Hollywood Quarterly

Hollywood Quarterly: Film Culture in Postwar America, 1945-1957

Eric Smoodin
Ann Martin
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 417
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1ppgd6
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  • Book Info
    Hollywood Quarterly
    Book Description:

    The first issue ofHollywood Quarterly,in October 1945, marked the appearance of the most significant, successful, and regularly published journal of its kind in the United States. For its entire life, theQuarterlyheld to the leftist utopianism of its founders, several of whom would later be blacklisted. The journal attracted a collection of writers unmatched in North American film studies for the heterogeneity of their intellectual and practical concerns: from film, radio, and television industry workers to academics; from Sam Goldwyn, Edith Head, and Chuck Jones to Theodor Adorno and Siegfried Kracauer. For this volume, Eric Smoodin and Ann Martin have selected essays that reflect the astonishing eclecticism of the journal, with sections on animation, the avant-garde, and documentary to go along with a representative sampling of articles about feature-length narrative films. They have also included articles on radio and television, reflecting the contents of just about every issue of the journal and exemplifying the extraordinary moment in film and media studies thatHollywood Quarterlycaptured and helped to create. In 1951,Hollywood Quarterlywas renamed theQuarterly of Film, Radio, and Television,and in 1958 it was replaced byFilm Quarterly,which is still published by the University of California Press. During those first twelve years, theQuarterlymaintained an intelligent, sophisticated, and critical interest in all the major entertainment media, not just film, and in issue after issue insisted on the importance of both aesthetic and sociological methodologies for studying popular culture, and on the political significance of the mass media.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-93632-4
    Subjects: Film Studies

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
    ERIC SMOODIN and ANN MARTIN
  4. Introduction: The Hollywood Quarterly, 1945–1957
    (pp. xi-xxvi)
    Eric Smoodin

    WRITING JUST AFTER the end of World War 11, the editors of theHollywood Quarterly posedposed the following question: “What part will the motion picture and the radio play in the consolidation of the victory, in the creation of new patterns of world culture and understanding?” Asked at the beginning of volume 1, number 1, this question, and the “Editorial Statement” of which it was a part, made particular sense in 1945. Today, more than half a century later, we might ask what made this question plausible, and why did the editors’ concerns about peace, education, and aesthetics coalesce...

  5. Editorial Statement
    (pp. 1-2)
  6. 1 THE AVANT-GARDE
    • Experimental Cinema in America Part One: 1921–1941
      (pp. 5-27)
      Lewis Jacobs

      EXPERIMENTAL CINEMA in America has had little in common with the main stream of the motion picture industry.

      Living a kind of private life of its own, its concern has been solely with motion pictures as a medium of artistic expression. This emphasis upon means rather than content not only endows experimental films with a value of their own but distinguishes them from all other commercial, documentary, educational, and amateur productions. Although its influence upon the current of film expression has been deeper than is generally realized, the movement has always been small, its members scattered, its productions sporadic and,...

    • Experimental Cinema in America Part Two: The Postwar Revival
      (pp. 28-50)
      Lewis Jacobs

      WHEN AMERICA ENTERED the war the experimental film went into limbo, but with the war’s end there was a sharp and unexpected outburst of interest and activity in experimental movies in all parts of the United States. Behind this phenomenal postwar revival were two forces that had been set in motion during the war years. The first was the circulation of programs from the Film Library of the Museum of Modern Art, at a nominal cost, to nonprofit groups. The Museum’s collection of pictures and its program notes on the history, art, and traditions of cinema went to hundreds of...

    • The Avant-Garde Film Seen from Within
      (pp. 51-56)
      Hans Richter

      TWENTY YEARS AGO most documentary films, like those made by Ivens, Vigo, Vertov, and Grierson, were shown as avant-garde films on avantgarde programs. Today the documentary film is a respected, well-defined category in the film industry alongside the fictional entertainment film.

      It is time, I think, to introduce the experimental film as a third, legitimate if nonrespected, category, quite distinct from the other two. It has its own philosophy, its own audience, and, I feel, its necessary place in our twentieth-century society. These claims may be more difficult to prove than similar ones for the documentary or the fictional film,...

    • Cinema 16: A Showcase for the Nonfiction Film
      (pp. 57-60)
      Amos Vogel

      NEW YORKERS NO LONGER have to be school children, “shut-ins,” or club members in order to see documentary films. Cinema 16, at first an ambitious dream to create a permanent showcase for 16-mm. documentary and experimental films, has today become very much a reality. More than 3,000 persons crowded into New York’s modern Central Needle Trades Auditorium to see one of Cinema 16’s shows. Radio stations and magazines carried announcements, and theNew York Timesalone printed releases in three different sections of one Sunday issue.

