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Surviving Through the Days

Surviving Through the Days: Translations of Native California Stories and Songs, A California Indian Reader

Herbert W. Luthin
Copyright Date: 2002
Edition: 1
Pages: 651
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  • Book Info
    Surviving Through the Days
    Book Description:

    This anthology of treasures from the oral literature of Native California, assembled by an editor admirably sensitive to language, culture, and history, will delight scholars and general readers alike. Herbert Luthin's generous selection of stories, anecdotes, myths, reminiscences, and songs is drawn from a wide sampling of California's many Native cultures, and although a few pieces are familiar classics, most are published here for the first time, in fresh literary translations. The translators, whether professional linguists or Native scholars and storytellers, are all acknowledged experts in their respective languages, and their introductions to each selection provide welcome cultural and biographical context. Augmenting and enhancing the book are Luthin's engaging, informative essays on topics that range from California's Native languages and oral-literary traditions to critical issues in performance, translation, and the history of California literary ethnography.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-93536-5
    Subjects: Anthropology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-VIII)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. IX-XII)
    (pp. XIII-XIV)
    (pp. XV-XVI)
    (pp. XVII-XVIII)
    (pp. XIX-2)
  7. Song from the myth “Kukumat Became Sick” Quechan
    (pp. 3-4)
    Abraham Halpern

    My heart, you might pierce it and take it,

    You take it, you pierce it, you take it,

    You might pierce it and take it,

    You my older brothers here,

    You Bear here,

    You Mountain Lion here,

    You Wildcat here,

    You my older brothers,

    My heart, you might pierce it and take it....

  8. General Introduction
    (pp. 5-20)

    When this volume was in its planning stages, I always described it to colleagues and editors as a “reader,” a reader in the field of California Indian oral literature. It was to be a comprehensive anthology of both classic and contemporary works in translation, whose selections would feature as many of California’s cultures and languages as possible. Indeed, my working title throughout these many years of putting it together was simplyA California Indian Reader. The book has turned out pretty much the way I first saw it in my mind’s eye, but the title itself has since then su...

  9. Making Texts, Reading Translations
    (pp. 21-54)

    In books like the one in hand—monolingual in format, without the presence of an original native–language text on each facing page as a reminder—it is entirely too easy for readers to forget that they are reading translations, that the performances behind most of the stories and songs they are reading were given first in another language, and that therefore the words they are reading are not the actual words of the singers and storytellers but approximations of them created by scholars who happen to speak or study those languages and who are presenting or “packaging” the works...


    • “Creation Songs,” Cupeño
      (pp. 57-58)
      Paul Faye

      Deserted it was,

      Deserted it was,

      Deserted, the earth.

      First they appeared,

      First they came out,

      First Mukat,

      First Tamayowet,

      First the chiefs,

      First the ancients.

      His heart roared,

      His heart thundered,

      Water and mud roared.

      Then outside, toward the door,

      Themselves they lay down,

      Mukat outside,

      Tamayowet then,

      Themselves they lay down:

      Where it was bare, where it was lonely,

      Themselves they laid down,

      Where dust was, where mist was....

    • 1 Kwaw Labors to Form a World ATSUGEWI, 1996
      (pp. 59-62)

      It is said by the old ones that a thought was floating in the vastness. Thought manifested itself into a voice. Voice matured into Yeja, an everlasting medicine song. Song sang itself into being as Kwaw, Silver Gray Fox. By continuing the song, Kwaw created all that we know. He sang the universe into being. His singing spawned Reason, but not sufficiently, so we shall never know all that moves within this universe.

      It was Song, infusing itself with both beauty and power, that caused the outer world to tremble and the inner world to quake, and instructed the stars...


      • Doctor dance song, Yurok
        (pp. 65-66)
        R.H. Robins and Norma McCloud

        Why is the water rough,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth?

        Why is the water rough,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth?

        By Rek’woy at the river mouth,

        that is why they watch it,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth.

        Near the houses the surf runs further up,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth.

        Why is the water rough,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth?

        Near the houses the surf runs further up,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth.

        Why is the water rough,

        by Rek’woy at the river mouth?

        Near the houses the waves break further up,

        by Rek’woy...

