Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands

Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands

DAROLD P. BATZER
REBECCA R. SHARITZ
Copyright Date: 2014
Edition: 2
Pages: 372
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt9qh2s6
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  • Book Info
    Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands
    Book Description:

    This second edition of this important and authoritative survey provides students and researchers with up-to-date and accessible information about the ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands.Prominent scholars help students understand both general concepts of different wetland types as well as complex topics related to these dynamic physical environments. Careful syntheses review wetland soils, hydrology, and geomorphology; abiotic constraints for wetland plants and animals; microbial ecology and biogeochemistry; development of wetland plant communities; wetland animal ecology; and carbon dynamics and ecosystem processes. In addition, contributors document wetland regulation, policy, and assessment in the US and provide a clear roadmap for adaptive management and restoration of wetlands. New material also includes an expanded review of the consequences for wetlands in a changing global environment.Ideally suited for wetlands ecology courses,Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands, Second Edition, includes updated content, enhanced images (many in color), and innovative pedagogical elements that guide students and interested readers through the current state of our wetlands.

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95911-8
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VI)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. VII-VIII)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. IX-X)
    Darold P. Batzer and Rebecca R. Sharitz
  5. ONE Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands: An Introduction
    (pp. 1-22)
    REBECCA R. SHARITZ, DAROLD P. BATZER and STEVEN C. PENNINGS

    The study of wetland ecology can entail an issue that rarely needs consideration by terrestrial or aquatic ecologists: the need to define the habitat. What exactly constitutes a wetland may not always be clear. Thus, it seems appropriate to begin by defining the wordwetland. The Oxford English Dictionarysays, “Wetland (F. weta. + landsb.)—an area of land that is usually saturated with water, often a marsh or swamp.” While covering the basic pairing of the wordswetandland,this definition is rather ambiguous. Does “usually saturated” mean at least half of the time? That would...

  6. TWO Wetland Soils, Hydrology, and Geomorphology
    (pp. 23-60)
    C. RHETT JACKSON, JAMES A. THOMPSON and RANDALL K. KOLKA

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland’s ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1 ). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables, but in fact none of these variables are independent of the others. For example, the hydropattern of a wetland (the time series of water levels) is often considered a master variable that affects the soils, biogeochemistry, and biology of a wetland, but the hydropattern...

  7. THREE Abiotic Constraints for Wetland Plants and Animals
    (pp. 61-86)
    IRVING A. MENDELSSOHN, DAROLD P. BATZER, COURTNEY R. HOLT and SEAN A. GRAHAM

    The unique character of wetland communities (plant or animal) is largely controlled by the unique physical environment of wetland habitats. Wetlands are stressful places for most plants and animals to live, but organisms that thrive there are well adapted to cope with the environmental challenges posed. The most important abiotic factors influencing wetland biota are hydrology and the chemistry of soils and water. The extremely variable and unpredictable nature of hydrology and chemistry in wetlands can profoundly influence the structure and productivity of resident plants and animals. In this chapter, we first address how hydrology constrains plant and animal populations...

  8. FOUR Wetland Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry
    (pp. 87-132)
    PAUL I. BOON, PETER C. POLLARD and DARREN RYDER

    In the original version of this chapter (Boon 2006), I noted the intellectual and practical gulfs that then existed between microbial ecology and metazoan-focused “main- stream” ecology. One reading of the information that has come out in the intervening period would suggest that the two fields still exist apart, perhaps are even irreconcilably separated. In even the most recent monographs on wetland ecology, for example, it is still rare for biogeochemistry to be discussed as a topic in its own right, and even rarer for microbial ecology to be considered in any context at all.

    A quite different conclusion, however,...

