Foundations of Wildlife Diseases

Foundations of Wildlife Diseases

Richard G. Botzler
Richard N. Brown
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: 1
Pages: 480
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  • Book Info
    Foundations of Wildlife Diseases
    Book Description:

    Foundations of Wildlife Diseasesis a comprehensive overview of the basic principles that govern the study of wildlife diseases. The authors integrate theoretical foundations with a thorough examination of the factors that can affect the health and fitness of animals. They include specific information on a wide array of infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, arthropods, fungi, protista, and helminths, as well as immunity to these agents. Also provided is a foundation for the study of noninfectious diseases, cancers, and prion diseases that affect wildlife. Supporting students, faculty, and researchers in areas related to wildlife management, biology, and veterinary sciences, this volume fills an important gap in wildlife disease resources, focusing on mammalian and avian wildlife while also considering reptiles and amphibians.Foundations of Wildlife Diseasesprovides students with a structure for thinking about and understanding infective agents and their interactions with wildlife. Each chapter includes an outline, select definitions and concepts, an overview and summary, and literature cited.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95895-1
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-26)

    The study of wildlife diseases encompasses the health, disease, and fitness of wildlife, and the broad range of factors that can potentially affect their well-being. These factors include a wide array of infectious organisms such as helminths, arthropods, and microorganisms, as well as toxins, traumas, metabolic dysfunctions, genetic problems, and habitat fragmentation. Such factors not only act individually, but also may interact synergistically in complex ways to affect wildlife health. In this first chapter we give a brief summary of the basis for the emergence of wildlife diseases as a discipline and provide some key general concepts used throughout this...

  5. TWO Introduction to Immunity
    (pp. 27-44)

    All organisms, including humans, live in a sea of infectious or toxic agents inhabiting the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the water we drink. Yet most of us and other organisms are healthy for the majority of our lives because we can resist these agents. This resistance is called immunity, and is further defined as the condition of being protected against an infectious disease or foreign agent. The study of immunity is termed immunology. Some of the most complex and dense ideas of this book will occur in this chapter; yet an introduction to them is essential...

  6. THREE Nematodes, Acanthocephala, Pentastomes, and Leeches
    (pp. 45-84)

    Members of the Phylum Nematoda (Greek “nema” = thread) are bilaterally symmetrical worm-like metazoans that are round in cross section. The overall body shape of a cylinder tapered at both ends tends to be uniform among most nematode species (Bush et al. 2001) (Fig. 3.1). While lacking a body cavity, nematodes have a fluid-filled false cavity without a peritoneal lining (pseudocoel) between the somatic musculature and digestive tract that serves as a primary component of the hydrostatic skeleton, and thus is critical for movement; it also serves to transport nutrients between tissues (Bush et al. 2001). Nematodes are covered by...

    (pp. 85-124)

    Platyhelminths (platy:flat,helminth:worm) are a phylum of simple, soft-bodied, dorsoventrally flattened invertebrates with bilateral symmetry. While there is a blind gut in some, none have a body cavity (coelom); thus, platyhelminths are classified as acoelomates (Roberts and Janovy 2000). They are among the simplest animals to have a nervous system. Platyhelminths of interest for wildlife belong to the Class Cercomeridia (App. 1: Table 3). Two platyhelminth groups are of major importance in wildlife disease studies: trematodes (Subclass Trematoda), also called flukes, and cestodes (Infraclass Cestoidea), also called tapeworms (Roberts and Janovy 2000) (App. 1: Table 3). Although there...

  8. FIVE The Parasitic Insects, Mites, and Ticks
    (pp. 125-166)

    The Phylum Arthropoda includes the insects (Class Insecta), spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (Class Arachnida), centipedes and millipedes (Class Myriapoda), and crabs, shrimp, lobsters, pill bugs, and so on (Class Crustacea); this chapter focuses mainly on the parasitic insects, mites, and ticks that cause diseases of terrestrial vertebrates, and the field of medical (or veterinary) entomology includes the study of these organisms. Although all wild animals are considered wildlife in the broad sense, this chapter covers only the diseases of terrestrial vertebrates; that is, we specifically address those diseasescaused byarthropods and not the diseasesofwild arthropods. It...