      • 2 Test-ch’as (The Tidal Wave) TOLOWA, 1985
        (pp. 67-76)

        The Tolowa are a Pacific Coast Athabascan–speaking people of Northern California and Southern Oregon. Their terrain is heavily wooded with climax redwood and Douglas fir forests and accustomed to heavy rainfall. The rivers of the past were choked with trout, steelhead, and several species of salmon. The ocean provided whale, sea lion, and innumerable species of fish. The coastal tide–pools produced a rich diversity of crustacea and bivalves. The land, too, yielded its plenty: the annual harvest of fruits, nuts, and herbs. The control–burned forests and prairies of the hills ran with great herds of elk and...

      • 3 “The Young Man from Serper” and Other Stories YUROK, 1951, 1985–1988
        (pp. 77-89)

        These three stories come from the Yurok Indians, who still inhabit their ancestral homeland along the lower forty miles of the Klamath River and the surrounding coastline in Northwest California, near the Oregon border. Here they continue to harvest salmon, eels, and winter steelhead, to hunt deer and elk, and to follow many of the old lifeways and traditions along with other more modern pursuits.

        All of these stories were told by Mrs. Florence Shaughnessy, a Yurok elder who was born in 1902 and lived in Requa, near the mouth of the Klamath. In 1951 Robert H. Robins was recruited...

      • 4 Coyote and Old Woman Bullhead KARUK, CIRCA 1930
        (pp. 90-97)

        The Karuk are a Hokan-speaking people living in mountainous Northwestern California. Traditionally, they lived along the Klamath River between their territorial boundary with the Yurok and the California-Oregon border. They lived by hunting, gathering, and especially fishing. Salmon and acorns were the staples of life, because these were what the land gave in abundance, as everywhere in Northern California. They were closely allied in social structure and worldview—though not in linguistic affiliation—with the Hupa and Yurok.

        Then came the Europeans. The American “gold fever” of 1850 ended nearly as quickly as it began. It left behind widespread disruption...

      • 5 The Devil Who Died Laughing KARUK, 1950
        (pp. 98-103)

        My principal fieldwork on the Karuk language (previously called “Karok”) was done in the spring of 1949 and the summer of 1950. During the latter period, in search of Karuk speakers who could tell traditional stories, I visited Mrs. Mamie Offield, an elderly woman living at her summer home on the slope of Mount Offield, near Somes Bar, in Siskiyou County. (During the winters, she lived in Los Angeles.) Some years before, she had served as a translator and consultant for the ethnographic fieldwork of Professor Edward W. Gi ord, of Berkeley; people told me that she knew a lot,...

      • 6 “The Boy Who Grew Up at Ta’k’imiłding” and Other Stories HUPA, 1963–1964
        (pp. 104-114)

        Together with their close neighbors the Yurok on the lower Klamath River, and the Karuk further upstream on the Klamath, the aboriginal Hupa of the lower Trinity River subsisted (and subsisted well) on the abundant spring and fall runs of salmon, which they supplemented by gathering acorns and berries, trapping eels, and hunting deer and small game. The modern Hupa people have been able to preserve a close attachment to this rich environment, since they are fortunate to possess a large reservation that includes the center of their traditional territory, Hoopa Valley. This spectacularly beautiful eight–mile–long stretch of...

      • 7 The Bear Girl CHIMARIKO, 1921
        (pp. 115-122)

        The Chimariko language was once spoken on the Trinity River in Northwestern California, a heavily forested and mountainous country. Chimariko is classified by linguists as a Hokan language, but it is only distantly related to some of the other languages spoken in prehistoric California. To the west and northwest their neighbors were the Athabascan Whilkut and Hupa. Their neighbors to the south and east were Penutian-speaking Wintu people.

        Sally Noble was the last known fluent speaker of the Chimariko language. She told the story of “The Bear Girl” to John Peabody Harrington in 1921. Mrs. Noble told Harrington several Chimariko...


        (pp. 125-126)
        Edward Sapir

        S·uwā′! May you think about me to yourself! May you turn back to look! Would that I might stand before his face! I just cry to myself. Would that I might see him every day!

        I do just as you do. Sometimes I dream of him, and I rise when it is daylight, and I look about. Now, as I see him, my heart flutters. I look at him without raising my eyes. He gives me trinkets, and I take them, and I wear them for some time, until they are worn out....