      Organized on a shoestring by people with more enthusiasm than experience, Cinema 16 has...

  7. 2 ANIMATION
    • Animation Learns a New Language
      (pp. 63-68)
      John Hubley and Zachary Schwartz

      SELECT ANY TWO ANIMALS, grind together, and stir into a plot. Add pratfalls, head and body blows, and slide whistle effects to taste. Garnish with Brooklyn accents. Slice into 600-foot lengths and release.

      This was the standard recipe for the animated cartoon. That is, it was standard until Hollywood’s fantasy makers were presented the task of teaching people how to fight.

      Six months before America entered World War II, the animated motion picture industry of Hollywood was engaged in the production of the following films:

      1 Feature-length cartoon about a deer

      16 Short subjects about a duck

      12 Short subjects...

    • Music and the Animated Cartoon
      (pp. 69-76)
      Chuck Jones

      THE ANIMATED CARTOON, in its mature form, can be the most facile and elastic form of graphic art. Since the first Cro-Magnon Picasso hacked etchings on his cave wall every artist has longingly sought the ideal medium—one that would contain within its structure color, light, expanse, and movement. The animated cartoon can supply these needs. It knows no bounds in form or scope. It can approach an absolute in technical realism and it can reach the absolute in abstraction. It can bridge the two without taking a deep breath. The technical problems present in live action, when it tends...

    • Notes on Animated Sound
      (pp. 77-83)
      Norman McLaren and William Jordan

      A SMALL LIBRARY OF several dozen cards, each containing black-and white areas representing sound waves, replaced traditional musical instruments and noisemaking devices in the animated sound process developed at the National Film Board in Canada.

      These drawings were photographed with the same kind of motion-picture camera as is normally used in the shooting of animated cartoons. In fact, they were shot in precisely the same way as the drawings of a cartoon; that is, one drawing is placed in front of the camera and one frame of film is taken. Then the first drawing is removed, replaced with another drawing,...

    • Mr. Magoo as Public Dream
      (pp. 84-88)
      Milton J. Rosenberg

      FROM THE TIME OF ITS introduction into America in the late thirties, the psychoanalytic approach to the study of mass entertainments has steadily won adherents and sometimes transformed them into partisans.

      Its root proposition is now very well known: the contents of popular entertainments may be symbolically reduced and translated so as to provide a picture of the unconscious needs and fears of their audiences. Production workers, critics, and social scientists have, in the main, been willing to accept this proposition; to grant that entertainments are public and saleable dreams. But, in recent years, they have come to suspect that...

  8. 3 DOCUMENTARY
    • Postwar Patterns
      (pp. 91-99)
      John Grierson

      THE POSSIBILITIES OF the documentary film have been defined and speculated upon a thousand times over, for years past. I am not going over the old ground, and for a very simple reason. The documentary must be considered in relation to the realities it tries to describe and illumine and dramatize. More than any other kind of film, it is most truly to be described in terms of what it does and of the themes with which it is preoccupied. Its interests today are necessarily different from those which shaped its manner and style in the ’thirties.

      Perhaps I am...

    • The Documentary and Hollywood
      (pp. 100-108)
      Philip Dunne

      ALMOST EVERYTHING that needs to be said about the documentary per se, analytically or historically, has already been said by such well-qualified professionals as John Grierson, Raymond Spottiswoode, and Paul Rotha (three Britishers; none of the able American documentarians has yet taken time out to write the book that needs to be written about the American documentary). Indeed, an able analysis of the documentary by Mr. Grierson appears elsewhere in this issue [pp. 91–99, this volume]. However, I do feel that I may be permitted to describe the appearance of the documentary to a fairly typical Hollywood picturemaker thrown...

    • Time Flickers Out: Notes on the Passing of the March of Time
      (pp. 109-116)
      Raymond Fielding

      IN THE SPRING OF 1935, a brilliantly conceived informational film series burst upon the American motion-picture scene, startling journalists and political observers and shattering the complacent calm of Hollywood’s film colony. Entitled theMarch of Time, the series was designed to explore the contemporary American and international scene. Many people believed that it was also deliberately designed to provoke controversy. Certainly few film critics, friendly or not, expected it to survive more than a few months.

