Source

Source: Music of the Avant-garde, 1966–1973

LARRY AUSTIN
DOUGLAS KAHN
MANAGING EDITOR Nilendra Gurusinghe
Copyright Date: 2011
Edition: 1
Pages: 396
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1png6w
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  • Book Info
    Source
    Book Description:

    The journalSource: Music of the Avant-gardewas and remains a seminal source for materials on the heyday of experimental music and arts. Conceived in 1966 and published to 1973, it included some of the most important composers and artists of the time: John Cage, Harry Partch, David Tudor, Morton Feldman, Robert Ashley, Pauline Oliveros, Dick Higgins, Nam June Paik, Steve Reich, and many others. A pathbreaking publication,Sourcedocumented crucial changes in performance practice and live electronics, computer music, notation and event scores, theater and installations, intermedia and technology, politics and the social roles of composers and performers, and innovations in the sound of music.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-94737-5
    Subjects: Music

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. PREFACE: Source in the cause of New Music
    (pp. ix-xiv)
    DOUGLAS KAHN
  4. INTRODUCTION: Larry Austin on Source: music of the avant garde
    (pp. 1-8)
    Douglas Kahn

    Sourcegrew out of musical experiments taking place in Davis, California, in and around the University of California, as early as 1963. In the summer of 1963, six of my Davis colleagues and I began experimenting almost daily with free group improvisation in a thrown-together kind of instrumentation. We called ourselves the New Music Ensemble. I played trumpet, and my colleague in the music department Richard Swift played keyboard. Our percussionist was Stanley Lunetta, with trombonist Dary John Mizelle, bass clarinetist Wayne Johnson, soprano Billie Alexander, and saxophonist Art Woodbury, most of whom eventually formed the editorial board ofSource....

  5. ISSUE NO. 1
    • Preface
      (pp. 11-13)
      THE EDITORS

      Next to actual performance—recorded or live—the score remains to date the most reliable means of circulating and evaluating new music.Source, a chronicle of the most recent and often the most controversial scores, serves as a medium of communication for the composer, the performer, and the student of the avant garde. It is logical that such a survey takes form in a magazine. A magazine that is free from the inherent restrictions of foundations and universities (however enlightened), uncommitted to the inevitable factional interests of societies and composers’ groups, can probe and be provocative—our first issue contains...

    • Quel che volete
      (pp. 14-15)
      GIUSEPPE CHIARI

      Giuseppe Chiari was born in 1926 in Florence. After completion of studies of harmony and piano he, along with composer/painter Sylvano Busotti, organized “Musica e Segno.” As a member ofGruppo70 in Florence, he is responsible for directing the musical season, for the most part represented by the “Scuola di musica gestuale.” He considers his music contrary to every form of “musica pura,” pointing to a new musical theater that utilizes every known auditory phenomenon. His works have been performed at many of the important European and American festivals of avant garde music including theFluxusfestivals in Wiesbaden...

    • in memoriam
      (pp. 16-23)
      ROBERT ASHLEY

      Robert Ashley was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1930. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and of the Manhattan School of Music. He is co-founder of ONCE, an annual festival of contemporary music in Ann Arbor, as well as co-founder of the Cooperative Studio for Electronic Music in Ann Arbor. His compositions include various kinds of electronic music, works for conventional instruments, film soundtracks, and theater-music works for ensembles of non-musician performers. He is also coordinator of the ONCE Group, an ensemble of musicians, dancers, artists, and designers who have toured extensively in the United States...

    • Form in New Music
      (pp. 24-34)
      EARLE BROWN

      There are two basic ways of achievingFormwhich continue to interest me. One could be called a method and the other a non-method; the latter, however, should not be taken to imply an aggressivelyanti-method attitude on my part. I continue to work with both of these basic approaches, at times exclusive of one another but more often the two are juxtaposed or inter-related within the same work.

      The first, and the more conventional in that it is a “method,” is basically “constructivist”: the generating of a rational distribution of units, aggregates, densities, and qualities of sound elements; the...

    • Lecture
      (pp. 35-37)
      HARRY PARTCH

      There has been, at least ever since Aristotle, a certain strong tendency in the west toward explanation—a kind of syndrome. The first and initial step is fairly innocent—to consider a verbal explanation of a creative art as necessary to an understanding of the art. The second step is less innocent. In this second step the explanation of the art becomes a substitute for the art. But the third step is really something. It is a sort of apotheosis, where the explanation actually becomes the art.

      Words are not only surrogates for action but are just as good as...

    • And on the Seventh Day Petals Fell in Petaluma (excerpts)
      (pp. 38-40)
      HARRY PARTCH

      Harry Partch was born in Oakland, California, in 1901. He was reared in the desert country of Arizona and New Mexico. Some early musical influences were Chinese folk songs, Christian hymns, and Hebrew and Indian chants for the dead. He began altering conventional instruments in the 1920s and building new ones in the 1930s. His major works include:U.S. Highball — A Musical Account of a Transcontinental Hobo Trip(1943);Oedipus — Dance-Drama,based on Sophocles’Oedipus the King(1951);Plectra and Percussion Dances(1952);The Bewitched — A Dance Satire(1955); andRevelation in the Courthouse Park, based on Euripides’The Bacchae...

    • Conversation
      (pp. 41-48)
      ROBERT ASHLEY, LARRY AUSTIN and KARLHEINZ STOCKHAUSEN

      AUSTIN: We were talking about reaction times. Bob, your workEsteban Gómezconcerns such conceptual problems of performance. There you have created an ensemble situation demanding that each performer get inside the piece. The reaction-time gap is avoided by the presence of a “reference sonority,” either sounding or implied. Four parameters—density, pitch, timbre, and intensity—are interchangeable between four performers. When the performer senses or even wants to sense a change from the reference sonority, the piece immediately permutates. It’s a different concept. ASHLEY: Karlheinz’s pieces take that into consideration, except that they are very much concerned with eventfulness....