      • 8 How My Father Found the Deer ACHUMAWI, 1970
        (pp. 127-138)

        Probably they ought to be called the Is, or the Ish, their word for “people.” Anthropologists call them the Achumawi, from their wordajúm:á:wí, meaning dwellers on theajúm:áor ‘river’, though the people themselves applied that term only to families who lived in the valley midway up the Pit River where the Fall River flows into it from the north. We will call them the Pit River people, for that is what they call themselves today.

        Their territory overlaps two ecological zones. Traveling up the Pit River, one passes from deeply wooded intermountain declivities through valleys that are progressively...

      • 9 Naponoha (Cocoon Man) ATSUGEWI, 1931
        (pp. 139-151)

        In 1931, Susan Brandenstein Park had just graduated from the University of California, in Berkeley’s anthropology program, and had applied to be a part of an expedition to the Fiji Islands. She placed her name on the sign-up sheet, “somewhere near the bottom, but not o of the roster by any means whatsoever.”¹ Then she, along with all the others, anxiously awaited its posting. Daily she rushed to the anthropology department. Finally, the roster was hanging on the door.

        “There was a crooked line through my name. It was as if somebody had cut me across the heart with a...

      • 10 A Story of Lizard YAHI, 1915
        (pp. 152-177)

        Ishi, the narrator of this story, is something of a legend in the history of post-Contact Native America and is a touchstone figure in California anthropology. His story is well-known—it’s been told in books, articles, and films—so I won’t do much more than summarize it here. But it’s only fair to say that the “legend” of Ishi is nothing if not a conflicted one.

        The subtitle to Theodora Kroeber’s celebrated Ishi source book,Ishi in Two Worlds,provides us with a good starting point in this regard:A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America. Whatever...

      • 11 A Selection of Wintu Songs WINTU, 1929–1931
        (pp. 178-191)

        The songs presented here were collected in the summers of 1929, 1930, and 1931, during three field trips that were conducted under the auspices of the Department of Anthropology of the University of California.¹ I recorded them intermittently, chiefly as an expression of literary art, partly for their ethnographic value, partly for linguistic purposes. I secured them in text and translated them as literally as the discrepancy between Wintu and English would permit.

        The Wintu who sing them live in California, along the northern reaches of the Sacramento, the Pit, and the McCloud. These rivers are in reality only mountain...

      • 12 Loon Woman: He-who-is-made-beautiful, She-who-becomes-loon WINTU, 1929
        (pp. 192-218)

        This dramatization of incest, death, and renewal has drawn repeated attention since its publication in 1931.¹ It has been the focus of a special article (Demetracopoulou 1933), retold in a popular book (T. Kroeber 1959), and addressed at length in a major analysis of myth (Lévi-Strauss 1981).

        We know the text because of the work of two women at the start of their careers, Dorothy Demetracopoulou (Lee) and Cora Du Bois. Both went on to become well-known for other work, Demetracopoulou-Lee for essays on languages as forms of thought (Lee 1944, 1959), Du Bois for study of culture and personality...

      • 13 Four Songs from Grace McKibbin WINTU, CIRCA 1982
        (pp. 219-234)

        Grace McKibbin was a great singer, with knowledge of hundreds of traditional Wintu songs. While there were many Wintu songs of ceremonial significance to be sung by trained religious leaders, the four songs transcribed and translated here are secular in nature and sung by plain folks. People among the Wintu and other tribes used to make up songs to express strong emotions in situations of great joy or pain. Three of these songs Grace called “love songs,” and one was a “cry song.” Although love songs sometimes speak about romance between a man and woman, they are more often about...

      • 14 How I Became a Dreamer NOMLAKI, 1935
        (pp. 235-247)

        Late one evening, as I was conversing with Nomlaki elder Wallace Burrows in his home on the Grindstone Creek Reservation, nestled among the blue oak and bull pine that dot the rolling hills of western Tehama County, he brought up the name of Charley Watham. He had known Charley. Charley was a dance man who participated in the ceremonial life at Grindstone. He was also known for his regalia and, more specifically, as a maker of woven feather belts.

        Wallace told me he remembered that Charley had owned a fine sheep dog who could manage a herd of sheep just...