      Sixteen years and over 160 issues later, in the fall of 1951, this ubiquitous, impudent, omniscient film series ceased theatrical production and disappeared from...

  9. 4 RADIO
    • The Case of David Smith: A Script, with Commentary by Sam Moore, Franklin Fearing, and Cal Kuhl
      (pp. 119-138)
      Abraham Polonsky

      THE PROJECT WHICH eventually became the radio programReunion U.S.A.resulted from a series of seminars conducted by the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, in 1944, on the general problems of adjustment which would have to be faced by soldiers and civilians alike when the process of demobilization should begin on a mass scale. Discussions led by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, army officers and enlisted men, with participation from radio and screen writers and directors, led to the conclusion that these problems were so complex and of such importance as to warrant an attempt to present them, or at least some phases...

    • Radio’s Attraction for Housewives
      (pp. 139-151)
      Ruth Palter

      WHAT DOES IT MEAN when urban housewives say about the radio: “I don’t know what I’d do without it”; “We’d be lost without it . . . be sort of miserable”; “If that radio was to go bad tonight I’d pay $200 to get a new one tomorrow morning. I wouldn’t stay here a minute longer than I’d have to without it”? What does it mean in terms of human behavior? And more specifically, what does it mean in terms of urban problems of loneliness, boredom, and passivity? Although communication research provides data about the content of the media and...

    • A New Kind of Diplomacy
      (pp. 152-158)
      Gene King

      FOR A RADIO MAN, my present job onThe Voice of Americais just short of Heaven. “Short” because there are problems, to be sure. We practically always, for example, have budgetary troubles.The Voice of America, last year, had only a little over sixteen million dollars; when I add that with that we cover the world, what I mean by budgetary troubles is understandable. There are a number of industrial firms which spend twice that a year on advertising. All in all, private business in the United States spends nearly eight billion dollars a year on advertising, and a...

  10. 5 PRACTICE
    • A Costume Problem: From Shop to Stage to Screen
      (pp. 161-165)
      Edith Head
    • Performance under Pressure
      (pp. 166-179)
      Alexander Knox

      IN AN EARLIER ARTICLE in theHollywood QuarterlyI tried to prove that there is a difference between acting and behaving, that acting is richer than behaving, and that since acting in isolated moments has been caught on film there is no reason why it should not be caught more frequently in sustained performances. At this time I should like to deal with a few more of the facts and conditions in the motion picture industry in Hollywood which militate against acting, and to refer to one postwar development which seems to prove my point—my point being simply that...

    • Designing The Heiress
      (pp. 180-185)
      Harry Horner

      IT RARELY HAPPENS THAT the designer of a motion picture production has the opportunity of making his designs an integral part of the dramatic effect of the picture, but this opportunity was given to me in the production designs for the filmThe Heiress.

      Many faithful Broadway theatergoers will remember the play, the story of Dr. Sloper, residing at No. 16, Washington Square North, in New York in the 1850’s, and the tragedy of his daughter Catherine. Every reader of Henry James’s novels will certainly remember the story,Washington Square, from which this play was taken.

      In one of our...

    • The Limitations of Television
      (pp. 186-196)
      Rudy Bretz

      AN EXAMINATION OF THE equipment and the methods of operation today in both the production of television programs and their reception reveals a long list of obstacles in the way of full realization of the new medium.

      A large deterrent to the full enjoyment of any program is, of course, the small size of the average television screen, for actual physical size has a great deal to do with visual enjoyment. The visual sensation created by a large picture is greater than that created by a small one, since a large picture covers more of the retina with light. This...

  11. 6 TELEVISION
    • Hollywood in the Television Age
      (pp. 197-204)
      Samuel Goldwyn

      MOTION PICTURES ARE entering their third major era. First there was the silent period. Then the sound era. Now we are on the threshold of the television age.

      The thoroughgoing change which sound brought to picture making will be fully matched by the revolutionary effects (if the House Un-American Activities Committee will excuse the expression) of television upon motion pictures. I predict that within just a few years a great many Hollywood producers, directors, writers, and actors who are still coasting on reputations built up in the past are going to wonder what hit them.

      The future of motion pictures,...

    • You and Television
      (pp. 205-208)
      Lyman Bryson and Edward R. Murrow

      BRYSON: Some of my colleagues in the educational world have asked me recently: What are you going to do with television? What are you going to do to make the world a more enlightened and pleasant and intelligent place with this new weapon? If you accept my theory, Ed, that news is one of the most important branches of education—and you do, I believe . . .