  6. ISSUE NO. 2
    • Is the Composer Anonymous?
      (pp. 50-53)
      THE EDITORS

      In spite of real progress toward an ideal relationship between composer and performer, excesses continue to be committed in the composer’s name. Frederic Rzewski, an American composer who has gained a considerable reputation in Europe performing new music, expresses the resentment felt among sensitive performers who have specialized in “realizations.”

      RZEWSKI: I’m against authors’ rights on many grounds. For example, I know a performer—a virtuoso recorder player—who made a realization of a piece by Sylvano Bussotti calledRARA. He deliberately hid himself behind Bussotti’s name. He realized the piece and knew perfectly well that Bussotti had done nothing....

    • Appearance, for 3 instruments, 2 Oscillators, 2 Ring Modulators (excerpt)
      (pp. 54-61)
      TOSHI ICHIYANAGI

      Toshi Ichiyanagi was born in Kobe, Japan, in 1933. His compositions have been performed at various festivals and contemporary music concerts in Japan and North America: in 1961, at festivals in Montreal, Osaka, and Tokyo; in 1962, at concerts with John Cage and David Tudor in Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto, as well as the first Festival of Contemporary Music in Sapporo, and participation in an exhibition of graphic scores with Kuniharu Akiyama at the Minami Gallery in Tokyo. In 1963, Mr. Ichiyanagi formed a performers’ group calledNew Direction,giving several concerts of contemporary music and participating in the Kyoto...

    • Conversations Without Stravinsky
      (pp. 62-67)
      MORTON FELDMAN

      Since I’ve come back from England it’s been as much as I can do to catch up with things. Right now I’m finishing up an orchestral piece. When that doesn’t go too well I turn to an article I started this summer. That doesn’t always go too well either. The problem is to establish a certain continuity, but if you put too much emphasis on continuity, you can be left with nothing else.

      Yes. Cardew and his circle interested me very much. In fact, the whole atmosphere there, the whole situation, was interesting to me. There’s a genuine involvement, a...

    • 4’33”
      (pp. 68-78)
      JOHN CAGE

      John Cage was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1912. He studied composition with Richard Buhlig, Adolph Weiss, Henry Cowell, and Arnold Schoenberg. In Seattle from 1936 to 1938 he presented concerts devoted to music for percussion ensemble and served on the faculty of the Cornish School. Later, in Chicago, he taught at the School of Design. He continued his work with percussion instruments after his move to New York in 1943. His invention of the “prepared piano,” where alteration of the piano timbre is achieved by attaching various objects to the strings, focused a great deal of attention on...

    • Alvin Lucier’s Music for Solo Performer 1965
      (pp. 79-81)
      GORDON MUMMA

      Alvin Lucier was born in 1931 in Nashua, New Hampshire. He studied at Yale University, Brandeis University, and in Rome on a Fulbright Fellowship. He is director of the Brandeis University Chamber Chorus and the Brandeis University Electronic Music Studio. During the spring of 1967 he performed with the Sonic Arts Group on their European concert tour. A recording of contemporary American music performed by the Brandeis University Chamber Chorus conducted by Alvin Lucier is forthcoming on Columbia Records.

      Alvin Lucier’sMusic for Solo Performer 1965is a live-performance work employing electronic equipment. An assisting technician attaches three small Grass...

    • Sur (Doctor) John Dee and Tabulatura Soyga
      (pp. 82-90)
      JERRY HUNT

      Jerry Hunt was born in Waco, Texas, in 1943. As a concert pianist he has specialized in the music of the American and European avant-garde, performing in New York, Massachusetts, Colorado, California, and in Dallas, Texas, where he resides. He is one of the founders of the Dallas Chamber Ensemble, a group devoted to the performance of contemporary music. He is currently writing a book on the writings of the sixteenth-century alchemist John Dee. His compositions, published by Composer/Performer Edition, Davis, includeUnit #1for solo situation,Tabulatura Soyga,andSur (Doctor) John Dee.

      The material is provided to condition...

  7. ISSUE NO. 3
    • Groups Section
      (pp. 93-107)
      LARRY AUSTIN, STANLEY LUNETTA, JOHN MIZELLE, ARTHUR WOODBURY, Gordon Mumma, Robert Ashley and Musica Elettronica Viva

      JOHN CAGE (from the foreword toA Year from Monday): The reason I am less and less interested in music is not only that I find environmental sounds and noises more useful aesthetically than the sound produced by the world’s musical cultures, but that, when you get right down to it, a composer is simply someone who tells other people what to do. I find this an unattractive way of getting things done. I’d like our activities to be more social—and anarchically so. As a matter of fact, even in the field of music, this is what is happening....

    • Wave Train
      (pp. 108-115)
      DAVID BEHRMAN

      David Behrman (b. 1937) studied composition with Wallingford Riegger at Harvard University (B.A. ’59) and with Karlheinz Stockhausen and Henri Pousseur in Europe while a recipient of a Paine Fellowship (1959–60). He, Christian Wolff and Frederic Rzewski have been active in organizing concerts of new music, serving as both composers and performers in these events. He has participated in New York in the Annual Avant Garde festivals, the Angry Arts festival, Lincoln Center Library new music concerts and 9 Evenings: Theater and Engineering. In 1966 he, along with Gordon Mumma, Robert Ashley, and Alvin Lucier, formed the Sonic Arts...

    • First Festival of Live-Electronic Music 1967
      (pp. 116-124)
      WILL JOHNSON

      Considering the fact that the fifteen compositions performed at FFLEM shared a distinctive characteristic—electronic means of sound production and sound transformation—the pieces were remarkable for their diversity. Generally speaking, though, there was considerably more homogeneity than is usually the case in festivals of contemporary music; and, for this reason, it afforded an unusual opportunity to observe the range of compositional activity within a relatively circumscribed area.

