Documenting Domestication

Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms

MELINDA A. ZEDER
DANIEL G. BRADLEY
EVE EMSHWILLER
BRUCE D. SMITH
Copyright Date: 2006
Edition: 1
Pages: 375
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnvs1
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  • Book Info
    Documenting Domestication
    Book Description:

    Agriculture is the lever with which humans transformed the earth over the last 10,000 years and created new forms of plant and animal species that have forever altered the face of the planet. In the last decade, significant technological and methodological advances in both molecular biology and archaeology have revolutionized the study of plant and animal domestication and are reshaping our understanding of the transition from foraging to farming, one of the major turning points in human history. This groundbreaking volume for the first time brings together leading archaeologists and biologists working on the domestication of both plants and animals to consider a wide variety of archaeological and genetic approaches to tracing the origin and dispersal of domesticates. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in this quickly changing field as well as reviews of recent findings on specific crop and livestock species in the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa. Offering a unique global perspective, it explores common challenges and potential avenues for future progress in documenting domestication.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-93242-5
    Subjects: Archaeology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. LIST OF FIGURES
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  6. CHAPTER 1 Documenting Domestication: Bringing Together Plants, Animals, Archaeology, and Genetics
    (pp. 1-12)
    MELINDA A. ZEDER, DANIEL G. BRADLEY, EVE EMSHWILLER and BRUCE D. SMITH

    Domesticates and the process of their domestication have been central, foundation areas of study in both biology and archaeology for more than 100 years. Although Charles Darwin’s voyage on theHMS Beagleis often credited as the source of his theories about natural selection and biological evolution, Darwin openedThe Origin of Species(Darwin 1859) with a chapter on human-induced variation under domestication, later following it with a two-volume work dedicated entirely to domesticated plants and animals (Darwin 1868). While Darwin was developing his revolutionary theories, Gregor Mendel was conducting experiments in cross-breeding varieties of garden peas at an Augustinian...

  7. SECTION ONE Archaeological Documentation of Plant Domestication
    • CHAPTER 2 Documenting Domesticated Plants in the Archaeological Record
      (pp. 15-24)
      BRUCE D. SMITH

      The transition from a hunting-and-gathering way of life, involving exclusive dependence on wild plants and animals, to economies that included a reliance on domesticated species, has long been recognized as a major turning point in human history. This transition occurred many times, in many different regions of the world, as human societies either domesticated plants and animals for the first time, or more frequently, adopted already domesticated species introduced from other regions into their local economies. Since this major transformation eventually encompassed most of the inhabitable portions of the earth, there exists in the archaeological record a rich variety of...

    • CHAPTER 3 Seed Size Increase as a Marker of Domestication in Squash (Cucurbita pepo)
      (pp. 25-31)
      BRUCE D. SMITH

      Among the most basic questions surrounding the origin of any plant or animal domesticate are the identity of its wild ancestor and the temporal, spatial, and cultural context of its initial domestication. Inherent in these questions of where and when a domesticate first emerged is the issue of whether the domestication was a single isolated development, or if multiple independent domestications of a species occurred at different times in different places. The geographical extent and degree of internal partitioning of the range of a wild ancestor obviously is an important factor in whether single or multiple domestications take place. A...

    • CHAPTER 4 A Morphological Approach to Documenting the Domestication of Chenopodium in the Andes
      (pp. 32-45)
      MARIA C. BRUNO

      Chenopods were grown as domesticated crops in many regions of the Americas prior to European contact, and they are known to have been independently domesticated in the Andes of South America, in Mexico, and in the eastern United States. Today, however, while they remain an important component of the Andean diet, chenopods survive only as a minor crop in Mexico and are no longer commercially grown north of Mexico. Ironically, less is known about the domestication of the Andean chenopods,Chenopodium quinoaandChenopodium pallidicaule, than about the domestication of their extinct eastern North American counterpart,C. berlandierissp.jonesianum....

    • CHAPTER 5 Identifying Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Other Crops in Pre-Columbian Tropical America through Starch Grain Analysis: A Case Study from Central Panama
      (pp. 46-67)
      DOLORES R. PIPERNO

      In both the high elevation Andes and the lowland tropical forests of the Americas, different plant species were brought under domestication, not for their seeds or fruits but for their starch-rich underground organs (Sauer 1950; Harlan 1992). The major root crop species domesticated in the Neotropics include manioc (Manihot esculentaCrantz), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas(L.) Lam.), yams (Dioscorea trifidaL.f.), yautia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium(L.) Schott & Endl.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceaL.), and lirén (Calathea allouia(Aubl.) Lindl.) (Sauer 1950; Harlan 1992; Piperno and Pearsall 1998). Until recently, our understanding of where and when these major tropical forest crop plants were...

