Emerging Avian Disease

Emerging Avian Disease: Published for the Cooper Ornithological Society

Ellen Paul Editor
Copyright Date: 2012
Edition: 1
Pages: 126
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnwp1
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  • Book Info
    Emerging Avian Disease
    Book Description:

    In this volume, new human disease pandemics, arising from animals stimulated by ongoing environmental change, demonstrate the value of ornithological research into avian diseases. A group of 29 researchers addresses a diverse set of topics, including the evolutionary and ecological aspects of the host-vector systems, the effects of genetic variation, introduction success and vector ecology, evolution of resistance and virulence of pathogens, and the effects of changing geographic distributions. In addition to empirical studies under field conditions, the authors present predictive models to assess the movement and potential impact of these diseases. Other chapters delve into the potential impacts of pathogens and the key role of biosurveillance and documenting impacts of disease on bird populations.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95220-1
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. vii-x)
  4. FOREWORD
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    ROBERT G. MCLEAN

    Wildlife biologists once believed that mortality from diseases in wildlife populations was compensatory and, thus, did not affect populations. Instead, they focused on other sources of mortality when conducting population studies. Many avian biologists also held that belief because most disease outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting, resulting in minor losses. Even then, however, there were localized threats from bird malaria and avian pox virus, for example, to the endangered native bird populations of Hawaii and some large, very localized mortality events among waterbirds from diseases such as avian botulism, avian cholera, and Newcastle disease (Friend et al. 2001). This prevailing...

  5. Part 1. Environmental And Behavioral Aspects of Transmission
    • CHAPTER ONE Ecological Associations of West Nile Virus and Avian Hosts in an Arid Environment
      (pp. 3-22)
      Holly B. Vuong, Donald F. Caccamise, Marta Remmenga and Rebecca Creamer

      We evaluated disease associations of West Nile virus (WNV) with avian hosts in four key habitats of southern New Mexico (agriculture, desert, riparian, and urban). Our goal was to examine the role of avian life history traits in transmission of WNV and to evaluate possible mechanisms to explain differences in seroprevalence among avian communities. Seroprevalence was highest in Summer Tanagers (Piranga rubra,39%) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius,33%). Serosurveys of bird communities indicated differences among habitats, age, and resident status.Urban and agricultural habitats had higher seroprevalence than desert and riparian habitats. After-hatch-year birds had higher seroprevalence than hatch-year birds. Seroprevalence...

    • CHAPTER TWO The Trans-Atlantic Movement of the Spirochete Borrelia garinii: THE ROLE OF TICKS AND THEIR SEABIRD HOSTS
      (pp. 23-30)
      Sabir Bin Muzaffar, Robert P. Smith Jr., Ian L. Jones, Jennifer Lavers, Eleanor H. Lacombe, Bruce K. Cahill, Charles B. Lubelczyk and Peter W. Rand

      The spirocheteBorrelia garinii,one of three genospecies ofB. burgdorferisensu lato (B. burdorferis.l.) that can cause Lyme disease in humans, has recently been isolated from seabirds from a colony in Newfoundland, Canada. Previous records ofB. gariniiin seabirds suggest that it has been endemic in seabird colonies in the greater North Atlantic since at least the early 1990 s. We determined the prevalence ofB. gariniiin different seabird hosts from colonies in the northwest Atlantic. We recordedB. gariniifrom Gannet Islands, Labrador, and Gull Island, Newfoundland, Canada, in Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica), Herring Gulls (Larus...

    • CHAPTER THREE Parasitism in the Endemic Galápagos Dove (Zenaida galapagoensis) and Its Relation to Host Genetic Diversity and Immune Response
      (pp. 31-42)
      Diego Santiago-Alarcon, Robert E. Ricklefs and Patricia G. Parker

      Studies on model organisms have shown that individuals with lower genetic diversity are more susceptible to pathogens and suffer greater fitness costs than less inbred individuals. We investigated how genetic diversity, immune response, and parasitism by one hemosporidian parasite (Haemoproteus multipigmentatus) and two chewing lice (Columbicola macrourae and Physconelloides galapagensis) are related to the body condition of endemic Galápagos Doves (Zenaida galapagoensis) in six island populations. We hypothesized that (1) host genetic diversity would be negatively related to parasite abundance, (2) genetic diversity would be positively related to body condition of birds, (3) immune response would be positively related to...