      Ironically, perhaps, the most fruitful way to approach these works is not to concentrate on the fact that the composers use electronic elements; rather, one should consider the composer’s attitude toward the...

    • Radial Energy I (excerpt)
      (pp. 125-129)
      JOHN MIZELLE

      Dary John Mizelle was born in Stillwater, Oklahoma, June 14, 1940. After graduating from Sacramento State College (B.A., 1965), he completed his graduate degree (M.A., 1967) at the University of California, Davis, where he studied with Larry Austin, Jerome Rosen, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Richard Swift, and David Tudor. His works have been performed at the 1966 and 1967 Research Concerts at U.C. Davis (Green and Red, Piano Opus), the 1966 and 1967 Western Student Composers Symposium (Straight Ahead; Tiger, Tiger; Degrees of Change) and at the First Festival of Live-Electronic Music 1967 (Light Sculpture, Radial Energy I). HisMass for Voices...

    • Plan for Spacecraft
      (pp. 130-133)
      FREDERIC RZEWSKI

      Frederic Rzewski was born April 13, 1938, son of Emma Buyniski and Anthony Rzewski, Polishemigre,in Westfield, Massachusetts. He grew up in Westfield where his father worked as a pharmacist. He attended Harvard University from 1954 to 1958 and Princeton University from 1958 to 1960; further education included music study, piano, composition, and friendship with Christian Wolff, David Behrman, John Cage, and David Tudor. He spent 1960–62 as a Fulbright fellow in Italy and gained a reputation as an avant-garde pianist. He met Alvin Lucier during this time. In 1963 he married Nicole Abbeloos, a Belgian student and...

    • Some Sound Observations
      (pp. 134-137)
      PAULINE OLIVEROS

      As I sit here trying to compose an article forSource, my mind adheres to the sounds of myself and my environment. In the distance a bulldozer is eating away a hillside while its motor is a cascade of harmonics defining the space between it and the Rock and Roll radio playing in the next room. Sounds of birds, insects, children’s voices and the rustling of trees fleck this space.

      As I penetrate the deep drone of the bulldozer with my ear, the mind opens and reveals the high pitched whine of my nervous system. It reaches out and joins...

    • Titus Number 1 for Amplified Automobile
      (pp. 138-139)
      ROBERT MORAN

      Robert Moran was born in 1937 in Denver, Colorado. He studied composition with Hans Erich Apostel, Luciano Berio, Darius Milhaud, and Roman Haubenstock-Ramati. Performances of Mr. Moran’s works have been heard in Europe, the USA and Japan. HisFour Visionsfor flute, harp and string quartet (Universal) had its world premiere at the Osaka Festival of Contemporary Music in 1964; hisWithin the Momentary Illuminationwas premiered at the Tokyo Festival in 1965. His scores have appeared in Erhard Karkoschka’s book,Das Schriftbild der Neuen Musik, theÖsterreichische Musikzeitschrift, and John Cage’sNotations. Mr. Moran lives and teaches in San...

    • Comment
      (pp. 140-140)
      THE EDITORS

      Music as art. Music as energy release. Music as ritual. Music as feeling. Music as group dynamism. Music as protest. Music as freedom. Music as sounds. Music as colors. Music as celebration. Music as time. Music as process. Music as sensation. Music as sentiment. Music as love. Music as non-verbal communication. Music as verbal communication. Music as prose. Music as entertainment. Music as theatre. Music as social situation.

      Technology and mass culture have made it impossible for man to exist alone (at least in anything above a primitive state). In the future, groups will make new musics. Instead of a...

  8. ISSUE NO. 4
    • The Wolfman for amplified voice and tape
      (pp. 143-145)
      ROBERT ASHLEY

      “[try to keep in touch with forms of disorder that have been successful in other places so that you can adopt them to local conditions. you can’t think of everything.

      do things that have a message.]

      music has to be about something.

      [if you will go along with that, then we hardly need to talk about processes. . . . we need to care only about the relevance of our concerns, the work we put into preparing for the occasion, and our intelligence.]”

      Recent works completed by Robert Ashley includeThat Morning Thing, a play for amplified voices and lights...

    • HPSCHD
      (pp. 146-160)
      JOHN CAGE and LEJAREN HILLER

      LARRY AUSTIN: How did you come to make a piece likeHPSCHD?

      JOHN CAGE: When I was at the University of Cincinnati a year ago, Jerry Hiller called me from Urbana and said he could arrange for me to do a piece using computer facilities and would like to know if I was interested in doing it and what it would be if I did something with computer. The original notion was that another person, Gary Grossman, would do the programming, since I don’t know how to program and didn’t intend to learn how. It turned out when I arrived...

    • Accidents
      (pp. 161-164)
      LARRY AUSTIN

      “My music is more and more biographical and biological. My wife Edna, my two sons and four daughters are in my work. Edna says she understands my music less and less: that’s because it is closer and closer to her (and adults tend not to understand themselves and others). The children understand my music and are fascinated by it: that’s because it is closer and closer to their world of fantastic corporeality (children understand themselves and others). I’m happy my music is part of the earth.”

      Recent works by Larry Austin includeThe Magiciansfor children, tapes, black light, and...

  9. ISSUE NO. 5
    • Glass Concert 2
      (pp. 166-174)
      ANNA LOCKWOOD

      Glass Concert 2is for two players, one working largely backstage and doing most sounds (Player 1), the other working on stage and being responsible for lighting (Player 2). Additionally, a sound operator controls amplification, and a lighting operator controls lighting. The sound operator is backstage, in visual contact withPlayer 1. He notes the duration of each sound, using a light signal to indicate (toPlayer 1) the end of any duration.Player 1can then extend the sound or not, according to feeling. When the sound ends, levels are brought down immediately to eliminate any sounds made by...