      • 15 Mad Bat MAIDU, CIRCA 1902
        (pp. 248-259)

        One of the great adventures of my life began, during the winter holidays of 1954, when I went up into the Sierra of Northern California to seek out the last speakers of a dying California Indian language known as Mountain Maidu. I was a graduate student at Berkeley then, in the newly inaugurated Department of Linguistics. Research funds had been made available by the California State Legislature for sending qualified students out into the field to learn, record, and analyze data on as many native languages of California as possible before they all disappeared forever. Over the next few years,...

      • 16 Creation EASTERN POMO, 1930
        (pp. 260-310)

        The work of recording this Eastern Pomo creation myth back in 1930 brought together two of the most remarkable figures in the annals of California oral literature: William Ralganal Benson, storyteller and artist extraordinaire, and Jaime de Angulo, a wild and charismatic linguist who became something of a cult figure in his own lifetime. Benson would have been sixty-eight when he told this myth, and de Angulo forty-three. In the latter’s books on California Indian life and lore, Benson (or “Uncle William,” as Jaime and his wife, L. S. “Nancy” Freeland, called him) is the model for the character of...

      • 17 The Trials of Young Hawk SOUTHERN POMO, 1940
        (pp. 311-323)

        The termsPomoandPomoanrefer to a family of seven related languages and to their speakers. The divergence among the seven languages is similar to that among the various Romance languages; at the extremes, the divergence is greater than that between English and German. At a more distant level, Pomoan is related to some languages classified as Hokan. The Pomo lived in an area stretching roughly from about fifty miles north of San Francisco northward for ninety miles, and from the Pacific Coast inland for fifty miles to include much of the shore of Clear Lake, with an o...

      • 18 The Woman Who Loved a Snake CACHE CREEK POMO, 1988
        (pp. 324-333)

        Mabel McKay was born on January 12, 1907, in Nice, Lake County, California. Her father, Yanta Boone, was a Potter Valley Pomo Indian. Her mother, Daisy Hansen, was a Losel Cache Creek Pomo. Mabel was raised by her maternal grandmother, Sarah Taylor, and always considered herself a Losel Cache Creek Pomo. It was from her grandmother that Mabel learned the Losel Cache Creek language and the rich and extensive history, not just of her tribe, but of many surrounding Pomo and southwestern Wintun tribes.

        But this knowledge was not what Mabel would become known for. She became an expert basketweaver,...

      • 19 The Dead People’s Home LAKE MIWOK, 1980
        (pp. 334-342)

        This is a Lake Miwok story, told to me in the summer of 1980 by James (Jimmy) Knight, at Middletown Rancheria in Middletown, California. Lake Miwok was formerly spoken in a triangular area south of Clear Lake, about eighty miles north of San Francisco. This language is closely related to Coast Miwok, once the language of the Marin Peninsula, and more distantly related to the Eastern Miwok languages, once spoken on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountains from the Fresno River north to the Cosumnes River, as well as on the floor of the Great Valley between Ione...


      • Excerpt from “The Čiq’neq’š Myth” Ventureño Chumash
        (pp. 345-346)
        Fernando Librado and Thomas Blackburn

        But Čiq’neq’š knew that the devil [lewelew] wanted to deceive him, and he began to sing:

        Now I am beginning,

        Beginning to make my defense.

        I have just put my plant in this soil.

        I don’t know the end.

        I barely put my foot on land.

        I come from a great distance, from the clouds.

        I am the son of all the dead and

        That is why I’m hungry.

        The devil said to himself, “Where did this creature come from? What am I going to do with this little boy? Where did he come from?”

        And the devil said to...

      • 20 Two Stories from the Central Valley “Visit to the Land of the Dead” Chawchila Yokuts, 1931 “Condor Steals Falcon’s Wife” Yowlumni Yokuts, 1930
        (pp. 347-362)

        The Yokuts people once inhabited the south-central portion of California from roughly the crest of the Tehachapi Range in the south to Stockton in the north and from the Coastal mountains in the west to the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada range in the east. This territory ranged about 350 miles from north to south and about 200 miles east to west and presented great variation in where the Yokuts people lived, from marsh lands and lakes such as Tulare and Kern Lakes to the lush banks of river canyons of the Tule, Kaweah, Kings and San Joaquin Rivers....

