Pests of the Native California Conifers

Pests of the Native California Conifers

David L. Wood
Thomas W. Koerber
Robert F. Scharpf
Andrew J. Storer
Copyright Date: 2003
Edition: 1
Pages: 245
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pp9v7
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    Pests of the Native California Conifers
    Book Description:

    This guide synthesizes the most current information available on the pests and environmental conditions that can damage California’s conifers, the vast majority of native trees in the state. Authoritative and easy-to-use, it is an essential reference for biologists, arborists, ecologists, foresters and everyone who needs up-to-date information on conifer pests in one convenient manual. o Species accounts cover life cycles, habits, distribution, and significance of each pest and discuss valuable options for reducing or avoiding damage o 111 clear color photographs show damage caused by 80 insects, diseases, fungi, parasitic plants, animals, and other destructive agents o The only guide to include information on environmental factors such as air pollution, salt, and frost as well as biological agents o Appendices list pests and diseases by tree species and by part of the tree affected

    eISBN: 978-0-520-93637-9
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-v)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vi-viii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xi-xiii)
    David L. Wood, Thomas W. Koerber, Robert F. Scharpf and Andrew J. Storer

    This book is intended to be a guide to the identification of damaging agents or “pests” commonly encountered in the coniferous forests of California. Therefore, we have focused our attention on those native conifers most likely to be encountered by resource managers and the public. We have not emphasized many of the tree species in the high-elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada or in the Coast Ranges, although many pests of lower and mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests are found damaging these species. We define a pest as an organism that has an adverse effect on some resource management objective. Insects,...

  5. DIAGNOSING PEST-DAMAGED TREES:: SEVEN BASIC STEPS

    • [INTRODUCTION]
      (pp. 1-2)

      Diagnosis of tree health problems involves identifying the cause from the symptoms (expressions of damage to the tree), signs (evidence of the cause), and patterns of occurrence. Each of these provides clues that can be useful in making a diagnosis. The following sequence of investigative steps may assist in diagnosing a tree health problem.

      1.Locate the damage.Determine the part of the tree that is actually affected. Note, for example, whether the impact is on one-year-old needles, scattered branches, or the entire tree crown; is the damage limited to the lower or upper part of the crown, or one...

    • DAMAGE BY INSECTS
      (pp. 3-96)

      HOSTS: Common on Douglas-fir and on knobcone pine, Monterey pine, ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and western white pine. Seeds of other species of conifers may be fed upon in late summer and fall.

      DISTRIBUTION: Throughout California, including non-forested regions.

      SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Seeds are damaged or destroyed by the feeding activity of this insect. The character of the damage changes as the season progresses. When feeding occurs before the seed coats harden, the insects completely remove the seed contents and the seed coats collapse. Flattened brown seed coats adhere tightly to the cone scales and remain in the cones at...

    • BIOTIC DISEASES
      (pp. 97-156)

      HOSTS: Coulter pine, Jeffrey pine, knobcone pine, lodgepole pine, pinyon pine and ponderosa pine.

      DISTRIBUTION: In most California pine forests above about 1,200 to 1,500 m (4,000 to 5,000 ft).Elytrodermadisease of pines commonly occurs around lakes or along streams.

      SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Stunting and dying of one-year-old needles, and branch deformation and brooming are the most obvious symptoms of the disease; new growth may be infected but remains green. One-year-old needles die from the tip to the base, beginning in late spring, and turn reddish brown. Shortly thereafter, elongate, black spore-producing bodies of the fungus appear on the...

    • ABIOTIC DISEASES
      (pp. 157-170)

      HOSTS: Conifers particularly sensitive to ground-level ozone, the air pollutant most damaging to plants: Jeffrey pine and ponderosa pine. Other conifers showing sensitivity, in order from most to least susceptible: bigcone Douglas-fir, Coulter pine, giant sequoia, incense-cedar, knobcone pine, red fir, sugar pine, and white fir. Monterey pine is also quite sensitive to ozone damage, but some resistant clones have been developed.

      DISTRIBUTION: Ozone can move great distances from its point of origin; hence, conifers in the Los Angeles Basin, as well as coniferous forests east and north of the Los Angeles Basin and those in the mountains east of...

    • DAMAGE BY LARGER ANIMALS
      (pp. 171-185)

      HOSTS: Conifers damaged most frequently: Coast redwood, Douglas-fir, and Port Orford-cedar. Typical foods include grasses, berries, nuts, tubers, wood fiber, insects, small mammals, eggs, carrion, and garbage.

      DISTRIBUTION: In California, throughout the forested areas of the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada.

      SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Bark is stripped from trees, exposing the sapwood surface. Sometimes the outer bark is more or less intact, but exhibits claw marks. Small seedlings are eaten (pl. 196)(pl. 197).

      LIFE CYCLE: American Black Bears breed during the summer months, usually from June to mid-July. Females in good condition will produce two or three cubs early...

    • GUIDE TO DAMAGE BY SYMPTOM LOCATION
      (pp. 186-191)
    • GUIDE TO DAMAGE BY HOST SPECIES
      (pp. 192-204)
  6. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 205-214)
  7. GENERAL REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
    (pp. 215-216)
  8. ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
    (pp. 217-218)
  9. INDEX OF AGENTS
    (pp. 219-222)
  10. GENERAL INDEX
    (pp. 223-232)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 233-234)