    • Edges
      (pp. 175-177)
      CHRISTIAN WOLFF

      Christian Wolff was born in 1934 at Nice, France. He came to the United States in 1941. Without formal instruction, he began composing in 1949. His education culminated with a doctorate in comparative literature from Harvard University in 1963. He is currently an assistant professor in classics at Harvard. In 1950 he began a long association with John Cage, Morton Feldman, and David Tudor. Over the last dozen years he has presented concerts with Frederic Rzewski, David Behrman, Alvin Lucier, Gordon Mumma, Kurt Schwertsik, Cornelius Cardew, and John Tilbury. Two compositions,For Magnetic Tape(1952) andFor Six or Seven...

    • Boredom and Danger
      (pp. 178-182)
      DICK HIGGINS

      Boredom was, until recently, one of the qualities an artist tried most to avoid. Yet today it appears that artists are deliberately trying to make their work boring. Is this true, or is it only an illusion? In either case, what is the explanation?

      There was a time, not so very long ago, when music was considered a form of entertainment, perhaps on a higher level than some other forms, but still part of the same world as theater, vaudeville, circuses, etc. Similarly, apart from religious art and purely functional art, the fine arts were basically used for decorative purposes....

    • Spider-Song
      (pp. 183-192)
      STANLEY LUNETTA

      “I am, at this time, interested in machines—real and conceptual—that cause music to happen in a certain way. InMr. Machine,for example, all of the electronic apparatus and workings of the piece are contained in a box sent to the performer. A set of instructions about how the box works, plus what to do with it, completes the package. The result is determined then by the nature of the machine—the box.Spider-Songis the same: really, it can only work one way. I like to feel that I am a machine builder.”

      Recent work by Stanley...

    • A Max Sampler: Six Sound Oriented Pieces for Situations Other Than That of the Concert Hall (1966–68)
      (pp. 193-200)
      MAX NEUHAUS

      Max Neuhaus received a B.M. (1961) and a M.M. (1962) from Manhattan School of Music. He performed as percussion soloist on concert tours throughout the U.S. with Pierre Boulez (1962–63) and with Karlheinz Stockhausen (1963–64). While an artistin-residence at the University of Chicago during 1964–65, he presented two solo recitals in Carnegie Recital Hall in New York City. During 1965–66 he toured major European cities presenting fifteen solo recitals. In 1966 he began producing compositions in the form of mass-produced electronic circuits, the first of which was calledMax-Feed,sold directly to the general public. The...

    • Events/Comments
      (pp. 201-202)
      LARRY AUSTIN

      Something Else Press of New York City has published an important book in John Cage and Alison Knowles’sNotations. It’s a nostalgic collection of two hundred sixty-nine autograph pages from scores by as many composers. Mixed in with the scores are comments arranged in random order and typeface expressing the feelings of many of the composers about the subject, this in contrast to the composer-alphabetized, one-page-percomposer ordering of the scores. Unlike La Monte Young and Jackson Mac Low’sAn Anthologypublished in the early sixties and containing a collection restricted mostly to then-current members of the New York avant garde,...

  10. ISSUE NO. 6
    • The Thousand Symphonies
      (pp. 204-207)
      DICK HIGGINS

      There are not a thousand symphonies in the body of literature to which this name has been given: there are many more. Not all have been blasted into existence as yet, nor will all be blasted in by any one composer.

      But each is the result of violence on the part of its makers, and each exemplifies a clear power relationship among the performers which characterizes our understanding of the exertion and imposition of one will over another in the most dictatorial and technical way.

      This relationship may be taken as an exemplum, tragic or heroic or repulsive or wonderful,...

    • Anti-Personnel Bomb
      (pp. 208-210)
      PHILIP CORNER
    • Events/Comments: Is new music being used for political or social ends?
      (pp. 211-219)
      EDITORS AND RESPONDENTS

      Have you, or has anyone, ever used your music for political or social ends?

      Yes, I’ve collaborated on a film project; it was a film on Vietnam. Outside of that conscious collaboration, no.

      Do you have any viewpoints on music that has social or political connotations?

      Can you read Swedish?

      No.

      I have an article called “Neither/Nor.” They (a Swedish magazine) asked me to send them an article on what I think about music in relation to social life. It covers the whole thing. It was about art vs. social life and the “neither/nor” meansneitherartnorsocial life....

    • Enantiodromia (excerpt)
      (pp. 220-226)
      JANI CHRISTOU

      Thescorefunctions like a time-chart upon which patterns and other events are organized within areas of duration.

      “Pattern” stands for an independent system of either static or active events.

      In the score, patterns are written mainly insynthetic notation. I have chosen this term because, in this type of notation, elements of notational material expressing components of the pattern are so assembled as tosuggestthe nature of the result as a whole;for example:

      The collective effect of softly reiterated notes, sustained for varying durations and separated by breaks of shorter durations (Pattern 1/a), issuggestedby layers...

    • Street Music and Symphony
      (pp. 227-228)
      FREDERIC RZEWSKI

      Regulate the level of your sound so that it seems to be slightly louder than that of the softest sound you hear around you, or, should there be no “softest,” the softer of any two loud sounds.

      Move in the direction from which this softest sound appears to be coming. Conversely, move away from any loud sound near you. The softer a sound is, the faster you move toward it; the louder it is, the faster you move away from it.

      If you are moving toward one sound, and a softer sound appears, move toward that sound, as long as...

  11. ISSUE NO. 7
    • Plexigram IV: Not Wanting to Say Anything about Marcel
      (pp. 230-233)
      JOHN CAGE, CALVIN SUMSION and Barbara Rose

      John Cage, an acknowledged leader of contemporary thought among artists, writers and musicians, explores the visual arts personally for the first time through a project dedicated to Marcel Duchamp. In the preparation of these Plexigrams and Lithographs he has collaborated with Calvin Sumsion, artist, designer and visual communications consultant.