  6. Part II. Population-Level Impacts
    • CHAPTER FOUR Prevalence and Effects of West Nile Virus on Wild American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) Populations in Colorado
      (pp. 45-54)
      Robert J. Dusek, William M. Iko and Erik K. Hofmeister

      To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108 /111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, 10.0% (23 /240) of chicks tested positive for WNV neutralizing...

    • CHAPTER FIVE First Example of a Highly Prevalent but Low-Impact Malaria in an Endemic New Zealand Passerine: PLASMODIUM OF TIRITIRI MATANGI ISLAND BELLBIRDS (ANTHORNIS MELANURA)
      (pp. 55-64)
      Rosemary K. Barraclough, Taneal M. Cope, Michael A. Peirce and Dianne H. Brunton

      Historical surveys for avian hemosporidian parasites in New Zealand have not revealed substantial prevalence within native birds. However, recent detections of avian malaria (Plasmodiumspp.) within captive native species have been associated with the death of these birds. Such occurrences have highlighted concerns regarding the possibility of a malaria-associated epizootic event within the New Zealand avifauna similar to that witnessed within Hawaii’s naïve native bird populations. In contrast to previous findings, we report the first instance of a high prevalencePlasmodium(50%, 39/78) within an endemic New Zealand honeyeater, the Bellbird (Anthornis melanura), on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Furthermore, since this...

  7. Part III. Monitoring, Detection,and Research Practices
    • CHAPTER SIX Prototype System for Tracking and Forecasting Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Spread in North America
      (pp. 67-80)
      A. Townsend Peterson

      The recent emergence of a highly pathogenic strain (H5N1) of avian influenza that affects both birds and humans has raised global concern about its spread. Given the rapid spread of the disease and the desire for proactive monitoring and preparedness, I present a prototype forecasting framework for H5N1 dispersal for when/if it arrives in North America via migratory bird movements. The prototype summarizes movement patterns by six species of arctic-breeding Anseriformes and emphasizes the importance of spread along all coasts of North America, as well as along the lower Mississippi River. This forecasting system is applicable only to the extent...

    • CHAPTER SEVEN Immunophenotyping of Avian Lymphocytes: IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE FOR UNDERSTANDING DISEASE IN BIRDS
      (pp. 81-90)
      Jeanne M. Fair, Kirsten J. Taylor-McCabe, Yulin Shou and Babetta L. Marrone

      Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) T-cell populations can be delineated into subsets based on their expression of cell-surface proteins such as cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface markers. However, immunophenotyping using flow cytometry in birds has focused on cell characterization in the thymus and spleen during development in chickens. West Nile virus (WNV) causes differential infections in birds, ranging the entire spectrum of pathogenesis. In order to accurately assess immunocompetence to diseases such as WNV in birds, more efficient methodology to access natural variability in avian immune function must be devised and understood. Previously, lymphocyte subpopulations CD4+ and CD8+ have been...

    • CHAPTER EIGHT Zoonotic Diseases: WHAT ORNITHOLOGISTS AND BIRD BANDERS SHOULD KNOW
      (pp. 91-102)
      Ornithological Council

      Highly pathogenic avian influenza H 5 N 1 (“HPAI H5N1”) first made news in 2004 and seemed to dominate headlines for several years. The alarmism belies the fact that the impact to human health has been slight. Though human outbreaks have been occurring since 1997 (WHO 2005), only 500 human cases, including 294 deaths, were reported to the World Health Organization from 2003 through July 2010 (WHO 2010). Though there have been several confirmed cases of human-to-human transmission resulting from close, prolonged contact between family members or from an infected individual to a health care worker, nearly all other human...

  8. INDEX
    (pp. 103-106)
  9. Complete Series List
    (pp. 107-108)
  10. Back Matter
    (pp. 109-109)