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Taxonomy and Distribution of the Calanoid Copepod Family Heterorhabdidae

Taisoo Park
Copyright Date: 2000
Pages: 280
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1ppg3v
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    Taxonomy and Distribution of the Calanoid Copepod Family Heterorhabdidae
    Book Description:

    In this revision of the calanoid copepod family Heterorhabdidae, 7 genera and 59 species are recognized, and 25 species are described as new. Included are keys to the genera and descriptions and illustrations of all species. A hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships is presented, and the geographic distribution of the species is discussed.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-91602-9
    Subjects: Aquatic Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. ABSTRACT
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-2)

    The family Heterorhabdidae was erected by Sars (1902) to accommodate the generaHeterorhabdusGiesbrecht 1898 (published in Giesbrecht and Schmeil 1898),HaloptilusGiesbrecht 1898, andAugaptilusGiesbrecht 1889. Sars (1905) addedDissetaGiesbrecht 1889 and a new genus,Mesorhabdus, to the Heterorhabdidae and transferredHaloptilusandAugaptilusinto a new family, the Augaptilidae. Sars (1925) recognized in the Heterorhabdidae the following 5 genera:Disseta, Heterorhabdus, Mesorhabdus, HemirhabdusWolfenden 1911, andHeterostylitesSars 1920. Brodsky (1950) subdivided the genusHeterorhabdusinto 2 subgenera—Euheterorhabdus(=Heterorhubdus) andParaheterorhabdus. In his review of the Heterorhabdidae, Heptner (1972b) described 2 new genera (Microdissetaand...

  6. MATERIALS AND METHODS
    (pp. 3-4)

    Most of the specimens examined in this study were picked from Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl (IKMT) samples selected from the collections available at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Additional specimens were obtained from IKMT, plankton net and MOCNESS (Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System) samples available at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (USNM), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). A total of 148 samples (1 plankton net, 126 IKMT and 21 MOCNESS samples) collected throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans were examined for specimens. Their sources and the areas they...

  7. FAMILY HETERORHABDIDAE SARS 1902
    (pp. 5-10)

    Family Heterorhabdidae Sars 1902, p. 117.

    Diagnosis. 1) Left caudal ramus normally fused to anal segment, longer than right ramus. 2) Fourth marginal seta (counted from lateral) of left caudal ramus naked and greatly elongated. 3) Basis of male right P5 with a large, plumose inner lobe, which in some taxa is extremely large.

    Remarks. The Heterorhabdidae can be distinguished not only from the other families of the superfamily Arietelloidea but also from all other calanoid families by the above three characters. These three characters are highly pronounced in all species examined in the study except forParaheterorhabdus (Antirhabdus) compactus,...

  8. GENUS DISSETA GIESBRECHT 1889
    (pp. 11-22)

    DissetaGiesbrecht 1889, p. 812.

    Typeby monotypy:Disseta palumbiiGiesbrecht 1889

    Diagnosis. All principal marginal setae of caudal rami except for 4th on left ramus armed with small spines in addition to normal setules. First segment of A1 with 1+3+3+3 setae/aesthetes (Fig. 1-f). In antenna, all 8 exopodal segments each with a well-developed inner marginal seta (Fig. 1-h). In mandible, masticatory edge with a basal spine, a group of 6-8 small, contiguous teeth, and 3 or 4 large, spiniform teeth; basis and 1st endopodal segment each with 4 setae, and 2nd endopodal segment with 8 terminal and 2 anterior...

  9. GENUS MESORHABDUS SARS 1905
    (pp. 23-36)

    MesorhabdusSars 1905, p. 9.

    Typeby monotypy:Mesorhabdus annectens(=Heterorhabdus brevicaudatusWolfenden 1905)

    Diagnosis. Third marginal seta of left caudal ramus and 3rd and 4th marginal setae of right caudal ramus armed with small spines in addition to normal setules (Fig. 11-k). First segment of A1 with 1+3+3+3 setae/aesthetes (Fig. 10-g). In A2, 1st exopodal segment without seta and 2nd with a small marginal seta (Fig. 10-h). In mandible (Fig. 10-i), masticatory edge with a basal spine, a group of 2 or 3 short, contiguous teeth, and 3 or 4 long spiniform teeth; 2nd endopodal segment with 8 terminal...

  10. GENUS HETEROSTYLITES SARS 1920
    (pp. 37-50)

    HeterostylitesSars 1920, p. 11.

    Typeby original designation:Heterostylites longicornis(Giesbrecht 1889)

    Diagnosis. None of marginal setae of caudal rami armed with conspicuous spines in addition to normal setules. First segment of A1 (Fig. 18-h) with 4 lobes bearing 1, 3, 2, 2 setae/aesthetes, respectively. In exopod of A2 (Fig. 18-j), first 2 exopodal segments without setae. In mandible (Fig. 19-a), masticatory edge with a basal spine and 3 or 4 long spiniform teeth, without a group of short, contiguous teeth next to basal spine; basis with a long seta; 1st endopodal segment with 2 setae; 2nd endopodal segment...