      Plexigrams I–VIII: Each of the 8 Plexigrams comprises 8 panels of Rohm and Haas plexiglas, 14” x 20” x ⅛”. Two panels in each set are bronze tinted; six are clear. The images were silk screened. A walnut base, 14½” x 24” x ¾”, hand signed and numbered by the...

    • MEWANTEMOOSEICDAY: John Cage in Davis, 1969
      (pp. 234-238)
      JOHN DINWIDDIE

      Originally, Cage intended to conduct a course, “Music in Dialogue,” in which relationships between mycology and music might be discussed. Additionally, each member of a small seminar was to construct a “furniture piece” which conformed in some way to Erik Satie’s general concept that furniture music should do two things: 1) occupy space, 2) age. The course was open to all students, and 120 enrolled. Consequently, the original idea for the course was set aside in favor of finding what such a large group could efficiently accomplish. Cage was reconciled to this development, stating that privacy had become a thing...

    • Towards the ’70s
      (pp. 239-242)
      DICK HIGGINS

      Looking back at the period 1959 (when the 1960s began in the arts) through 1968 (when they began to end), one is conscious of a really remarkable amount of change in the cultural environment and in the arts themselves. But then isn’t that true of all decades? A person who can remember the years 1897–1906 may recall major shifts in the French literary scene, in the Russian political and intellectual situation, etc. Historians can vouch for a shift in mentality between 1827 and 1836 in America, with the rise of Jacksonian Democracy, in Europe, with the replacement of the...

    • Velox
      (pp. 243-243)
      ARTHUR WOODBURY

      The basic sounds forVeloxwere produced by the PDP-10 Computer at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, Palo Alto, California. During the subsequent process of tape manipulation, octave transpositions of the original source material brought the sound of the computer sampling rate into an audible range. To this sound complex were added several sine and one triangle wave from the Moog Synthesizer, filling out the sustained sonority. During the final recording process, small amounts of reverberation, filtering, echo and pan-potting were also added.

      The musical technique of the crab canon, applied to both pitch and rhythm, proved to be the...

    • The Indefinite Integral of Psi Star Psi d Tau Equals one
      (pp. 244-245)
      PAULINE OLIVEROS

      The Indefinite Integral of Psi Star Psi d Tau Equals Onewas staged in February, 1969. The performance time was two hours. The space was a large gymnasium with the audience on the sidelines....

    • Phlegethon
      (pp. 246-247)
      MARK RIENER

      The score of PHLEGETHON is a set of directions enabling one to construct the instrument that is to be used in performance.

      First, a wire coathanger is cut and bent so that it can be hung from the ceiling while supporting a mobile. Fold one yard of “Handi-Wrap” or “Scottwrap” (polyethylene) lengthwise four times, and twist it until it appears tight. Next, holding one end in each hand, pass the twisted plastic film slowly over a match or gas flame until it softens and sticks together, preventing it from unraveling when you let go of the ends. Do not do...

    • “I am sitting in a room” and Vespers
      (pp. 248-249)
      ALVIN LUCIER

      Necessary equipment:

      1 microphone

      2 tape recorders

      1 amplifier

      1 loudspeaker

      Choose a room, the musical qualities of which you would like to evoke. (Note: The recording in this issue contains nine of the original fifteen repetitions realized in my own living room.)

      Attach the microphone to the input of tape recorder #1.

      To the output of tape recorder #2 attach the amplifier and loudspeaker.

      Use the following text or any other text of any length:

      “I am sitting in a room different from the one you are in now.

      I am recording the sound of my speaking voice, and...

    • How to Cook an Albatross
      (pp. 250-254)
      BEN JOHNSTON

      The world of “serious music” stubbornly bases itself on a sterile presumption. Since the “standard repertory” in no matter what areas of performance, is historical, it creates a museum situation. While there is nothing wrong with having museums, we should not take their contents to be the principal means to satisfy contemporary needs. Perennially we make just this error.

      The proportion of music of our own times now in the repertory of most concert artists and ensembles is smaller today than at any other period in the history of concert-giving. When most performing artists, warned that they are not bringing...

    • Polinterações
      (pp. 255-260)
      JOCY DE OLIVEIRA

      A performance takes place in this space. It should be a large room without a stage and without chairs. The audience is free to sit on the floor, or to walk around in order to observe the action. This makes possible a flexible field ofvision-space. Included in the main-space are:

      MIRRORS:Convex, concave, and simple mirrors—to offer a distorted image of people inside this space—should be arranged around the perimeter and overhead.

      PROJECTIONS:The walls and ceiling must be white and should be completely covered by projected images (slide, film, opaque, and overhead projectors).

      CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION MONITORS...

  12. ISSUE NO. 8
    • Fylkingen 1970
      (pp. 262-268)
      SVEN HANSELL, HARVEY MATUSOW, Åke Hodell, Bob Cobbing and Ferdinand Kriwet

      Sven Hansell reports—An unusually effective organization that has been sponsoring new music for several decades is Stockholm’s Fylkingen (meaning, in military parlance, the point of a flying wedge of soldiers). In April of this year these Swedish warriors presented a festival of concerts, the third festival of its kind, that brought together an international assemblage of composers and poets, most of whom worked at Fylkingen’s large electronic music studio immediately prior to the festival; thus, the works that the festival premiered were for the most part created in an atmosphere of congenial camaraderie during a period of weeks leading...

    • Audio/Video/Laser (excerpt)
      (pp. 269-272)
      LOWELL CROSS

      The displays shown on these pages were generated electronically from audio-frequency information. The elements of sound, image, and color operate together in time, combining to become perceptible to both eye and ear over a broad range of kinetic interactions.

      My involvement with visual displays produced from audio sources began in 1965 while I was working at the University of Toronto Electronic Music Studio. I had become increasingly aware of the lack of visual interest in most performances of electronic music, unless the music played an accompanying role to dance, films, or some form of theatre. While electronic music has provided...