      • 21 The Contest between Men and Women TÜBATULABAL, CIRCA 1932
        (pp. 363-381)

        The classic myth “The Contest between Men and Women” transcends the cultural milieu of its origins in the universal, timeless appeal of the issue at the heart of the story, the gender roles played out by men and women in human societies.¹ The story was told to Erminie Wheeler Voegelin, in English, by Mike Miranda during one of her summer field-trips to Tübatulabal country in Central California between 1931 and 1933. She had been collecting ethnographic information from Miranda, who o e red this myth in answer to her question of whether women had ever had a role in hunting....

      • 22 The Dog Girl INESEÑO CHUMASH, 1913
        (pp. 382-396)

        The Chumash occupied the territory of Coastal California from about Paso Robles and San Luis Obispo in the north down to Malibu (a Ventureño name,humaliwo‘place where the waves make noise’) in the south. The first known recording of any California Indian language was made by the Catalonian soldier Pedro Fages (probably in May 1772); the language for which Fages recorded some seventy vocabulary items from the “natives of the mission of San Luís and twenty leagues round about there” was what is now called Obispeño Chumash. Although Alfred Kroeber asserted the relationship of the Chumash languages in the...


      • Excerpt from an account of “The Soul” Quechan
        (pp. 399-400)
        Abraham Halpern

        Whatever is it,

        that stu ,

        that smoke,

        when it goes—

        it burns,

        and when the smoke goes,

        the person,

        the one who has come to an end and is finally gone

        goes into the sky as smoke,

        he goes like this and like this,

        he is the one,

        and they go back and describe it again:

        that one is cloudy,

        and it’s windy,

        and it stays in the sky like this;

        it’s cloudy, like this;

        it’s windy, and it stays in the sky;

        and as for the moon,

        the moon is giving instructions,

        that’s the one,

        it goes back...

      • 23 The Creation SERRANO, 1963
        (pp. 401-410)

        Serrano is a Uto-Aztecan language formerly spoken around the San Bernardino Mountains in Southern California. With the advent of the missions, some speakers of this language retreated into the mountains, whence their name, Spanish for “mountaineer.” Aboriginally, Serrano may have had around 1,500 speakers (A. Kroeber 1925:617), but at the time of my fieldwork in 1963 and 1964, on the Morongo Indian Reservation at Banning, California, there were only about half a dozen known speakers.

        Mrs. Sarah Morongo Martin told me this story when I was working on the Serrano language with her in the summer of 1963. Mrs. Martin...

      • 24 A Harvest of Songs from Villiana Calac Hyde LUISEÑO, 1988–1992
        (pp. 411-420)

        The following song texts were selected fromYumáyk Yumáyk(Hyde and Elliott 1994), a compilation of personal memoirs and historical texts narrated in Luiseño by Villiana Hyde.¹ Luiseño is a member of the Cupan branch of the Takic subfamily of the Uto-Aztecan family of languages. The Uto-Aztecan family includes languages spoken from the American Northwest to Central America. The Cupan languages were all spoken within the boundaries of modern California. Within the Cupan languages, Luiseño is most closely related to the now-extinct Cupeño language.

        Born Villiana Calac, Mrs. Villiana Hyde was a native speaker of Luiseño and a proud member...

      • 25 From “The Life of Hawk Feather” The Bear Episodes CUPEÑO, 1962, 1920
        (pp. 421-435)

        The “Bear Episode” is one part of a longer account of the life of Hawk Feather, the greatest hero in Cupeño history. Roscinda Nolasquez told me two parts of the “Bear Episode” when she was teaching me the Cupeño language during the summer of 1962. In 1920 Paul-Louis Faye collected several events from this episode in a single text. The teller was probably Salvadora Valenzuela, because, among the texts where Faye bothers to note his consultants’ names, she is consistently listed as the teller of the longer and more elaborate stories. Salvadora Valenzuela comes from a lineage of storytellers and...

      • 26 In the Desert with Hipahipa MOJAVE, 1902
        (pp. 436-460)

        The story of the recording of this tale is this.