      MURROW: Yes, enthusiastically, Lyman.

      BRYSON: Then, let’s start out with what television is going to do to news coverage.

      MURROW: Well, I have strong opinions on television and news. It seems to...

    • Children’s Television Habits and Preferences
      (pp. 209-221)
      May V. Seagoe

      TELEVISION IS THE NEWEST addition to the illustrious family of our mass entertainment enthusiasms. We have had dime novels, movies, radio, comics—and now television. Each time we seem to go through the same stages. We remember the alarm raised soon after the advent of the talking picture, which in time gave rise to the Payne Fund studies, which in turn showed that the same movies might either help or hinder growth, reinforce social standards, or teach the techniques of crime, depending upon the person who saw them and the attitudes he took to the seeing. For a while films...

    • How to Look at Television
      (pp. 222-240)
      T. W. Adorno

      THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION cannot be adequately expressed in terms of success or failure, likes or dislikes, approval or disapproval. Rather, an attempt should be made, with the aid of depth-psychological categories and previous knowledge of mass media, to crystallize a number of theoretical concepts by which the potential effect of television—its impact upon various layers of the spectator’s personality—could be studied. It seems timely to investigate systematically socio-psychological stimuli typical of televised material both on a descriptive and psychodynamic level, to analyze their presuppositions as well as their total pattern, and to evaluate the effect they are...

  12. 7 THE HOLLYWOOD PICTURE
    • Why Wait for Posterity?
      (pp. 243-252)
      Iris Barry

      SINCE THE COBBLER’S CHILDREN are always the worst shod, it is natural enough that Hollywood should be almost the last place in the world where the films of the past are esteemed seriously. Film executives have been known to speak rather grandly now and then about preserving films for posterity, in the spirit, presumably, of those who seal up cans of Spam, phonograph records, and newspapers in the foundations of new buildings. For, though the producing companies all scrupulously preserve their negatives, since in their physical possession and through the copyright act the legal ownership of story rights is thus...

    • Hollywood—Illusion and Reality
      (pp. 253-255)
      John Howard Lawson

      HOLLYWOOD IS CONSISTENTLY, relentlessly publicized; yet most of the people who know the motion picture industry as their means of livelihood and the focus of their lives will agree that the general public is uninformed, or blatantly misinformed, even by well-intentioned commentators, concerning the realities of motion picture production, the problems that face the craftsmen in the industry, and the community in which they live. I am not referring primarily to the expensive foolishness about the stars that fills the fan magazines—a comparatively unimportant by-product of the system of stereotypes and illusions which creates a false perspective concerning everything...

    • Negro Stereotypes on the Screen
      (pp. 256-258)
      Leon H. Hardwick

      TYPE CASTING IS A COMMON curse in Hollywood. Possibly the most unjust example of this practice is the persistent typing of the entire Negro race as menials and buffoons, a tradition that has been followed ever since the establishment of the American film industry. Now, after many years, a protest is beginning to be heard. The change in attitude is traceable to the growing social consciousness that has developed in this country in the last few years. Nowhere has this increased awareness become more noticeable than among Negroes themselves.

      The most forceful protests have come from Negro servicemen who have...

    • Today’s Hero: A Review
      (pp. 259-262)
      John Houseman

      EVERY GENERATION HAS ITS MYTH—its own particular dream in which are mirrored the preoccupations of its waking hours. In years of rich artistic activity the myth becomes absorbed into the intellectual and emotional life of its time. In a period of general anxiety and low cultural energy like the present the dream reveals itself naked and clear. Then we witness the fascinating and shocking spectacle of a nation’s most pressing fears and secret desires publicly exhibited in whatever art form happens, at the moment, to be the most immediately accessible to the largest mass of its people. Today this...

    • An Exhibitor Begs for “B’s”
      (pp. 263-270)
      Arthur L. Mayer

      FOR YEARS THE SELF-APPOINTED custodians of our morals—economic as well as social—have accused the motion picture industry of being a monopoly dominated by the producers and the distributors, who, by means of a nefarious device known as block booking, have compelled exhibitors, and therefore audiences, to consume bad films along with the good. Bad and good, in this kind of thinking, were synonymous respectively with cheap and expensive. If exhibitors were no longer compelled to book “B” pictures in order to obtain “A’s”—so went the argument—the artistic and intellectual standards of the screen, now depressed by...