    • Boola Boola
      (pp. 273-275)
      MORTON FELDMAN

      When I was fifteen, someone handed me a book calledJean Cristophe.That was what ruined my professional life. Coupled with this, my father said he would give me what his father gave him—the world. The world turned out to be Lewisohn Stadium on a hot summer night. It never occurred to me to go to a University.

      I did not understand the full extent of my loss until very recently when I read an article inThe Nation.This informed me that the most advanced music in America is being written in certain colleges throughout the country, and...

    • Caritas and Transmission One
      (pp. 276-278)
      LARRY AUSTIN

      A Video/Audio Composition for Television Broadcast

      On June 12, 1969, at station KQED in San Francisco, the color video tape ofTransmission Onewas completed. The opportunity to produce the work was made possible by the Institute for Creative Arts of the University of California and by the generous cooperation of the production and engineering staff of station KQED-TV. The premiere broadcast of the work took place on October 6, 1969, on the same station, in conjunction with a performance at Mills College, utilizing several television receivers and two 16mm films.

      InTransmission Oneyou see/hear a video/audio composition for...

    • Moosack Machine
      (pp. 279-281)
      STANLEY LUNETTA

      The moosack machine is a sculpture that produces, mixes and processes electronic sound. In the present version, the machine routes these sounds to four speakers placed in corners of a room, and also to an audio transducer contained in the sculpture in the center of the room.

      The moosack machine has two parts. The first, completely contained in the sculpture, consists of fourvariable oscillators, twopower regulators,and a large number ofinput sensors.Theinput sensorsdetect changes in light, temperature, wind direction as well as movements of people around the sculpture. These components are assembled as a...

    • Sea Fever
      (pp. 282-283)
      PETER GARLAND

      4201 Cathedral Avenue, N.W.

      Washington, D.C. 20016

      June 15, 1970

      SourceMagazine

      2101 22nd Street

      Sacramento, California 95818

      Gentlemen:

      Enclosed is a composition of mine entitled “Sea Fever,” which I hope you might be interested in including in an issue ofSource. This is conceived as a poem setting, just like any Schubert song, though here the intention is sarcastic, and the setting is in a concrete, object form. There are precedents for this work, and I consider it to be “traditional” in several respects.

      First of all, it is a variation on the Robinson Crusoe type message in a...

    • Editorial
      (pp. 284-290)
      LARRY AUSTIN

      The piano is center-stage, the orchestra tuned and waiting. The audience whispers its last bit of intermission chatter as the house lights dim. Suspenseful moments pass. The soloist emerges, striding briskly through the orchestra toward his instrument. Behind, at a respectful distance, walks the conductor. The soloist stops by his piano, gently touching the source of his strength as he bows to the excited applause of the gallery. Ready. The drama unfolds. With mighty blows the orchestra shows its great strength—its authority. The piano responds courageously. The drama increases. Blows are exchanged until, finally, the orchestra is overcome by...

  13. ISSUE NO. 9
    • Noise Abatement Resolution
      (pp. 292-293)
      DAVID ROSENBOOM

      It is my firm conviction that the most perilous of the “warnings and portents of evils eminent” from environmental pollution are those that suggest over-adaptation of our sense organs to information saturation. This point was evidenced to me recently when an Indian tabla teacher with whom I was studying suddenly said, “Now we must stop. The sounds we are ready to deal with can no longer be heard in the city.” How confounded we are who search for methods of effective attack on this problem of which we are all too well aware. My friends, do not desist or become...

    • Piano Burning and Tiger Balm
      (pp. 294-294)
      ANNA LOCKWOOD
    • Fur Music (excerpt)
      (pp. 295-297)
      NELSON HOWE

      Nelson Howe was born in Lansing, Michigan in 1935. He received a B.A. in English Literature from the University of Michigan in 1957 and an M.A. in Art from the same institution in 1961. Currently he is teaching art at the Newark College of Engineering, Newark, New Jersey. His work has been included in the “Traveling Show of Assemblages” of the Museum of Modern Art, New York City. He has been presented in a one-man show at the Minneapolis Institute of Art Little Gallery and numerous one-man and group shows in New York City.To The Sincere Reader,a book...

    • Möbius Strip-Tease
      (pp. 298-299)
      NICOLAS SLONIMSKY

      Nicolas Slonimsky was born in Russia on three different dates, according to three different calendars: April 15 (Julian), April 27 (Gregorian 19th-century) and April 28 (20th-century Gregorian), 1894, in three different localities, St. Petersburg (in Czarist times), Petrograd (during World War I) and Leningrad (after Lenin’s canonization). He took his first lesson in piano with his aunt, the justly famous Isabelle Vengerova, on the 6th of November, 1900, according to the Julian calendar. He continued to play the piano until he realized that the effort was not worth the game. As a wunderkind, he was universally admired by members of...

    • Events/Comments
      (pp. 300-303)
      STANLEY LUNETTA

      John Cage, as an editorial guest for Issue 7/8, was the beginning of a policy thatSourcehas been contemplating for some time—the opening-up of editorial decision-making to others in the avant garde. We were very pleased with the results of 7/8 and, as a consequence, have invited other guest editors to participate in the production of future issues of the magazine. We have gone beyond the invitation to serve as just another member of the editorial board, however, and have asked each guest to organize an entire issue of his own—and around the material that interests him....

    • INTERNATIONAL CARNIVAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOUND
      (pp. 304-304)
      THE EDITORS

      To be held in London and throughout Britain, August 13–26, 1972. Twenty-six performances, including late-night and traveling concerts to be presented in trains, riverboats on the Thames, concert halls, radio, and television by composers and performers of the avant garde; presenting films, environments, events, electronics, lasers, software, computers, sculptures, sound poetry, plus categories yet to be invented. The festival will be international in scope; those invited to attend include AMM (England), The Scratch Orchestra (Eng.), Light Sculpture (USA), Gentle Fire (Eng.), Amra Arma (USA), Naked Software (Eng.), Intermodulation (Eng.), The ♀ Ensemble (USA), The Nihilist Spasm Band (Canada), The...

