Mirror Lake

Mirror Lake: Interactions among Air, Land, and Water

Thomas C. Winter
Gene E. Likens
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: 1
Pages: 384
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1ppvb5
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  • Book Info
    Mirror Lake
    Book Description:

    Lakes change constantly in response to their surrounding landscape, and their airshed. Mirror Lake, located in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, has been carefully researched since the 1960s. This book, edited by Thomas C. Winter and Gene E. Likens, summarizes and interprets the extensive data collected on this lake and its watershed from 1981 to 2000, a period during which the lake was affected by a variety of climate conditions as well as significant human activity. The findings documented also identify the panoply of chemicals influenced by limnological processes and include percentages of inflow sources, percentages of water loss from seepage, surface outflow, and evaporation, and the effect of water flow on the lake nutrients.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-94449-7
    Subjects: Physics

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Preface and Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xv)
  5. 1 A LIMNOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION TO MIRROR LAKE
    (pp. 1-22)
    GENE E. LIKENS

    Mirror Lake is a clear-water lake in the Hubbard Brook Valley of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. This beautiful lake has had several names, including Hobart’s Pond, McLellan’s Pond, Jobert’s Pond, Hubbard’s Pond, and Tannery Pond, since white settlers colonized the area in the middle 1700s. But on a crisp, clear morning, it is easy to see why this lake has its current name. It reflects its surroundings with the perfection of an expensive mirror (Fig. 1–1). The cultural history of the lake and its drainage basin is interesting and diverse and has included small farms; family, children’s,...

  6. 2 HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES AND THE WATER BUDGET
    (pp. 23-68)
    DONALD O. ROSENBERRY and THOMAS C. WINTER

    Mirror Lake was selected for intensive study of its hydrology following a search in the major, natural lake regions of the United States to establish long-term studies of the interaction of lakes and ground water. Mirror Lake represents a typical mountain lake in a humid continental climate. The original focus of the long-term lake studies was on ground water because it historically had received little attention in water budget studies of lakes; it commonly is calculated as the residual term. A review of uncertainties in measurement of hydrologic components that commonly are measured (Winter 1981) made it clear that the...

  7. 3 NUTRIENT DYNAMICS
    (pp. 69-204)
    DONALD C. BUSO, GENE E. LIKENS, JAMES W. LABAUGH and DARREN BADE

    Long-term studies of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest watersheds near Mirror Lake have provided quantitative understanding about the importance of dissolved substance flux across ecosystem boundaries. Issues addressed by these well-known studies include the effect of regional atmospheric deposition; the effects of local watershed disturbances, such as clear cutting; and the change of natural ecosystem biogeochemical processes through time (Likens and Bormann 1995). The success of these efforts has been based on measurements of the volume and chemistry of precipitation and tributary water over more than four decades, and on the systematic derivation of ecosystem fluxes and chemical mass balances...

  8. 4 EVALUATION OF METHODS AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE WATER BUDGET
    (pp. 205-224)
    THOMAS C. WINTER and DONALD O. ROSENBERRY

    Measurements of the volumes of water moving to, stored in, and moving from a lake are subject to some degree of uncertainty. The uncertainties in measuring water flows result from less than optimal placement of field instruments, the limited accuracy and reliability of field instruments, missing data, and the challenge of areally interpreting point data from field measurements. The methods used to quantify the water budget components of Mirror Lake are described briefly in chapter 2. This chapter presents more detail on how those values were derived, including the assumptions that went into the calculations and the uncertainties inherent in...

  9. 5 EVALUATION OF METHODS AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE CHEMICAL BUDGETS
    (pp. 225-300)
    JAMES W. LABAUGH, DONALD C. BUSO and GENE E. LIKENS

    Comparison of chemical mass input and output associated with hydrologic processes alone is not a complete mass balance; it merely sets the stage for developing hypotheses concerning changes that might be expected to occur in storage or biological and gaseous fluxes, based on the comparison. Such hypotheses are tested by comparing the difference between mass input and output to changes in storage measured independently. A complete mass balance, also termed net ecosystem flux (Likens et al. 2002, and see chapter 1), includes change in storage, non-hydrologic sinks, and net gaseous flux, in addition to chemical mass input and output resulting...

  10. 6 MIRROR LAKE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
    (pp. 301-328)
    GENE E. LIKENS and JAMES W. LABAUGH

    Mirror Lake is similar in many ways to a vast number of small to medium-sized lakes in the northeastern United States and the Canadian Shield of southeastern Canada. These lakes historically have clear to lightly stained water and are relatively nutrient poor, because of the slowly weathering bedrock of their drainage basins. Recently, these lakes have been affected by numerous environmental impacts, including cultural eutrophication, human development, acid rain, numerous invasive species, and climate change—the combination of which is actually or potentially changing their hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics and temporal trends in a very short time.

    Mirror Lake has...

  11. 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    (pp. 329-334)
    THOMAS C. WINTER and GENE E. LIKENS

    Being a small lake in a mountainous setting, Mirror Lake has a highly dynamic interaction with the hydrologic cycle. The streams tributary to the lake drain steep mountainsides, so discharge into the lake responds rapidly to precipitation, especially rain, falling on the watershed. At the same time, when the elevation of the lake surface is near the elevation of the outlet dam, many episodes of large tributary inflow result in equally large surface outflow over the dam. The lake level declines below the top of the dam because of losses to evaporation and seepage to ground water. However, in most...

  12. INDEX
    (pp. 335-360)
  13. Back Matter
    (pp. 361-368)