  9. SIX Kingdom Protista
    (pp. 167-204)

    Protozoa and other protists evolved from the first eukaryotes (Patterson 1999) and probably have been present at least twice as long as any of the major multicellular organisms (Patterson 1999). At least 45,000 species have been described, many of which are parasitic (Roberts and Janovy 2000). The terms “protozoa” and “protista” have undergone considerable revision in definitions and still are in a state of flux (Cox 1991, Patterson 1999, Adl et al. 2005). Protozoa historically were defined as a phylum of unicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes (Kudo 1966, Patterson 2000), with their classification based primarily on their organelles of locomotion and food-acquiring...

  10. SEVEN Kingdom Fungi
    (pp. 205-240)

    Fungi are a subgroup of the Supergroup Opisthokonta (Adl et al. 2005) and comprise a Kingdom of eukaryotic organisms distinguished by their unique cellular structures (Alexopoulos et al. 1996, Dixon et al. 1999). Fungi have cell walls with chitin, cellulose, or both, but lack chlorophyll, roots, leaves, stems, xylem, or phloem. Almost all are non-motile and reproduce by means of spores (Alexopoulos et al. 1996). Many fungi have multinucleated cytoplasms. Most fungi form branched, tube-like filaments(hyphae)that can develop into multicellular complexes, each of which is called amycelium.

    Although most parts of a fungus are potentially capable of...

  11. EIGHT Introduction to Non-eukaryotic Agents
    (pp. 241-258)

    Bacteria and viruses, while very different kinds of infectious agents, share many similarities in their basic life history strategies, including their means of transmission to susceptible hosts and the basic types of reservoirs they use for their long-term survival and success. To reduce redundancy, and to accentuate these important patterns, we give a brief introduction to both bacteria and viruses in this chapter, followed by an overview of the most common patterns of transmission and the basic types of reservoirs used by pathogenic bacteria and viruses. We illustrate these patterns through discussion of specific bacteria and viruses in Chapters 9...

  12. NINE Eubacteria
    (pp. 259-314)

    Latent infections (apparently healthy carriers) may be the most common type of reservoir among pathogenic bacteria, and examples are found among a wide variety of bacterial groups. In this reservoir, the bacteria persist within an infected host for extended periods, up to the life of the infected host. The bacteria shed from this infected host become the source of infection for other susceptible hosts. Typically, the carrier has recovered from a clinical disease (i.e., recovered carrier) but continues to shed the bacteria to other members of its own species or other susceptible species. There also are occasional cases in which...

  13. TEN Viruses
    (pp. 315-352)

    Although they are not alive, viruses are the quintessential parasites in several respects; all viruses are obligate intracellular parasites incapable of replication and assembly without using host cellular processes. Viruses differ from even the simplest of living cells by their very small size; they range from a diameter of 18-nm for tiny parvoviruses, to about 300 nm for the larger iridoviruses, to approximately 750 nm for the recently discovered mimiviruses. Although the largest viruses overlap the size of the smallest bacteria, most viruses tend to be about 1/100th the size of most bacteria. Viruses have simple structures; they lack internal...

  14. ELEVEN Special Topics
    (pp. 353-376)

    In this chapter we present a number of special topics, with a brief example to illustrate each one. Noninfectious diseases of wildlife are very important and have had considerable impact. Examples include pesticides such as DDT and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), plant poisoning, capture myopathy, traumas such as automobile-related deaths, tower strikes by bats and birds, among others. Botulism technically is a noninfectious disease, but is addressed in the Chapter 9 among bacteria using soil and water as a reservoir. As an example of a noninfectious disease, we address lead poisoning (plumbism), a long-known toxin of birds, especially waterfowl.


  15. TWELVE Summary and Future Directions
    (pp. 377-380)

    Formal wildlife disease studies began among North American and some European biologists, managers, and hunters (Leopold 1933; Carson 1962; McDiarmid 1962, 1969; Davis et al. 1970, 1971; Davis and Anderson 1971; von Braunschweig 1979; Friend 2012). This discipline has grown into a worldwide concern of biologists, managers, public health agencies, and veterinary interests (Anonymous 2012, Jessup and Gillin 2012), and expanded into interdisciplinary fields focused on the health of populations and ecosystems (Aguirre et al. 2002). A very few of the common sources of information on wildlife diseases include theJournal of Wildlife Diseases, Emerging Infectious Diseases,theJournal of...

  16. APPENDIX ONE Systematics of Major Parasites Groups
    (pp. 381-400)
  17. APPENDIX TWO Serological and Molecular diagnostic Tests
    (pp. 401-410)
    (pp. 411-428)
  19. INDEX
    (pp. 429-449)