  14. ISSUE NO. 10
    • Gentle Fire and Queen of the South
      (pp. 307-310)
      ALVIN LUCIER

      Sing, speak or play electronic or acoustic musical instruments in such a way as to activate metal plates, drumheads, sheets of glass or any wood, copper, steel, glass, cardboard, earthenware or other responsive surfaces upon which is strewn quartz sand, silver salt, iron filings, lycopodium, granulated sugar, pearled barley or grains of other kinds or other similar materials suitable for making visible the effects of sound.

      Surfaces may be excited by making sounds either directly on or very near the vibrating media, through the use of loudspeakers or directly-coupled audio transducers.

      As the strewn material responds to the disturbances caused...

    • Naked Software
      (pp. 311-313)
      Harvey Matusow, Anna Lockwood and John Lifton

      This system was devised for use in live performance with Naked Software.

      The basic materials consist of 12 Philips (in the USA Philips machines are called “NORELCO”) cassette recorders.

      We find the integrated aspects of this machine better suited for the purpose than other makes. Accepting that all machines have certain faults, we have found that the faults in the Philips (NORELCO) system balance each other out, giving extremely high quality results.

      The normal Philips (NORELCO) microphone is low impedance, which enables us to run a fair amount of extension cable without any increase in tape hiss—this also enables...

    • Exhibition on 3 Hills
      (pp. 314-316)
      STUART MARSHALL

      Born 7 May, 1949, Manchester, England.

      Hornsey and Newport Colleges of Art, Diploma in Art and Design/Music. Organized and performed in concerts in England and Wales, 1967–1971. Two commissions from the Welsh Arts Council, 1969. At present a Graduate Teaching Assistant at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut.

      (The coast near St. David’s, Pembrokeshire, West Wales)

      Three sine wave generators and associated amplification equipment mounted on the triangulation stations of the three hills.

      Carnllidi 595’ 350 Hz

      Carn Perfedd 464’ 354 Hz

      Penbiri 573’ 359 Hz...

    • “Music as a Gradual Process” and Pendulum Music
      (pp. 317-319)
      STEVE REICH

      I do not mean the process of composition, but rather pieces of music that are, literally, processes.

      The distinctive thing about musical processes is that they determine all the note-to-note (sound-to-sound) details and the overall form simultaneously. (Think of a round or an infinite canon.)

      I am interested in perceptible processes. I want to be able to hear the process happening throughout the sounding music.

      To facilitate closely detailed listening, a musical process should happen extremely gradually.

      Performing and listening to a gradual musical process resembles:

      pulling back a swing, releasing it, and observing it gradually;

      turning over an hour...

    • 8KN-(J-6) | R10
      (pp. 320-326)
      ANTHONY BRAXTON

      Born in Chicago 6/4/45.

      Studied 8 years at the Chicago School of Music under Jack Gell. Blah-blah-blah.

      Music composition and Philosophy Major at Roosevelt University. Blah-blah-blah.

      Joined the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) in 1966 and taught at the AACM’s School of Music. Blah-blah-blah.

      Has toured the planet performing contemporary music. Blah-blah-blah-blah-blah.

      1. I am interested in extending avenues for the improvisor (or I’m not).

      2. I am interested in extending the basics of contemporary composition (I think).

      3. I am currently interested inParade Music.

      ’KN-(J-6)1R10was completed 7/15/71 as the second piece in a 3-piece...

    • The Great Learning (excerpt)
      (pp. 327-331)
      CORNELIUS CARDEW

      SINGING. The notes written as semibreves are sung very strongly and held for the length of one very long breath. The words written vertically over a note are distributed freely along that one very long breath. Sing these notes in the written order making shorter pauses between notes and longer pauses at barlines. The text is sung through five times. If a note is out of range transpose it up or down an octave. The commencement of each sung note should coincide with the initial stroke of the accompanying rhythm.

      DRUMMING. Each drum rhythm is repeated over and over like...

    • THE SCRATCH ORCHESTRA: draft constitution
      (pp. 332-334)
      CORNELIUS CARDEW

      Definition:A Scratch Orchestra is a large number of enthusiasts pooling their resources (not primarily material resources) and assembling for action (music-making, performance, edification).

      Note:The word music and its derivatives are here not understood to refer exclusively to sound and related phenomena (hearing,etc). What they do refer to is flexible and depends entirely on the members of the Scratch Orchestra.

      The Scratch Orchestraintends to function in the public sphere, and this function will be expressed in the form of—for lack of a better word—concerts. In rotation (starting with the youngest) each member will have...

    • Land Mass Translocation
      (pp. 335-335)
      GEORGE BRECHT
    • The Friesian Cow
      (pp. 336-337)
      CHRISTOPHER HOBBS

      Numbers to the left of the colon signify numbers of actions (single actions or constellations). These may be made separately, overlapped, or superimposed.

      Descriptions to the right of the colon pertain to the actions made—either to each action singly or to the group or to both. E.g. “Gradually taper to a darker point” could mean that each action tapers, or that the tapering takes place gradually over the sequence of 8 actions, or both. The performer must decide for himself how to interpret the instruction.

      A gap of one line indicates a pause of any length.

      Where no description...

    • Portsmouth Sinfonia
      (pp. 338-339)
      a.d.r.

      The Portsmouth Sinfonia played its first classical score, theWilliam Tell Overtureof Rossini, in May 1970, with the immediate intention of entertaining a particular audience and of producing a record as publicity for an art school diploma show. After this it was invited to play at a concert held in the Purcell Room in London on September 25th of the same year, a concert called “Beethoven Today”; and so it was given the incentive to continue its existence and to undertake the challenge of playing Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5, Op. 67.

      The initial circumstances of the Sinfonia should be...