  9. FIVE Development of Wetland Plant Communities
    (pp. 133-150)
    REBECCA R. SHARITZ and STEVEN C. PENNINGS

    Plant communities in different types of wetlands vary greatly in species composition, species richness, and productivity. These communities are influenced to varying degrees by a long list of abiotic factors including hydrologic conditions, position on the landscape, substrate, fertility, climate, environmental stress, and disturbance, and also by a variety of biotic interactions including competition, facilitation, and herbivory. They range from highly productive herbaceous marshes dominated by a few robust perennial species to infertile but species-rich wet meadows; from boreal bogs and other peatlands with mosses and evergreen shrubs to tropical wet grasslands and palm savannas; from nutrient-poor wetland communities of...

  10. SIX Wetland Animal Ecology
    (pp. 151-184)
    DAROLD P. BATZER, ROBERT COOPER and SCOTT A. WISSINGER

    The basic conceptual framework for wetland animal ecology is much less developed than it is for terrestrial, aquatic, or marine animal ecology, particularly at the community and ecosystem levels. Lacking viable alternatives, ecologists working with wetland animals tend to try to adapt ecological hypotheses generated in these other ecosystems. This might make sense if wetlands were simply transitions or ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic/marine ecosystems. However, wetlands clearly have unique biotic characteristics unto themselves, and hypotheses need to incorporate this fact. Plant scientists have already come to this realization, and several wetland-specific paradigms have been developed to explain ecological patterns...

  11. SEVEN Carbon Dynamics and Ecosystem Processes
    (pp. 185-202)
    SCOTT D. BRIDGHAM

    One of the primary functions of wetlands is their role in the global carbon cycle. This topic has been of increasing interest because of the potential for globally significant feedbacks between various aspects of wetland carbon dynamics and global change (Bridgham et al. 1995; Lim-pens et al. 2008; Dise 2009; DeLaune and White 2011; Kirwan and Mudd 2012; Bridgham et al. 2013; see also Chapter 10). Wetland carbon dynamics are also relevant at the scale of watersheds because of their importance in the export of dissolved organic matter to surface waters, with its myriad effects on the chemistry and biology...

  12. EIGHT United States Wetland Regulation, Policy, and Assessment
    (pp. 203-224)
    C. ANDREW COLE and D. ERIC SOMERVILLE

    Wetland regulation and policy in the United States is dictated by an amalgam of statute, regulation, judicial decisions, administrative policy, and public sentiment that has changed many times over the decades and continues to evolve today. The relative rigor of wetland regulation has been likened to a clock pendulum that swings with the prevailing sympathies of the American populace and can change dramatically with changes in presidential administration, congressional majority, or composition of the Supreme Court. In the earliest days of the American colonies, wetlands and marshes in the eastern United States were considered wild places or wastelands that had...

  13. NINE Wetland Restoration
    (pp. 225-260)
    SUSAN M. GALATOWITSCH and JOY B. ZEDLER

    Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed (SER 2004). Forty years ago, the practice of wetland restoration was so rudimentary that, regardless of the kind of wetland ecosystem and services that were damaged or destroyed, a common remedy was to replace it with a pond. Although replacing wetland losses with ponds is still a pervasive practice (Dahl 2011), wetland restoration has greatly improved over the past decades. Increasingly, expectations are that planning and design be tailored to the specific kinds of ecosystems that must be repaired or replaced. Currently,...

  14. TEN Consequences for Wetlands of a Changing Global Environment
    (pp. 261-286)
    ROBERT R. TWILLEY and MARK M. BRINSON

    One of the major components of global climate change is water balance. Few ecosystems are as dependent on water—and thus as vulnerable to changes in water balance, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, river floods, and tides—as wetlands. As a general rule, freshwater wetlands will diminish under drier conditions because water inputs will be reduced, while the opposite is true for climates that become wetter. We need only compare an arid state like Arizona, with less than 1% wetland coverage, with Florida and Louisiana, with greater than 33% coverage (Fretwell et al. 1996), to see a correspondence between climate and wetland...

  15. LITERATURE CITED
    (pp. 287-352)
  16. INDEX
    (pp. 353-362)