Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd Edition

Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd Edition

MICHAEL G. BARBOUR
TODD KEELER-WOLF
ALLAN A. SCHOENHERR
Copyright Date: 2007
Edition: 1
Pages: 730
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnqfd
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    Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd Edition
    Book Description:

    This thoroughly revised, entirely rewritten edition of what is the essential reference on California’s diverse and ever-changing vegetation now brings readers the most authoritative, state-of-the-art view of California’s plant ecosystems available. Integrating decades of research, leading community ecologists and field botanists describe and classify California’s vegetation types, identify environmental factors that determine the distribution of vegetation types, analyze the role of disturbance regimes in vegetation dynamics, chronicle change due to human activities, identify conservation issues, describe restoration strategies, and prioritize directions for new research. Several new chapters address statewide issues such as the historic appearance and impact of introduced and invasive plants, the soils of California, and more.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-93336-1
    Subjects: Botany & Plant Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. xiii-xviii)
    Michael Barbour, Todd Keeler-Wolf and Allan Schoenherr
  5. ONE The History of Vegetation Classification and Mapping in California
    (pp. 1-42)
    TODD KEELER-WOLF

    Since the completion of the first edition of this book much time and effort has been spent developing more accurate and efficient means of mapping vegetation. At the same time a similar amount of energy has been expended on vegetation classification. Vegetation classification was not directly discussed in the first edition (Colwell 1977). However, in current thinking, the two subjects are intimately related. Both will be discussed herein. The development in the 1980s of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has revolutionized vegetation mapping. Likewise, the development of the personal computer in the past 20 years has revolutionized the ability to analyze...

  6. TWO Climate, Paleoclimate, and Paleovegetation
    (pp. 43-70)
    RICHARD A. MINNICH

    The extraordinary variety of climate in California—ranging from high rainfall regimes in the northwestern mountains to Death Valley, the driest place in North America, is accompanied by perhaps the greatest regional species diversity in temperate North America. The vegetation has comparable richness in life forms that includes tall conifer forests, riparian deciduous hardwoods, broadleaved evergreen woodlands and savannas, shrublands of evergreen chaparral and drought-deciduous shrubs, and fields of annual and perennial forbs and grasses, all of which cover extensive areas in the state. The vegetation is an overprint of floras of different age and regional origins that are vestiges...

  7. THREE California Soils and Examples of Ultramafic Vegetation
    (pp. 71-106)
    ANTHONY T. O'GEEN, RANDY A. DAHLGREN and DANIEL SÁNCHEZ-MATA

    Soil is a dynamic natural body occurring in the upper few meters of the Earthʹs surface at the interface between the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked in soils. A soil is both an ecosystem in itself and a critical part of the larger terrestrial ecosystem. As a result, soil has many definitions, which can vary significantly depending on oneʹs perspective. For example, soils can be thought of as a medium for plant growth, a regulator of water quality and quantity, an engineering material, a recycler of materials (e.g., carbon and nutrient cycling),...

  8. FOUR Nonnative Plants of California
    (pp. 107-123)
    CARLA C. BOSSARD and JOHN M. RANDALL

    Isolated by mountains and hot deserts from the rest of the North American continent, an extraordinarily diverse flora evolved in Californiaʹs rich variety of habitats. Prior to contact with people of Old World ancestry a few hundred years ago, California was home to 5,000 native species (Stebbins and Major 1965; Raven and Axelrod 1978; Hickman 1993). Although the flora of California has always been subjected to change through local extinction, migration and speciation driven by climate change, in the last few hundred years Californiaʹs flora, has changed due to different processes, adding species from different sources and at a much...

  9. FIVE Estuarine Wetlands
    (pp. 124-154)
    BRENDA J. GREWELL, JOHN C. CALLAWAY and WAYNE R. FERREN JR.

    Despite extensive loss of wetlands across the state, California retains a rich wetland heritage, with a particularly diverse range of wetland types in the coastal region (Ferren et al. 1995). A diversity of environmental factors along the California coast, including geologic history, hydrogeomorphic setting, tidal influence, freshwater inputs, and climatic parameters contribute to the range of coastal wetland vegetation types in the state. The focus of this chapter is the vegetation of the estuarine wetlands of Californiaʹs coast (Fig. 5.1).

    Our chapter is an extension of, and is complementary to, Macdonald and Barbourʹs (1974), and Macdonaldʹs (1977) treatments of California...