        In a previous visit to the Mohave I had learned of their male-lineage clans orsimulye, known each by the name which all the women born in the clan shared, these names in turn having totemic reference or connotation, though in most of the names no etymologic denotation of the totemic animal or object was apparent. There is no evidence that these clans functioned other than as regards coresidence and exogamy: they had no ritual associations. Settlements normally consisted of kinsmen in the male line, and thereby of men of...

      • 27 An Account of Origins QUECHAN (YUMA), 1908
        (pp. 461-490)

        The Yuma occupy a central position in the Central Group.² They held both banks of the Colorado from fifteen miles south to sixty miles north of the Gila confluence. They are now nearly all settled on the Yuma Indian Reservation, California, where they number in 1908 about 960, including over sixty persons belonging to other tribes.

        The Yuma are still primitive in religion, and largely so in life. The Christian influence has been slight. Two missions were established among them in 1780 by the military commander of Sonora, but were destroyed by the Yuma the following summer. They were then...


      (pp. 493-494)
      Mauricio Mixco

      The deeds of the people,

      the way they were,

      the people who spoke those things are heard no longer.

      This will surely be the end of all that.

      Those things that were said are no longer heard.

      None have lasted beyond.

      Those who continue beyond into the future

      will surely say the same about me,

      when I have gone o wearing my crest of stars.


      what I’ve said and the way I have been

      will remain in this land....

    • A Brief History of Collection
      (pp. 495-510)

      In October of 1914, James Alden Mason, an anthropologist at the University of California at Berkeley, made a brief fieldtrip down to the Santa Cruz area in an e ort to locate speakers of Costanoan, a group of closely related languages spoken, at the time of European contact, roughly from the San Francisco Bay down to Big Sur along the coast and coastal foothills. He was hoping to find fluent speakers who still used the language in everyday life and who could provide him with wordlists and grammatical information and texts—information that could help him answer questions about the...

    • “Women’s Brush Dance Song,” Luiseño
      (pp. 511-512)
      Helen H. Roberts

      The owl cries out to me,

      the hawk cries out to me as death approaches.

      The killdeer, the mountain bird,

      cry out to me as death approaches.

      The black rattler, the red rattler,

      cry out to me as death approaches.

      The red racer, the gartersnake,

      cry out to me as death approaches.

      A large frog, a little frog,

      cry out to me as death approaches.

      An eagle, a condor,

      cry out to me as death approaches....

    • Notes on Native California Oral Literatures
      (pp. 513-542)

      No detailed, comprehensive survey of California’s oral literature has ever been done. Accessible recent overviews include William Wallace’s “Comparative Literature” (1978c) and William Bright’s “Oral Literature of California and the Intermountain Region” (1994b), which the reader is urged to consult, along with Robert Heizer’s “Mythology: Regional Patterns and History of Research” (1978b). Edward Gi ord and Gwendoline Block’s lengthy introduction to theirCalifornia Indian Nights Entertainments(1930) still makes, even after seventy years, a reliable layperson’s entry into California culture patterns, oral-literary genres, and storytelling customs.¹

      Most California cultures had no restrictions on who could perform verbal art. Men and...

    • Funeral speech, Quechan
      (pp. 543-544)

      Oh, people!

      Our hearts are good and strong!

      We can work all day!

      This sickness does go away, I know it!

      I go o by myself.

      Alone in the house, I lie down on the bed

      And forget everything.

      All this fades away.

      All the people!

      All our sick hearts will change!

      This day is passing away,

      Passing [away] from here.

      We are all together.

      Now will we think well,

      Now will we think in this place,

      Now that we are all together.

      I tell you, when we lose a strong man,

      Our hearts cannot be good—but now,


    • Notes on Native California Languages
      (pp. 545-570)

      Kelp-beds, redwoods, desert scrub, oak savannah: from the coastal waters of the Pacific to the crest of the high Sierras, from the Sacramento Delta to the dry sands of the Baja Peninsula, California has always been a land of abundance. Most of us are aware of the extremes of habitat, the tremendous biological and geographic diversity that California embraces. Not so many are aware that this exuberance extends to its Native cultures and languages as well. Yet aboriginal California was one of the most linguistically diverse places on earth, and its great abundance helped support the single highest population density...

  12. MAPS
    (pp. 573-578)
    (pp. 579-604)
    (pp. 605-608)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 609-630)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 631-631)