  11. GENUS HEMIRHABDUS WOLFENDEN 1911
    (pp. 51-56)

    HemirhabdusWolfenden 1911, p. 308.

    MacrorhabdusSars 1920, p. 11.

    Typeby page priority.Hemirhabdus grimaldii. (Richard 1893).

    Diagnosis. Body massive. First segment of A1 (Fig. 30-f) with 1+3+3+3 setae/aesthetes. First and 2nd exopodal segments of A2 (Fig. 30-h) each with a small inner marginal seta. Basis and 1st endopodal segment of Md with 1 and 2 setae, respectively (Fig. 30-i); 2nd endopodal segment without appendicular setae; masticatory edge with a basal spine followed by 3 teeth in left Md and 4 teeth in right Md, which are separated by an extremely wide gap from last, ventralmost tooth. Posteriorly, ventralmost...

  12. GENUS NEORHABDUS HEPTNER 1972
    (pp. 57-70)

    NeorhabdusHeptner 1972b, p. 58.

    Typeby original designation:Neorhabdus latus(Sars 1905)

    Diagnosis. Body massive. In 1st segment of A1 (Fig. 34-h), 1st lobe with 1 seta, 2nd with 2 setae and 1 aesthete, 3rd with 2 setae and 1 or more aesthetes, and 4th with 2 setae and 2 or more aesthetes. First and 2nd exopodal segments of A2 without setae (Fig. 34-i); inner and outer lobes of 2nd endopodal segment without appendicular setae. In Md (Figs. 34-j, k), basis without setae, 1st endopodal segment with 2 setae, 2nd endopodal segment with 7 terminal setae and without appendicular...

  13. GENUS PARAHETERORHABDUS BRODSKY 1950
    (pp. 71-88)

    ParaheterorhabdusBrodsky 1950, p. 347.

    Typeby original designation:Paraheterorhabdus robustus(Farran 1908)

    Diagnosis. Dorsally, forehead (Fig. 43-e) with a midanterior tubercular process that continues into rostral base. Third marginal seta of left caudal ramus and 3rd and 4th marginal setae of right caudal ramus armed with spines in addition to normal setules. In 1st segment of A1 (Fig. 43-h), 1st lobe with 1 seta, 2nd to 4th each with 2 setae and 1 aesthete. Left, geniculated A1 (Fig. 45-c) of male with segments 22 and 23 fused. In A2 (Fig. 43-i), first 2 exopodal segments without setae, last exopodal...

  14. GENUS HETERORHABDUS GIESBRECHT 1898
    (pp. 89-140)

    HeterorhabdusGiesbrecht 1898, p. 113.

    HeterochaetaClaus 1863, p. 180.

    AlloiorhabdusWolfenden 1911, p. 303.

    Typeby page priority:Heterorhabdus spinzfrons(Claus 1863)

    Diagnosis. Dorsally, forehead (Fig. 59-e) with a midanterior tubercular process, which extends ventrad into rostrum. Sternite of 1st pedigerous somite (Fig. 59-a) with a spiny papilla. Left caudal ramus (Fig. 59-c) fused with anal segment and distinctly longer than right. In 1st segment of A1 (Fig. 59-j), 1st lobe with a small seta, 2nd with 1 long and 1 very short setae and 1 aesthete, 3rd with 1 small and 2 medium-sized setae, and 4th with 1...

  15. PHYLOGENY
    (pp. 141-142)

    As members of the superfamily Arietelloidea, the Heterorhabdidae share the general morphology of the body and appendages with the other members of the superfamily, in particular with the Lucicutiidae and Augaptilidae. The Heterorhabdidae can readily be distinguished from them and any other calanoid families by the following synapomorphies: 1) Left caudal ramus longer than right and normally fused with anal segment, 2) fourth marginal seta of left caudal ramus unarmed and greatly elongated, 3) basis of male right P5 with a large plumose inner lobe. Based on these synapomorphies, only the following 7 genera are referable to the family:Disseta,...

  16. DISTRIBUTION
    (pp. 143-146)

    All of the genera, subgenera, and species groups of the Heterorhabdidae defined in this study are circumglobal in distribution, occuring widely in all three major oceans.Dissetais a bathypelagic genus comprising 3 species, of whichD. palumbiiis a common circumglobal species occurring widely in the low and midlatitudes of all three major oceans.Disseta scopulariswas found only in the low and midlatitudes of the Pacific from the west coast of the Americas to the Malay Archipelago.Disseta magnawas found in the low and midlatitudes of both the Pacific and Indian Oceans.Disseta palumbiiwas the most...

  17. LITERATURE CITED
    (pp. 147-150)
  18. FIGURES
    (pp. 151-271)