    • A Word of Caution for the Intelligent Consumer of Motion Pictures
      (pp. 271-282)
      Franklin Fearing

      DALLAS W. SMYTHE has discussed in some detail the problems relating to the consumer’s interest in television and radio sets and in programming. While I am assigned the topic of films, I think almost everything I have to say holds with equal force for radio and television. There are differences, but from the point of view of the social scientist, these are the mass media of communication, and the factors we are interested in are found in all of these media.

      Dr. Smythe has implied that you are interested, as intelligent consumers, in better programs. I want to say something...

    • There’s Really No Business Like Show Business
      (pp. 283-292)
      Jay E. Gordon

      MORE AND MORE THESE DAYS, we read that to improve the motion picture business we have only to produce better pictures. A good show can’t miss, we are assured. This is the opinion of the majority of theater operators, who, unfortunately, are sufficiently preoccupied with taxes, labor contracts, real estate values, and popcorn consumption to find themselves lacking the time for study necessary to provide a genuine understanding of the reasons behind the failing box office. Having no control over the content of the pictures he plays, the theater operator is loath to accept any responsibility for low grosses; all...

    • There’s Still No Business Like It
      (pp. 293-299)
      Jean Hersholt

      It is an interesting and helpful piece. —JEAN HERSHOLT

      I think Mr. Gordon has a fine and unusual understanding of the subject, and, for the most part, I couldn’t agree with him more. My slight differences with him have to do with his advocacy of institutional advertising, which I think is meaningless in our industry—that is, if I understand his use of the words “institutional advertising” correctly. . . . Each picture is a new product and, roughly, Hollywood has to sell something over four hundred new products a year—and herein lies the difficulty. Lucky Strike, Kaiser-Frazer cars,...

    • Hollywood’s Foreign Correspondents
      (pp. 300-308)
      Harva Kaaren Sprager

      MORE THAN 70 FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS in the Los Angeles area devote full or part time to reporting news and gossip of Hollywood for almost 2,000 newspapers and magazines and 600 radio stations in 70 foreign countries. In the summer of 1951, almost half of these correspondents filled out an 8-page questionnaire planned to reveal something of their backgrounds, and a good deal about what their problems are and how they handle the job of picturing Hollywood for readers thousands of miles away. The results of the survey indicate that the portrait which these Hollywood foreign correspondents send abroad is not...

  13. 8 SCENES FROM ABROAD
    • Advanced Training for Film Workers: Russia
      (pp. 311-321)
      Jay Leyda

      AMONG THE MANY UNANSWERED QUESTIONS in the film business there is one of apparently small importance to its present but of gigantic importance to its future: Can you teach people how to make films?

      This question recently came into particularly sharp focus for me when I received a cable from the Soviet film journal,Iskusstvo Kino, requesting me to prepare an article for them on “film schools, training, and libraries in the United States.” Soviet film education has been conducted for so long on such a broad scale, both in technical and in audience training, that the editors ofIskusstvo...

    • Advanced Training for Film Workers: France
      (pp. 322-326)
      Charles Boyer

      EVEN THOSE OF US WHOSE confidence and admiration for France lead us to expect miracles of her look with amazement on her actual achievements since the liberation. After four years of simmering under the Occupation’s fire and pressure, the lid has been removed once more from the nation’s cauldron of intellectual and artistic endeavor. And instead of finding its contents evaporated and shrunken, we discover the pot still full and bubbling with vigor! Literary reviews and magazines devoted to art and fashion which have reached us from Paris since V-E Day maintain and even surpass their traditional standards of creative...

    • The Global Film
      (pp. 327-333)
      Vsevolod Pudovkin

      I AM PROFOUNDLY CONVINCED that the film, an art of quite recent appearance, possesses exceptionally great potentialities for the expression of man’s broadest thoughts and ideas. Film history gives us a concrete example of the potentialities that distinguish the film from the other arts. We clearly remember those days in which our Soviet film was born and matured, a period which at the same time was the formative period of our Soviet state. The enormous struggle within this period was nourished by the highest ideas of human significance. Our best films, linked to this time, are familiar to all. All...

    • The Postwar French Cinema
      (pp. 334-344)
      Georges Sadoul

      THE IMPORTANCE OF THE current crisis in French cinema should not be exaggerated, although its effect on the quality of production is undeniable. The truth is that the French cinema has been in a state of chronic crisis for the last thirty years.

      The industry operates on a very narrow basis in France. In a country where half the population lives in the country or in small villages, there are relatively few motion picture theaters, and attendance is limited. For every Frenchman buying one movie ticket, an Englishman buys five or six, an American eight or ten; moreover, the price...

