Drifting Together

Drifting Together: The Political Economy of Canada-US Integration

John N. McDougall
Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 363
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442603158
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  • Book Info
    Drifting Together
    Book Description:

    "This is one of the best accounts of Canadian-American relations to appear in many, many years." - Thomas Keating, University of Alberta

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-0315-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-6)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 7-8)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. 9-10)
  4. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. 11-12)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 13-24)

    If it was not clear before the second American war with Iraq, it is almost universally recognized today that the United States (US) is, by a wide margin, the most powerful country in the world and, possibly, the most powerful nation the world has ever seen. It goes without saying, therefore, that it is overwhelmingly the superior power on the North American continent, both politically and economically. Moreover, American business and political leaders are increasingly conscious of their country’s global dominance. In turn, many Canadians are coming to realize that Americans’ awareness of their new status—paradoxically in combination with...

  6. chapter 1 THE ANALYSIS OF CANADA-US INTEGRATION: THEORY, KEY CONCEPTS, AND SCOPE
    (pp. 25-52)

    This book examines the effects of North American free trade on Canada-US relations beyond the dimensions of trade and investment flows. Specifically, its chapters trace the impact of the two free trade agreements—the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1989 and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994—on Canada’s own cultural policies, communications regulations, cross-border regional interactions, social policy, defence and security policy, and foreign policies. Distinctively, the study sets the transformation of Canada-US relations resulting from free trade against the backgrounds of both economic history and theories of economic and political integration. In doing so,...

  7. chapter 2 CANADA-US RELATIONS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
    (pp. 53-74)

    We begin our review of the Canada-US relationship by assessing how it altered through the twentieth century, especially during the last decades, and how it stands at the beginning of the twenty-first century. As we shall see below, the pivotal events of the previous century were the First and Second World Wars, and it is important to appreciate how these global convulsions laid the foundations for the early construction of the expanding North American “partnership.”¹ Strictly speaking, the relations between Canadaas Canadaand the US did not begin until the so-called “interwar” years (1919-39) because, until then, Canada’s diplomatic...

  8. chapter 3 THE EVOLUTION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ECONOMY I: THE US
    (pp. 75-102)

    The economic history of North America is essentially a story of the gradual integration of the entire continent. The process began among some of the British North American colonies before the American War of Independence (1776-83); its engine was the economic growth of the main colonies of the northeastern coast (what we today think of as Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland). Not coincidentally, these early economies all centred on major ports, and the commerce of each was largely based on the North Atlantic fishery off the coast of Newfoundland. As this hub of prosperity diversified into...

  9. chapter 4 THE EVOLUTION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ECONOMY II: CANADA
    (pp. 103-140)

    In comparison with the overview of American economic development presented in Chapter 3, the Canadian case diverges in three major ways. The first is the small size of the Canadian market, which is about one-tenth the size of the American domestic market. As a result, the second difference is that Canada for most of its history has relied heavily on exports to promote its economic growth. Moreover, those exports have typically consisted of natural resources or resource-based commodities, commonly referred to as “staples,” which have not only provided the impetus for the expansion of employment and incomes, but also for...

  10. chapter 5 THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS
    (pp. 141-174)

    By now, there are not only numerous and varied accounts of how “free trade” came to North America, there are also many that detail the contents of both the FTA and NAFTA. Added to these are a growing number of assessments of what these agreements are doing to the economic and other aspects of the relationships between Canada, the US, and Mexico. In this chapter, we will look at: (1) the overall background to North American free trade in its global and continental aspects; (2) the motives of the Canadian, American, and Mexican governments in making these agreements; (3) the...

  11. chapter 6 POLITICAL INTEGRATION IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
    (pp. 175-210)

    The last three chapters have traced the evolution of the Canadian and American economies from their beginnings to the point where, with the FTA in 1989 and NAFTA in 1994, the two countries formally committed themselves to a process of economic integration. This chapter will evaluate the extent to which this process is likely to promote political integration as well. We have already seen that there is a body of political theory concerned with relations between “disjoined partners,” defined as two or more countries that are highly integrated in economic, social, and cultural terms, but remain politically separate. The issue...

  12. chapter 7 NORTH AMERICAN REGIONALISM
    (pp. 211-236)

    This chapter has two purposes: first, to document the increasing regionalization of Canada’s political, economic, social, and cultural space; and, second, to assess a corresponding increase in the importance of cross-border regional relationships in the overall Canada-US relationship. These two purposes are woven through the fabric of the chapter’s four principal themes: (1) the relationship between continental integration and Canadian disintegration; (2) the increasing prominence of several “city-regions” in the Canadian economy; (3) the development of “micro-integration” in several such city-regions spanning the Canada-US border; and (4) the tension in cross-border management between the desire to free up the border...

  13. chapter 8 NORTH AMERICAN INTEGRATION AND CANADIAN CULTURE
    (pp. 237-270)

    From economic and political issues, we will turn now to examining Canada’s capacity to survive the onslaught of entertainment and cultural products emanating from the US, a challenge that John Meisel once called “escaping extinction.”¹ We will do so by considering three major elements: (1) the economic fundamentals of the mass media; (2) the different industries that make up the cultural sector of a national economy; and (3) the role of government in relation to these industries. The promotion and protection of Canadian culture involves several distinct fields of enterprise and government policy toward them. These include the physical facilities...

  14. chapter 9 FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS AND CANADIAN SOCIAL POLICIES, ATTITUDES, AND VALUES
    (pp. 271-298)

    One of the primary concerns of Canadians who opposed free trade with the US was its possible impact on Canada’s social safety net. Providers of Canada’s large array of health and social programs made up a large portion of the groups supporting the Pro-Canada Network and the Council of Canadians in their fight against the agreement. They feared that opening the border would motivate Canadian firms to relocate in the US because of the lighter tax burden associated with American social welfare programs. They were also concerned that those employers who did not relocate would nevertheless tend to press for...

  15. chapter 10 CANADA-US RELATIONS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: THE EMERGENCE OF NORTH AMERICAN POLITICS
    (pp. 299-320)

    This chapter places the Canada-US relationship in the broader context of each country’s overall foreign policy, and its main focus is on international relations since the end of the Cold War. At the same time, it examines the effects of globalization on Canada-US relations and on international relations generally over the past 20 years. In particular, the first section reviews what some observers have labeled a shift from “world politics” toward “transnational relations” as the dominant model of recent international relations and considers the extent to which that move may parallel a shift in relations from “Canada-US diplomacy” to “North...

  16. CONCLUSION: DOES CANADA STILL MAKE SENSE?
    (pp. 321-332)

    Canada’s origins as a nation-state lie in the superimposition of British institutions on the French fur trade in North America. The generation that brought British institutions, customs, and values to the northern half of the North American continent were, essentially, British Americans who refused to sever their ties with the Crown at the time their fellow colonialists revolted. After 1867, continuing ties to Britain, plus the forging of a national economy by means of Prime Minister John A. Macdonald’s National Policy, enabled the federation of the British North American colonies to remain an independent political community despite increasingly close economic...

  17. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 333-346)
  18. INDEX
    (pp. 347-363)