  10. SIX Beach and Dune
    (pp. 155-179)
    ANDREA J. PICKART and MICHAEL G. BARBOUR

    Beaches backed by coastal dunes line approximately one fourth of Californiaʹs 1,326-km shoreline (Cooper 1967), yet together they make up a mere 2%–3% of its land mass. Beaches represent the leading edge of terrestrial continental vegetation: a long, narrow, interrupted band that supports sparse, early successional plant cover. The slightly broader, but more intermittent, band of coastal dunes encompasses a greater range of seral stages. Characterized by rapid rates of vegetation change, sand dunes (albeit lakeshore dunes) were the birthplace of plant ecology, the setting where Henry Chandler Cowles (1898) first framed his theory of ecological succession.

    For the...

  11. SEVEN Northern Coastal Scrub and Coastal Prairie
    (pp. 180-207)
    LAWRENCE D. FORD and GREY F. HAYES

    Northern coastal scrub and coastal prairie exist in a continuum of herbaceous to dense woody shrub cover wherever the cooling influence of the Pacific Ocean moderates summer drought (Fig. 7.1) from Northern Santa Barbara County north to the Oregon border and inland to the Sierra Foothills. Once widespread, now these habitat types are increasingly rare and endangered. Ironically, in many cases it is the coastal scrub that endangers the rare coastal prairies, as shrubs invade grasslands in the absence of grazing and fire. Because of the rarity of these habitats, we are seeing increasing recognition and regulation of them and...

  12. EIGHT Sage Scrub
    (pp. 208-228)
    PHILIP W. RUNDEL

    The namesage scrubdescribes a vegetation type distributed along the coast and semiarid interior of Southern California, as well as scattered areas along the central California coast (Fig. 8.1). The characteristic feature of sage scrub is the dominance of drought-deciduous shrubs.Salviaspecies, from which the ecosystem name derives, are common but need not be present.Drought-deciduousmeans that these species lose much or all of their foliage in summer as soil water availability becomes limiting, then grow new leaves the following fall, with the onset of new rains.

    Despite a moderately high floristic diversity, increasing to the south...

  13. NINE The California Channel Islands
    (pp. 229-252)
    STEVE JUNAK, DENISE A. KNAPP, J. ROBERT HALLER, RALPH PHILBRICK, ALLAN SCHOENHERR and TODD KEELER-WOLF

    There are eight major islands off the coast of southern California between Point Conception and the Mexican border. These islands, collectively known as the California Channel Islands, are strikingly different from each other with respect to climate, geology, history, land forms, maximum elevation, size, and vegetation. They are natural areas known for windswept landscapes, rugged coastlines, and unspoiled beaches that are often teeming with marine mammals and birds. Their floras, rich in endemic species, have attracted the attention of botanists and horticulturists for more than a century.

    The eight islands (Fig. 9.1) have been divided into two major groups: (1)...

  14. TEN Forests of Northwestern California
    (pp. 253-295)
    JOHN O. SAWYER

    Northwestern California includes the northern portion of the North California Coast Section, the Klamath Mountains Section, northern portion of the Northern California Coast Ranges Section, and western portion of the Northern California Interior Coast Ranges Section of the National Ecosystem Classification (Bailey 1995; Miles and Goudey 1997); the northern portion Northwestern California Region including the northern part of the North Coast, Klamath, and the northern part of the North Coast Ranges subregions of California Floristic Province (Hickman 1993); and the Klamath Mountain and North Coast regions in Sawyer and Keeler-Wolf (1995).

    The Klamath Region of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon...

  15. ELEVEN Closed-Cone Pine and Cypress Forests
    (pp. 296-312)
    MICHAEL G. BARBOUR

    Serotinous angiosperms and gymnosperms have fruits or ovulate cones that do not open within a few months after the maturation of enclosed seeds. The word is derived from the Latinserotinus:arriving or developing late. Typically, serotiny is accompanied by other behaviors, such as the long-term attachment of cones to parent trees and enhanced cone opening with high temperatures (Critchfield 1957). Perhaps the most complete definition would be: Serotinus conifers have mature cones that remain closed and attached to the parent tree for 1 or more years after seed maturation; cones open rapidly when removed from the tree or exposed...

  16. TWELVE Oak Woodlands and Forests
    (pp. 313-338)
    BARBARA ALLEN-DIAZ, RICHARD STANDIFORD and RANDALL D. JACKSON

    Oak woodlands and savannas occupy 4 million ha in California (Griffin 1977; Bolsinger 1988; FRAP 2003). These areas have an overstory tree canopy, predominantly in the genusQuercus. The Latin word is derived from the Celtic wordsquer, meaning fine, andcuez, meaning tree (Pavlik et al. 1991). Annual grassland is the major understory vegetation, although shrubs and perennial grasses may be important components in some areas (Griffin 1973; Bartolome 1987; Holmes 1990; Allen et al. 1991). Native perennial grasses are scattered throughout California (Beetle 1947; Bartolome and Gemmill 1981) interspersed within a matrix of annual grasses, forbs, and legumes...

