Fishes: A Guide to Their Diversity

Fishes: A Guide to Their Diversity

PHILIP A. HASTINGS
H. J. Walker
GRANTLY R. GALLAND
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: 1
Pages: 345
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt9qh2k9
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Fishes: A Guide to Their Diversity
    Book Description:

    There are more than 33,000 species of living fishes, accounting for more than half of the extant vertebrate diversity on Earth. This unique and comprehensive reference showcases the basic anatomy and diversity of all 82 orders of fishes and more than 150 of the most commonly encountered families, focusing on their distinctive features.Accurate identification of each group, including its distinguishing characteristics, is supported with clear photographs of preserved specimens, primarily from the archives of the Marine Vertebrate Collection at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. This diagnostic information is supplemented by radiographs, additional illustrations of particularly diverse lineages, and key references and ecological information for each group.An ideal companion to primary ichthyology texts,Fishes: A Guide to Their Diversitygives a broad overview of fish morphology arranged in a modern classification system for students, fisheries scientists, marine biologists, vertebrate zoologists, and everyday naturalists. This survey of the most speciose group of vertebrates on Earth will expand the appreciation of and interest in the amazing diversity of fishes.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95933-0
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. COMPLETE CONTENTS
    (pp. ix-xvi)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xvii-xxii)

    In nearly every body of water around the world, the most abundant vertebrate is a fish. From the deepest parts of the ocean to high alpine streams, fishes live and reproduce, sometimes in places where no other vertebrates can survive. Whether peering out from a submarine while conducting deep-sea research, or stopping for a drink of water during a hike in the mountains, explorers, scientists, and naturalists find fishes.

    With well over 30,000 species, fishes account for more than half of the total extant vertebrate diversity on Earth—in other words, there are more living species of fishes than of...

  5. ANATOMY OF FISHES
    (pp. 1-12)

    While their anatomy varies greatly, all fishes have several features in common. In this section, we briefly review and illustrate the major features of fish anatomy, focusing on those that are most important for distinguishing among lineages and groups....

  6. THE FISHES:: VERTEBRATA—Vertebrates

    • AGNATHA (CYCLOSTOMATA)— Jawless Fishes
      (pp. 15-18)

      As their name implies (a= without;gnathos= jaw), agnathans lack jaws, and instead possess a rounded mouth, a fact reflected in the older term for the group, the Cyclostomata (cyclo= round;stoma= mouth). Extant members lack pelvic fins, have pore-like rather than slit-like gill openings and an elongate, eel-like body. Agnathans have a well-developed notochord; a rudimentary vertebral column is present only in the lampreys. The group has a rich fossil record, and many of the extinct members had a bony external skeleton that is lacking in living representatives whose entire skeleton is cartilaginous. Extant agnathans...

    • Gnathostomata—: Jawed Vertebrates

      • Chondrichthyes— Cartilaginous Fishes
        (pp. 21-50)

        The cartilaginous (or chondrichthyan) fishes are a major group that includes 14 orders and more than 1,200 living species. These fishes are distinguished by a skeleton made entirely of cartilage, and a neurocranium with no sutures. Their teeth are derived from placoid scales and are replaced serially. Their fin rays, termed ceratotrichia, are usually soft and somewhat flexible, are always unsegmented, and are developmentally epidermal. They have a well-developed electroreceptive sense, with numerous pores of the ampullae of Lorenzeni often evident, especially surrounding the mouth. Males have pelvic-fin claspers for use in mating, as all species of chondrichthyan fishes have...

      • Osteichthyes— Bony Fishes
        (pp. 51-51)

        The clade Osteichthyes may at first seem misnamed as it includes not only what are readily recognized as “bony fishes” but also the entire lineage of tetrapods. However, Osteichthyes refers to the ancestor and all descendants (i.e., a monophyletic group) of a lineage that is the sister group of the cartilaginous fishes. These two great lineages of fishes differ in several fundamental features, most notably in the composition of their skeleton. Osteichthyans have a bony skeleton while chondricthyans have a skeleton formed entirely of cartilage. In addition, the neurocranium of osteichthyans has evident sutures (sutures are absent in chondrichthyans); their...

      • SARCOPTERYGII— Lobe-finned Fishes
        (pp. 52-54)

        The Sarcopterygii is a major group of vertebrates that includes the coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods and comprises over 25,000 species. These “lobe-finned fishes” are characterized by the presence of enamel on the teeth, a unique skeletal support for the paired fins (or limbs) that includes a central axis of bone, and autostylic jaw suspension in which the upper jaw is fused with the skull. We treat the two most “fish-like” orders of sarcopterygians, the Ceratodontiformes, or lungfishes, and the Coelacanthiformes, or coelacanths. The tetrapods are not considered here.

        Diversity: 1 family, 1 genus, 2 species

        Representative genus:Latimeria

        Distribution: Indian...

    • Actinopterygii—: Ray-finned Fishes

      • Actinopterygii I: Lower Ray-finned Fishes
        (pp. 57-106)

        Diversity: 1 family, 2 genera, 12 species

        Representative genera:Erpetoichthys( =Calamoichthys),Polypterus

        Distribution: Africa

        Habitat: Freshwater; tropical; demersal over soft bottoms

        Remarks: Bichirs are thought to be the sister group of all other actinopterygians, exhibiting many unique characters. All bichirs have lungs, an intestinal spiral valve, a skeleton of mostly cartilage, and a uniquely divided dorsal fin. Pelvic fins are present in most species but absent in one (Erpetoichthys calabaricus). Bichirs are carnivorous and feed on other fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans. They are restricted to Africa, are known to reach lengths of up to 90 cm, and are...

      • Actinopterygii II: Acanthomorpha—Spiny-rayed Fishes
        (pp. 107-238)

        This large and diverse group of teleost fishes, recognized by Rosen (1973) and evaluated in detail by Stiassny (1986) and Johnson and Patterson (1993), includes all remaining fishes covered in this book. Most members have true spines in the dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins (Nelson, 2006). Wiley and Johnson (2010) reviewed the compelling morphological evidence for its monophyly, and this has been corroborated by a variety of molecular studies (e.g., Betancur et al., 2013; Miya et al., 2003; Near et al., 2012, 2013; Wiley et al., 2000). The phylogenetic relationships of acanthomorph fishes are currently under intensive study by a...

  7. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 239-244)
  8. REFERENCES
    (pp. 245-288)
  9. INDEX
    (pp. 289-311)
  10. Phylogenetic hypothesis including all orders
    (pp. 312-313)