greeks and Macedonians of the fourth century and the Hellenistic period the Tauros Mountains constituted a major frontier, separating Asia Minor from Syria. Numerous references to “this side of the Tauros” and “beyond the Tauros” in the literary and epigraphic sources make this quite clear. For example, a decree of Ilion in honor of Antiochos I mentions that the king had come to the regions “on this side of the Tauros” (OGIS219.13 =Lancia² no. 7, ϵ̓πιτάδϵ του̑ Ταύρου). The Smyrnaian decree of c. 243 b.c. says that Seleukos II had “crossed over” (i.e., the Tauros) into...

  6. I NORTHERN SYRIA
    (pp. 71-140)

    Among the towns in Syria that Appian (Syr. 57) mentions as a foundation of Seleukos I Nikator is Achaia. The name, of course, recalls the region in Greece.¹ There are no other firm attestations for this town. We do not know exactly where Achaia was located.

    In general see W. Thomaschek,REs.v. “Achaia 9”; Tcherikover,HS, 63; Frézouls inLa toponymie, 239; Brodersen,Komment., 153; Grainger,Seleukid Prosopography, 675.

    The earliest evidence—literary and numismatic—for Alexandreia is datable to the second century b.c. Ps.-Scymnus (923 =GGM, 1: 235 = Diller,MGG, 174) referred to it as a...

  7. II CHALCIDICE
    (pp. 141-146)

    Appian (Syr. 57) included Chalkis among the settlements he ascribed to Seleukos I.¹ The reference is undoubtedly to Chalkis in Chalcidice rather than CHALKIS under Libanos; the latter was located in a region that was never under the effective control of Seleukos I.² In any event, in little-noticed enumerations of cities founded by Seleukos I Nikator, both Agapius of Manbij, the bishop of HIERAPOLIS Bambyke in the tenth century (Univ. Hist.I.2, p. 237 [PO XI, p. 109, ed. A. Vasiliev]), and the anonymous author of the SyriacChronicle to the Year1234a.d.(p. 107, trans. Chabot, inCSCO...

  8. III CYRRHESTICE AND COMMAGENE
    (pp. 147-198)

    Stephanos (s.v. “Ainos 4”) records an Ainos κατὰ Θάψακον καì τòν Εὐϕράτην. Ainos was the name of a number of places in Greece, including one in Thrace, Ozolian Locris, and Thessaly. It is impossible to say if the Syrian Ainos was named for any of these towns. We may note in passing that Syrian LARISA was settled by Thessalians. It is possible, therefore, that this toponym was meant to recall one of those places. On the other hand,ainin Arabic means “spring or source”; in that case, the toponym may simply result from the Hellenization of a native word.¹...

  9. IV PHOENICIA
    (pp. 199-222)

    TheItinerarium Burdigalense584.4 (ed. Cuntz), which dates to 333 a.d., is the only extant source for Alexandroschene. It was located on the coast, 12 miles south of Tyre. There is no evidence that connects Alexandroschene to the Macedonian king.¹

    In general see Droysen,Hist., 2: 666; Hölscher,Palästina, 60; K. Baedeker,Palestine and Syria(Leipzig, 1906) 266; Benzinger,REs.v. “Alexandroschene”; Tcherikover,HS, 81; Besnier,Lexiques.v. “Alexandroscenae.”

    The discovery of a lead weight has allowed us to demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown Hellenistic foundation.¹ The weight in question came from the region of Tyre. It bore...

  10. V SOUTHERN SYRIA
    (pp. 223-304)

    TheTabula Peutingeriana(IX.2) records an Aenos on the road from Bostra to Damascus; it was 37 miles north of Kanatha (modern Kanawat) and 26 miles south of Damascus.Ainin Arabic means “spring or source”; thus the Greek toponym could reflect the Hellenization of a native word. Alternatively, since Ainos was the name of a number of places in Greece, the toponym could originate there.¹ Neither of these hypotheses, however, is very likely. Most probably, as Waddington noted in 1870, “Aenos” in theTabula Peutingerianais a corruption of Phaenos/Phaina, which is attested.² Hence, in the absence of other...

  11. VI THE RED SEA BASIN AND INDIAN OCEAN
    (pp. 305-344)

    In the course of enumerating towns and places in Arabia and the region of the Red Sea Pliny (NH6.159) mentions Ampelome (or, more probably, Ampelone), a town that he says was a Milesian colony. W.W. Tarn objected that it was highly unlikely Miletos would have founded a colony in the Red Sea area. Rather, he suggested this was a Ptolemaic settlement that was colonized by Miletos at the request of one of the Ptolemies. The toponym Ampelone—“City of the Vine”—reflected the worship of Dionysos, the ancestral god of the Ptolemies. Furthermore, Tarn speculated that the founding took...

  12. VII EGYPT
    (pp. 345-352)

    Two papyri acquired by the University of Trier and published in 1997 revealed the existence of a previously unknown city, Euergetis.¹ The papyri are, respectively, the rough and final drafts of a document dated to 132 b.c. that is concerned with the grant of astathmosto Tanoupis, daughter of Tpheophis in Euergetis. Of the four personal names mentioned in the document three—Tanoupis, Tpheophis, and Petosiris—are Egyptian. The fourth, Paniskos, is a Greek theophoric name that may mask the name of an Egyptian deity, Min. The document describes Euergetis as apolisthat is in the process of...

  13. VIII ALEXANDREIA NEAR EGYPT
    (pp. 353-382)

    Alexander the Great founded Alexandreia in 331 b.c.¹ The site he chose was located approximately 75 kilometers northwest of Naukratis, at the western side of the Nile Delta, between Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean.² According to Arrian, “it struck him that the position was admirable for founding a city there and that it would prosper. A longing for the work therefore seized him; he himself marked out where the city’s marketplace was to be built, how many temples there were to be and the gods, some Greek, and Isis the Egyptian, for whom they were to be erected, and where...

  14. IX CYRENAICA
    (pp. 383-396)

    ThePeriplusof Ps.-Scylax (108;GGM, 1: 83), which dates to the fourth century b.c., described the port of Cyrene as πάνορμος, that is, “always fit for mooring.” The harbor was refounded as “Apollonia.”¹ We do not know precisely when this happened.² In any event, a group of terra-cotta figurines found at Apollonia has been tentatively dated to the first half of the fourth century b.c.³

    In the course of his description of the events of 322 b.c., Diodorus (18.19.4) mentions the harbor of Cyrene (but does not refer to it as Apollonia); Arrian (Ta met’ Alex. 1.18 =FGrH...

  15. I FOUNDERS
    (pp. 399-402)
  16. II SETTLEMENTS ATTRIBUTED TO ALEXANDER IN SYRIA, PHOENICIA, AND EGYPT
    (pp. 403-406)
  17. III GREEK AND MACEDONIAN TOPONYMS THAT REAPPEAR IN SYRIA AND PHOENICIA
    (pp. 407-408)
  18. IV “ALEXANDRIA AD AEGYPTUM”
    (pp. 409-423)
  19. V REFOUNDATIONS AND NEW FOUNDATIONS
    (pp. 424-425)
  20. VI FOUNDATIONS AT OR NEAR MAJOR RELIGIOUS CENTERS
    (pp. 426-426)
  21. VII CIVIC INSTITUTIONS AND OFFICES
    (pp. 427-430)
  22. VIII ETHNICS AND TOPONYMS
    (pp. 431-436)
  23. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. 437-460)
  24. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 461-472)
  25. INDEX OF ANCIENT PLACE NAMES
    (pp. 473-478)
  26. MAPS
    (pp. 479-487)
  27. Back Matter
    (pp. 488-488)