  17. THIRTEEN Chaparral
    (pp. 339-366)
    JON E. KEELEY and FRANK W. DAVIS

    Chaparral is the evergreen sclerophyllous shrubland that dominates the cismontane side of coastal mountain ranges from about San Francisco south to Ensenada in Baja, California, as well as the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (Fig. 13.1). The dense impenetrable nature of chaparral (Fig. 13.2) means that it is largely off limits to all but the more dedicated ecologists and other naturalists. It is primarily known for the spectacular crown fires that frequent chaparral and the associated urban environments with which it is often juxtaposed. Previous reviews that include topics not covered here are in Cooper (1922), Hanes (1977), Keeley and...

  18. FOURTEEN Valley Grassland
    (pp. 367-393)
    JAMES W. BARTOLOME, W. JAMES BARRY, TOM GRIGGS and PETER HOPKINSON

    Several names have been applied to the low-elevation grasslands that lie west of the Sierra-Cascade crest and, in southern California and Baja, California, west of the Northern Peninsular Ranges (Fig. 14.1). Clements (1934) famously called single-species stands along railway rights-of-way in the Central Valley the ʺStipa pulchraconsociation of the California bunch grass prairie.ʺ Numerous later authors refer to the area simply as the ʺCalifornia prairieʺ or the ʺCalifornia annual grassland.ʺ The first name emphasizes the supposedly perennial nature of the original grassland taxa, and the latter draws attention to the current dominance of annual plants.

    Burcham (1957) and Munz...

  19. FIFTEEN Vernal Pools
    (pp. 394-424)
    AYZIK I. SOLOMESHCH, MICHAEL G. BARBOUR and ROBERT F. HOLLAND

    Vernal pools are seasonal ephemeral wetlands that fill and dry each year. They form in shallow depressions underlain with a layer impermeable to water. In Californiaʹs Mediterranean climate (rainy winter months followed by a hot, dry season) vernal pool soils become wetted in November. Water collects in the depressions and stands during late winter and early spring, then recedes as temperatures rise and rainfall diminishes. The soil, however, remains moist through April and May then it desiccates and stays dry through the year.

    The impermeable layer can be a claypan, cemented hardpan, or rock (Nikiforoff 1941; Weitkamp et al. 1996;...

  20. SIXTEEN Riparian Vegetation of the Great Valley
    (pp. 425-455)
    MEHREY G. VAGHTI and STEVEN E. GRECO

    The riparian vegetation of the Great Valley (or Central Valley) is located in the alluvial lowlands bounded by the Coast Range to the west, the Sierra Nevada range to the east, the Klamath Mountains and Cascade Range to the north, and the Tehachapi Range to the south. Dependent on a perennial moisture source, this vegetation is restricted to areas influenced by the major rivers and tributaries that drain the surrounding uplands. Abundant snowmelt runoff from the neighboring mountains supports aquatic emergents and deciduous forests during the hot, dry summers characteristic of the regionʹs Mediterranean climate. Riparian ecosystems encompass the stream...

  21. SEVENTEEN Montane and Subalpine Vegetation of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges
    (pp. 456-501)
    JO ANN FITES-KAUFMAN, PHIL RUNDEL, NATHAN STEPHENSON and DAVE A. WEIXELMAN

    Montane and subalpine coniferous forests and other vegetation of the Sierra Nevada comprise one of the largest and most economically important sets of ecosystems in California. This region includes most of the area of both the eastern and western slopes of the Sierra from 600 to 1,500 m at its lower margin to 3,000 to 3,500 m at its upper limit. There has been a large and visible increase in research on Sierran vegetation since the original publication ofTerrestrial Vegetation of Californiain 1977.

    Over 90% of the entire Sierra Nevada was classified as vegetated, according to a GAP...

  22. EIGHTEEN Southern California Conifer Forests
    (pp. 502-538)
    RICHARD A. MINNICH

    In southern California (SCA) south of latitude 35°N, a handful of coniferous tree species make up most forests and woodlands of the region, mostly at the middle and high elevations of the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges (Fig. 18.1). Scattered groves of closed-cone and mixed evergreen forests on chaparral-dominated windward coastal escarpments with high orographic rainfall give way to Sierran mixed-conifer forest along moist mountain crests and pinyon-juniper woodlands on rain-shadowed leeward slopes. Subalpine forests grow on the highest summits. Closed-cone forests also dot the coastal bluffs and the northern Channel Islands. Many of these assemblages reach their southern limits in...