    • CHAPTER 6 Phytolith Evidence for the Early Presence of Domesticated Banana (Musa) in Africa
      (pp. 68-81)
      CH. MBIDA, E. DE LANGHE, L. VRYDAGHS, H. DOUTRELEPONT, RO. SWENNEN, W. VAN NEER and P. DE MARET

      The banana was domesticated from two wild Southeast Asian progenitor species:Musa acuminataandM. balbisiana(Simmonds and Shepard 1955). The process of banana domestication was complex, involving intra- and interspecies hybridization, polyploidization, seed sterility, parthenocarpy, and somatic mutations. Over time, humans spread this important domesticated crop plant throughout the tropics of Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

      In Africa, four categories of bananas are found today: those of recent introduction (RI), the Indian Ocean Complex (IOC), the Eastern African AAA highland group (EA-AAA), and the African Plantain group (AP-AAB) (De Langhe et al. 1996). These four banana groups likely reached...

    • CHAPTER 7 Documenting the Presence of Maize in Central and South America through Phytolith Analysis of Food Residues
      (pp. 82-96)
      ROBERT G. THOMPSON

      Documenting the rates and routes of diffusion of maize (Zea mays) throughout the Americas, and its changing economic role, remains a central challenge for scholars interested in understanding the complex socioeconomic patterns of pre-Columbian development in the New World. Approaches that combine consideration of both biological and anthropological evidence clearly hold great promise in addressing this problem (Smith 2001). To date, most archaeobotanical studies of maize in the Americas have relied on the archaeological excavation of plant macrofossils in the form of charred seeds and other plant parts, or on the recovery of microfossils in the form of pollen and...

  8. SECTION TWO Genetic Documentation of Plant Domestication
    • CHAPTER 8 Genetic Data and Plant Domestication
      (pp. 99-122)
      EVE EMSHWILLER

      This is an extremely exciting time for the study of plant domestication. Genetic techniques are providing answers to previously insoluble questions about crop origins. Although interest in understanding these origins has persisted for many years, the recent availability of new methods, especially those based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has led to an explosive increase in the number of studies of crop domestication and evolution. Previously unasked questions are being investigated, such as identifying the genes responsible for the changes in plant form brought about by domestication and assessing the effects of domestication on variation in the genome. In...

    • CHAPTER 9 DNA Sequence Data and Inferences on Cassava’s Origin of Domestication
      (pp. 123-133)
      KENNETH M. OLSEN and BARBARA A. SCHAAL

      Cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz ssp.esculenta) is a major staple food of the humid tropics. Its starchy root, also known as tapioca, manioc, mandioca, and yuca, is the primary calorie source for over 500 million people (Best and Henry 1992). Cassava is cultivated primarily by subsistence farmers, and the ability of the cassava shrub to thrive on marginal land has ensured its increasing importance to tropical agriculture (FAO 2000). Although a native of the New World, cassava has become the major source of carbohydrates in sub-Saharan Africa (Cock 1985), and the sixth most important crop worldwide (Mann 1997).

      Despite its...

    • CHAPTER 10 Relationship between Chinese Chive (Allium tuberosum) and Its Putative Progenitor A. ramosum as Assessed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
      (pp. 134-142)
      FRANK R. BLATTNER and NIKOLAI FRIESEN

      Chinese chive, also called Chinese leek, is the second-most economically important crop species of the onion genusAlliumin eastern Asia, and it is widely cultivated throughout China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. It has been introduced to most other Asian countries and more recently to the Caribbean islands, the United States, and some parts of Europe (Hanelt 2001). Leaves and flower scapes are used as vegetables or in salad (often called “garlic sprouts” in Chinese restaurants), and young inflorescences make a tasty soup.

      Hanelt (2001) proposed that domestication of Chinese chive took place in northern China more than 3,000 years...

    • CHAPTER 11 Using Multiple Types of Molecular Markers to Understand Olive Phylogeography
      (pp. 143-152)
      CATHERINE BRETON, GUILLAUME BESNARD and ANDRÉ A. BERVILLÉ

      The olive (Olea europaeassp.europaeavar.europaea) has played an important role in the Mediterranean Basin for hundreds of years (Figure 11.1). It is not only a key economic crop; the olive’s hardiness, hardness, and longevity have come to symbolize values that Mediterranean cultures hold central. The wild form known as oleaster (Olea europaeassp.europaeavar. sylvestris), with its ability to survive in harsh environments, is also a key component of the countryside across the region.

      Olive production is difficult and the harvest is challenging because of drought, frost, biology of flowering, and pruning. As an outcrossed wind-pollinated...