    • When in Rome . . .
      (pp. 345-354)
      Hugh Gray

      THE INDISPENSABLE Paul Rotha, writing in 1930 of the movie of 1913, recalled that it was out of Italy that there came the first

      big productions or “feature films” as they were known, including a version of Homer’sOdyssey, The Fall of Troy. . . but greatest of all, the forerunner of every spectacle film since, wasQuo Vadis?, a veritable mammoth production of 1913, eight thousand feet in length. This was bought and shown by George Kleine in America where, to that date, the most pretentious effort had beenThe Life of Buffalo Bill. Since the day when...

  14. 9 NOTES AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • J’Accuse
      (pp. 357-359)
      Pierre Descaves

      SACHA GUITRY HAS CHARGED in a publication that the discredit from which he is suffering is based on spite. He claims that this discredit is due to the machinations of his “antagonists” and to the malignity of his enemies. At his instigation and by way of provocation, the newspaper heads the list of these “enemies” with my name.I, the enemy of Guitry? It is an honor which I would not reject had I not, painfully, earned the right to be his judge. For the present, I shall limit my role to that of prosecutor.

      Until 1939, after well-deserved successes,...

    • Je Confirme
      (pp. 360-361)
      Robert Joseph

      September 16, 1946

      GENTLEMEN:

      I read “J’Accuse” in the July issue of theQuarterly[pp. 357–59, this volume] with great interest. In the course of my work with the Information Control Division, I had discussed the question of collaboration with one of the French Film Officers in Berlin. He thought that Sacha Guitry and Danielle Darrieux were classic examples of film actors who had collaborated with the Germans. Danielle Darrieux, for example, went to Berlin to make a picture which showed, among other things, the “benevolence” of the German occupation of France.

      I am enclosing the newspaper reproduction of...

    • The Cinémathèque Française
      (pp. 362-365)
      Henri Langlois

      THE PURPOSE OF THE Cinémathèque Française (The French Film Library) is to establish, in the interests of film art and film history, a museum and archives which shall have the widest possible utilization. It was founded in 1936 by the principal nontheatrical motion picture producers. Others interested in preserving a film repertory joined them to take the necessary steps for the conservation of prints and documents relating to films and for the replacement of prints which have disappeared.

      As a library, the Cinémathèque collects and preserves documents relating to films, and purchases or receives, on loan or as gifts, positive...

    • Jean Vigo
      (pp. 366-369)
      Siegfried Kracauer

      I SAW JEAN VIGO for the last time in the summer of 1934. He looked even younger than he was—an adolescent with a pointed face, about to die from tuberculosis. Very few people knew his name then, or his work.A propos de Nicehad been shown in a few theaters only,Zéro de conduitehad been considered too “harsh” for general release, and, if I am not mistaken,L’Atalantehad not yet been released. As a rule, rebels are not popular, and in the motion picture industry probably less so than anywhere else. And Vigo was a rebel,...

    • Two Views of a Director—Billy Wilder
      (pp. 370-380)
      Herbert G. Luft and Charles Brackett

      EARLY IN 1929, IN BERLIN , just before the close of the silent era, a group of motion picture students discovered an outlet for their youthful enthusiasm—away from the theatrical setting of studio-made film. Nothing much happened in the little opus they calledMenschen am Sonntag, a semidocumentary made for producer Moritz Seeler, but for the first time the camera looked upon real people.

      Four middle-class citizens, worn from the week’s drab routine, go out to spend a Sunday at Wannsee beach! This bit of simple, rather melancholy reportage became Robert Siodmak’s initial chore as director, his assistants being...

    • Dialogue Between the Moviegoing Public and a Witness for Jean Cocteau
      (pp. 381-386)
      Raymond Jean

      PUBLIC: May I let you in on a secret? I have an awful feeling that Jean Cocteau, in his recent works, is complaining more and more about us.

      WITNESS: Yes, his complaints are coming more frequently nowadays. He seems to be suffering.

      PUBLIC: Do you think he’s really suffering, I mean in a sincere way?

      WITNESS: I do.

      PUBLIC: But from what?

      WITNESS: It’s hard to say.

      PUBLIC: From not being understood?

      WITNESS: Probably.

      PUBLIC: Do you mean in regard to his work for the films?

      WITNESS: That in particular.

      PUBLIC: You will admit that he’s largely responsible. When you...

  15. Selected Names Index
    (pp. 387-390)
  16. Selected Titles Index
    (pp. 391-394)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 395-395)