    • Verbal Pieces
      (pp. 340-341)
      GAVIN BRYARS

      inhale through teeth edge-chilling yawn splutter cough exhale loudly sigh tell a joke even if you can’t remember all of it whisper seriously not intensely more affectionately even with Humphrey Bogarts embarrassment pant not distressingly whimper spasmodically imitate an instrument by sound only impersonate Jack riding-on-a-camel-in-the-desert Payne Eddie Cantor Al Bowlby The Diamonds The Platters all of them or one you would employ in a social situation be a group “faan” on the lowest D flat you can comfortably sing periodically use a microphone for anything a megaphone a voice-gun pre-recorded tapes records a soul strung with chords that vibrated...

    • Sonic Meditations
      (pp. 342-346)
      PAULINE OLIVEROS

      Pauline Oliveros is a two-legged human being, a female, lesbian, musician, composer among other things which contribute to her identity. She is herself and lives with her partner Lin Barron in Leucadia, California along with assorted poultry, dogs, cats, rabbits and tropical hermit crabs. She is devoted to the elevation and equalization of the feminine principle along with the masculine principle. The feminine principle is subjugated in both women and men, personally and transpersonally. She believes that Sappho, the great Greek poetess was the archetype of women composers and that the destruction of her work by the early Christians is...

  15. ISSUE NO. 11
    • Editorial
      (pp. 349-353)
      KEN FRIEDMAN and STANLEY LUNETTA

      We first began planning this issue ofSourcemagazine, “International Sources,” in the summer of 1971.

      I met Stan Lunetta in the Musical Basement of his rambling Sacramento home. Full of computers, hummers, buzzers, tweeters, telephones that play sonatas, all kinds of musical instruments both old and Lunetta-originated.

      Stan serenaded me—and, on another visit, sculptor-performer Jock Reynolds—with his machines that play themselves. And every time I visit him, he brings forth a new musical device. One of my favorites is his telephone, hooked up to a box (De Daddle Dee) that substitutes everything from Dixieland to Baroque Fugue-forms...

    • NYCS Weekly Breeder (excerpt)
      (pp. 354-355)
      KEN FRIEDMAN
    • Water Whistle
      (pp. 356-359)
      MAX NEUHAUS

      SMALL WHISTLES, UNDERWATER, MOUNTED ON THE ENDS OF FLEXIBLE TUBES. WATER UNDER PRESSURE FLOWING IN THE TUBES AND OUT THROUGH THE WHISTLES MAKES THE WHISTLES SOUND AND THE TUBES FLEX. EACH WHISTLE IS MOUNTED WITHIN A CONE-SHAPED REFLECTOR WHICH SERVES TO FOCUS THE SOUND OF ITS WHISTLE IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION. AS THE TUBES FLEX THEY CONSTANTLY REORIENTATE THEIR RESPECTIVE REFLECTORS AND WHISTLES, CHANGING THE COMPOSITE SOUND WHICH A LISTENER AT ONE PARTICULAR PLACE HEARS....

    • Telepathic Music
      (pp. 360-360)
      ROBERT FILLIOU

      To all the members of the Eternal Network in Canadada and in the United States: Greetings. Sound. Manluck. Womanluck. Weatherluck. Today after years of practicing and reflecting upon the subject I propose to you all the composing and performing of telepathic music to complement, buttress, and – if need be – replace all other marvelous loving correspondences. – Day or night, day and night, send waves of greetings sound manluck womanluck weatherluck to members of the eternal network all over the world. No proof of reaching and benefitting is necessary – knowing oneself expecting others to be a performer of telepathic day and night...

    • New York Corres-Sponge Dance School of Vancouver (excerpt)
      (pp. 361-362)
      IMAGE BANK

      Image Bank presents some of the musical concerns of the members of the New York Corres Sponge Dance School of Vancouver including:

      1. Documentation of Dr. Brute’s Saxes from the event Anthropomorphs in Art City featuring Mr. Peanut, Kan-d-man, Art Rat, Mr. Blunt—photos taken by Taki Blues Singer.

      [. . . ]

      4. Image from the archives of the New Era Indo Arabian Nipponese Calypso Space Symphony Orchestra conducted by Taki Blues Singer, selected by Marcel Idea....

    • “My Symphonies” and “New ontology of Music”
      (pp. 363-365)
      NAM JUNE PAIK

      Anton Webern wrote sinfonie but neither Cage nor Stockhausen wrote any . . .

      I wrote already 5 sinfonies.

      No. 1 is Young Penis Sinfonie . . . which was published in the Decollage No. 2 in Cologne and later reprinted in the New Bohemian by John Gruen (Shorecrest).

      No. 2 is Sinfonie for 20 rooms. It was written in 1961 spring. Introduction was printed in Anthology (edited by MacLow and Young) (1963). The finished score was lost in complicated transaction between Cologne-New York-Tokyo-Cologne involving Lamonte Young-Gergoe Maciunas-Toshi*-Yoko-Akiyama-Paik. Present version is the english translation of the one-before the last version,...

    • xvurt and bcuhla
      (pp. 366-367)
      CHARLES AMIRKHANIAN
    • Chromatic Tree Harp
      (pp. 368-370)
      JOHN PAUL RHINEHART and STANLEY MARSH 3

      The decision to construct the chromatic tree harp at its current location in a “hollow” (or vale) of Happy Top Mountain in Harlan County, Kentucky, was arrived at only after months of traveling and experimentation. Our first attempt at building a tree harp took place at the ranch house of Stanley Marsh 3 near Amarillo, Texas, but, other than gaining a more specific idea of what the physical requirements of the instrument would likely be, we found the first model to be unsatisfactory. Compositions played on the first chromatic tree harp were colorless and had almost no sustentional attributes. The...

  16. APPENDIX: Complete Contents of Source
    (pp. 371-380)
  17. CREDITS
    (pp. 381-383)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 384-384)