    • CHAPTER 12 Origins of Polyploid Crops: The Example of the Octoploid Tuber Crop Oxalis tuberosa
      (pp. 153-168)
      EVE EMSHWILLER

      Although most animals and many plants are diploid, with two sets of chromosomes, a large proportion of plants are polyploid, with three or more sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy is a feature of many crop species (Zeven 1980), and it can add additional complexity to the challenges of identifying the wild ancestors of a domesticate (Doebley 1992). Most polyploids are of hybrid origin. Thus, the study of a polyploid crop’s origins includes not only identifying the wild ancestors of the cultigen, but also determining (1) the number of distinct wild progenitors that contributed their genomes to the polyploid crop, (2) their...

  9. SECTION THREE Archaeological Documentation of Animal Domestication
    • CHAPTER 13 Archaeological Approaches to Documenting Animal Domestication
      (pp. 171-180)
      MELINDA A. ZEDER

      Documenting animal domestication in the archaeological record is somewhat more complicated than it is for plants. Detecting initial domestication in plants generally involves identifying a range of direct morphological responses to domestication (see Chapter 2). Whether in the form of the largely automatic responses to domestication, such as changes in seed germination and dispersal mechanisms or changes that result from more conscious human selection for increased productivity (e.g., the development of larger or more numerous fruits), the domestic partnership between plants and humans leaves its mark in a number of distinct morphological changes, detectable on both the macro- and micromorphological...

    • CHAPTER 14 A Critical Assessment of Markers of Initial Domestication in Goats (Capra hircus)
      (pp. 181-208)
      MELINDA A. ZEDER

      Goats, along with their close relatives sheep, have long been thought to be the earliest domesticated livestock species. The wild progenitor of the domestic goat (Capra hircus) is the bezoar goat (C. aegargrus) (Zeuner 1963: 130; Epstein 1971; Schaller 1973: 27; Clutton-Brock 1999: 77), a species that lives in high, rocky mountain regions extending from the Taurus Mountains of Turkey into Pakistan (Figure 14.1). The geographical range of the bezoar parallels that of the Asiatic mouflon (Ovis orientalis), the likely progenitor of domestic sheep (O. aries) (Zeuner 1963: 169; Schaller 1973: 41; Nadler et al. 1973; Clutton-Brock 1999: 70), which...

    • CHAPTER 15 The Domestication of the Pig (Sus scrofa): New Challenges and Approaches
      (pp. 209-227)
      UMBERTO ALBARELLA, KEITH DOBNEY and PETER ROWLEY-CONWY

      Pigs are the victims of their own success in two ways. First, wild forms are distributed over most of the Old World except for the very dry and the very cold regions. This contrasts with other animals like sheep, whose much more limited distribution constrains the search for domestication to a restricted area. It also means that archaeological finds outside that area must come from domestic animals. The wide distribution of pigs and their close relatives (Groves 1981; Oliver 1993) means that a simple geographical diagnosis of domestication is usually impossible.

      Second, pigs are adaptable and generalized omnivores. They may,...

    • CHAPTER 16 The Domestication of South American Camelids: A View from the South-Central Andes
      (pp. 228-244)
      GUILLERMO L. MENGONI GOÑALONS and HUGO D. YACOBACCIO

      South American camelids are the only large herd mammals that were domesticated in all the Americas. The origins of domestication and the development of native camelid herding are restricted to the Andes, particularly the Central and South-Central portion. In pre-European times, domesticated camelids were widely distributed from the highlands to the valleys, lowlands, and coast. They constituted a primary element in Andean economies and social life, and were pivotal for the expansion of early states starting with Tiwanaku and then with the Incas. There is no general agreement on the timing of this process or whether only one or several...

    • CHAPTER 17 Early Horse Domestication on the Eurasian Steppe
      (pp. 245-270)
      SANDRA L. OLSEN

      The questions of when, where, and why horses were first domesticated are still hotly debated. Textbooks have handily marked the location of initial horse domestication as Dereivka (Telegin 1986), a Copper Age settlement in Ukraine, dating to between 4470 and 3530 BC (Rassamakin 1999: 162–163). However, the so-called cult stallion of Dereivka, with teeth heavily worn from clutching a metal bit, was recently radiocarbon dated directly and found to be an Iron Age intrusion from the first millennium BC (Anthony and Brown 2000). When the Dereivka stallion was removed from the record as the first individual classified as a...

  10. SECTION FOUR Genetic Documentation of Animal Domestication
    • CHAPTER 18 Documenting Domestication: Reading Animal Genetic Texts
      (pp. 273-278)
      DANIEL G. BRADLEY

      Archaeogenetics is the meeting point of several disciplines. At its base, of course, it is the attempt to marry genetic data to archaeological themes and make meaningful, perhaps even innovative inference about the past. However, even within the discipline of genetics it occupies a new position—one where the subdisciplines of evolutionary phylogeny, theoretical population genetics, molecular ecology, and medical/veterinary genetics have met. From these eclectic origins a coherence is developing in the approaches needed for the difficult task of making fine distinctions between alternative hypotheses within shallow time depths.