  23. NINETEEN Alpine Vegetation
    (pp. 539-573)
    JOHN O. SAWYER and TODD KEELER-WOLF

    The termtimberlineis commonly used for the place in high mountains where the land shifts from the forested subalpine to the treeless alpine, the land above the trees (Zwinger and Willard 1972; Ives and Barry 1974; Wardle 1974; Tranquillini 1979; Major and Taylor 1988; Billings 2000; Holtmeier 2003; Körner 2003). Holtmeier describes four timberline types worldwide. The one that applies to the mountains of California recognizes a zone of transition above treeline (the limit of continuous forest calledforest limit), where the closed forest changes with elevation into a land of scattered tree islands, then into a land of...

  24. TWENTY Transmontane Coniferous Vegetation
    (pp. 574-586)
    ROBERT F. THORNE, ALLAN A. SCHOENHERR, CHARLIE D. CLEMENTS and JAMES A. YOUNG

    The transmontane region of California traditionally includes the portions of the state lying east of the main crests of the Cascade-Sierra axis and of the southern ranges forming the divide between coastal and desert drainages (Munz and Keck 1949; Fig. 20.1). For this chapter, however, we restrict the region to interior areas of the state east of, and at elevations below, the mixed conifer forest of the major mountain systems.

    Five broad categories of coniferous vegetation occur primarily in the transmontane region of California: western juniper woodlands, mountain juniper woodland, pinyon-juniper woodlands, montane coniferous woodland, and subalpine coniferous woodlands. Montane...

  25. TWENTY ONE Sagebrush Steppe
    (pp. 587-608)
    JAMES A. YOUNG, CHARLIE D. CLEMENTS and HENRICUS C. JANSEN

    The sagebrush steppe consists of a series of generally treeless, shrub-dominated communities located along the eastern and northeastern boundary of California. TheArtemisiasteppe of the Intermountain Area of North America is often completely treeless, but the CaliforniaArtemisiasteppe is unique in its proximity to Pinus/Juniperus woodlands. Species and subspecies ofArtemisiaare the dominant shrubs, with perennial bunchgrasses characterizing the understory. The sagebrush steppe represents the most extensive vegetation type in the Intermountain Area between the Sierra-Cascades and the Rocky Mountains. Compared to the entire range of this vegetation type, the extension of sagebrush steppe into California is...

  26. TWENTY TWO Mojave Desert Scrub Vegetation
    (pp. 609-656)
    TODD KEELER-WOLF

    Mojave Desert scrub vegetation includes all the shrub and woodland vegetation of the Mojave Desert Region below the cool desert zone characterized by Great Basin sagebrush (Artemisia tridentataand its subspecies) and single-leaf Pinyon (Pinus monophylla)-dominated woodlands. A great deal of information about Mojave Desert vegetation has come to light since the first edition of this book was published in 1977, including descriptive accounts (Bender 1982; Latting and Rowlands 1995), regional and local floristic treatments (Beatley 1976; Stein and Warrick. 1979; Thorne, Prigge, and Henrickson 1981; DeDecker 1984; Baldwin et a1. 2002), and analysis of endemism and uniqueness of the...

  27. TWENTY THREE Colorado Desert Vegetation
    (pp. 657-682)
    ALLAN A. SCHOENHERR and JACK H. BURK

    The Colorado Desert of California represents the northwestern-most portion of the Sonoran Desert, which extends into Arizona, Baja California, and Sonora. In California, the Colorado Desert is primarily a lowland terrain delimited on the west by the Peninsular Ranges (Laguna, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto Mts.) and on the north by a gradual transition, around 34°N to 35°N latitude, into the Mojave Desert at an elevation of 350 to 500 m. The eastern and southern limits are represented by provincial boundaries: on the east by the California–Arizona state line formed by the Colorado River, and on the south by the...

  28. EPILOGUE
    (pp. 683-684)
    ALLAN A. SCHOENHERR, MICHAEL G. BARBOUR and TOOD KEELER-WOLF

    Over 30 years ago, in 1974, the idea was conceived for writing a technical monograph about the vegetation of California. When it was published 3 years later, the editors concluded that much more would have to become known before we could achieve a fundamental understanding of Californiaʹs pattern of vegetation cover.

    The pace of advance in vegetation research has increased over the past several decades, particularly in vegetation mapping and classification. Aided by satellite-based remote-sensing techniques, GIS analysis, and new methods of air-photo interpretation, much of Californiaʹs public land surface has had its vegetation classified and mapped. In this volumeʹs...

  29. SPECIES INDEX
    (pp. 685-700)
  30. GENERAL INDEX
    (pp. 701-712)
  31. Back Matter
    (pp. 713-715)