      The last 15 years have seen the accessibility of genetic...

    • CHAPTER 19 Genetic Analysis of Dog Domestication
      (pp. 279-293)
      ROBERT K. WAYNE, JENNIFER A. LEONARD and CARLES VILÀ

      Dogs are the most phenotypically diverse mammal. In fact, the difference in cranial and skeletal proportions among dog breeds exceeds that among wild canids (Wayne 1986a, 1986b). Considerable differences in behavior and physiology also are evident (Hart 1995). The origin of this diversity is uncertain. Darwin suggested that, considering the great diversity of dogs, they were likely founded from more than one species (Darwin 1859), such as gray wolves and the three extant species of jackal. This sentiment has been periodically voiced by researchers (e.g., Lorenz 1954; Coppinger and Schneider 1995). The more common view is that dogs originated only...

    • CHAPTER 20 Origins and Diffusion of Domestic Goats Inferred from DNA Markers: Example Analyses of mtDNA, Y Chromosome, and Microsatellites
      (pp. 294-305)
      G. LUIKART, H. FERNÁNDEZ, M. MASHKOUR, P. R. ENGLAND and P. TABERLET

      Goat domestication was an integral part of the rise of agriculture and the adoption of agricultural practices throughout much of the world. Insights into the evolution and spread of goats are likely to deepen our understanding of the origin and spread of agriculture and the rise of early human civilizations. As yet, the origins, diffusion patterns, and taxonomy of domestic goats are uncertain. For example, although many authors agree that domestic goats (Capra hircus) originated from the “wild goat”Capra aegagrus, some authors suggest the markhor (C. falconeri) gave rise to the cashmere breeds of eastern Asia (Hasnain 1985; Meadow...

    • CHAPTER 21 Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Modern Sheep: Implications for Domestication
      (pp. 306-316)
      MICHAEL W. BRUFORD and SAFFRON J. TOWNSEND

      The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) is thought to descend from several candidate Eurasian species within the genusOvis(e.g., Zeuner 1963). The genusOvisis found within the tribe Caprini (sheep and goats), which is in turn found within the Caprinae, a subfamily of the Bovidae, most of whose modern members evolved during the Pleistocene. The divergence time of Caprinae from the subfamily Bovinae (cattle) is estimated at ~15–20 MYA, based on molecular studies of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes (Allard et al. 1992). According to other molecular data (Randi et al. 1991; Irwin et al. 1991),Capra...

    • CHAPTER 22 Genetics and the Origins of Domestic Cattle
      (pp. 317-328)
      DANIEL G. BRADLEY and DAVID A. MAGEE

      Taxonomy places domesticated cattle within the mammalian Bovidae family, which belongs to the order Artiodactyla, or even-toed ungulates. The Bovidae first appeared in the Miocene approximately 20 MYA, and it is believed that their diversification coincided with the widespread emergence of savannah-based ecological niches during this epoch (Allard et al. 1992). Domesticated cattle are members of the Bovini tribe within the Bovidae. The ancestral species wasBos primigenius, and common usage gives two taxa for the domestic descendants,Bos indicusandBos taurus(see Gentry et al. 2004). These are used here as shorthand terms (along with indicine and taurine,...

    • CHAPTER 23 Genetic Analysis of the Origins of Domestic South American Camelids
      (pp. 329-341)
      JANE C. WHEELER, LOUNÈS CHIKHI and MICHAEL W. BRUFORD

      Ancestors of the family Camelidae originated in North America during the Eocene, 40–45 MYA, with the division between Lamini and Camelini (the tribes of New and Old World camelids, respectively) dating to 11 MYA (Webb 1974; Harrison 1979). Their subsequent migration to South America and Asia occurred 3 MYA (Webb 1974), with representatives of the extant New World generaLamaandVicugnaappearing 2 MYA (Hoffstetter 1986) in South America.

      Two branches of the Lamini evolved from the ancestral North AmericanPliauchenia(11–9 MYA). The first exclusively North American branch containsAlforjas(10–4.5 MYA) andCamelops(4.5–...

    • CHAPTER 24 Genetic Documentation of Horse and Donkey Domestication
      (pp. 342-354)
      CARLES VILÀ, JENNIFER A. LEONARD and ALBANO BEJA-PEREIRA

      Humans and horses have had a close relationship for many thousands of years. During the Glacial Maxima at the end of the Pleistocene, grasslands dominated extensive areas of Eurasia, and large herds of horses roamed them. Horse remains are common in many archaeological assemblages, and they were clearly a very important part of the diet in some human groups (Olsen 1989, 1995). The horse was also the most frequently depicted species in the art of the final Upper Paleolithic of Europe (Levine 1999a).

      After the Ice Age, however, wild horses disappeared from extensive areas that became covered with forests and...

  11. INDEX
    (pp. 355-362)