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The Real Dope

The Real Dope: Social, Legal, and Historical Perspectives on the Regulation of Drugs in Canada

Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 352
  • Book Info
    The Real Dope
    Book Description:

    InThe Real Dope, Edgar-Andre Montigny brings together leading scholars from a diverse range of fields to examine the relationship between moral judgment and legal regulation in the debate surrounding the potential decriminalization of marijuana.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-6185-1
    Subjects: History, Law

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-2)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 3-24)

    The legal and social regulation of the consumption of drugs in Canada is a controversial topic with a complex history. Various versions of the Narcotic Control Act and, since 1996, the Controlled Drug and Substances Act¹ have dictated which narcotic and other substances are licit or illicit in Canada. Possessing, seeking, or obtaining a substance declared illicit by the act can result in severe penalties. Punishment for simple possession of marijuana can range from a fine of $1,000 and/or up to six months in prison to as long as seven years in prison. Trafficking in marijuana or opium can result...

  5. 1 Setting Public Policy on Drugs: A Choice of Social Values
    (pp. 25-58)

    A public policy is the articulation by the state or its institutions of the directing principles for guiding its actions in a particular area. The establishment of these principles and the direction of the ensuing actions can be brought about through force and through violence. In such a case, we have dictatorship. Alternatively, the establishment of these principles can be the result of debates which are structured in such a way as to garner the greatest public credibility, and which allow for the implementation of administrative, economic, social, and legal strategies that are then seen as more legitimate and coherent...

  6. 2 ‘Unmaking Manly Smokes’: Church, State, Governance, and the First Anti-Smoking Campaigns in Montreal, 1892–1914
    (pp. 59-82)

    This essay examines the anti-smoking campaigns of the Montreal Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) from 1892 until the First World War. During the period, the Montreal WCTU were part of local, provincial, and federal campaigns for age restrictions on smoking and cigarette prohibition. The Montreal campaigns, both on the provincial level and as part of the Dominion WCTU’s federal campaign, stand out as being particularly unsuccessful when compared to those undertaken in other provinces. The essay argues that, while women’s exclusion from formal politics and the particularly masculine symbolism of smoking were important factors in accounting for the weakness of...

  7. 3 From Flapper to Sophisticate: Canadian Women University Students as Smokers, 1920–60
    (pp. 83-122)

    The young woman in Image 1 who graces the advertisement for Matinée Extra Mild and Matinée Slims Cigarettes in 1987 could very easily have been a university undergraduate. Holding her long, shiny hair back with a fashionable sweat band, with her sweatshirt slung carelessly around her shoulders and her no-nonsense shirt and shorts, sweat socks, and sneakers, the young woman rides a high-end bicycle through the greenery on a glorious day. For the era, she cuts an apt image of the undergraduate woman: as serious about her fitness as she is about her education. Both the ‘extra mild’ and extra-long...

  8. 4 ‘Their Medley of Tongues and Eternal Jangle’: Liquor Control and Ethnicity in Ontario, 1927–44
    (pp. 123-147)

    In 1939 John W. MacKenzie, the superintendent of Bankfield Consolidated Mines in Geraldton, in northwestern Ontario, wrote to Edmond Odette, chief commissioner of the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO), asking him to permit beer sales in a new veterans’ club in the northern boom town. This establishment would provide returned soldiers with ‘a club of our own … where they could assemble and partake in peace of such amenities of life as the club could offer[,] [which] would be much preferable to forcing these men to frequent the beer halls, for in new mining towns like Geraldton the clientele...

  9. 5 Becoming a ‘Hype’: Drug Laws, Subculture Formation, and Resistance in Canada, 1945–61
    (pp. 148-168)

    In the early 1920s, the Canadian government passed extremely harsh drug laws, including six-month minimum sentences for possession. Over the next twenty years, opiate and cocaine use slowly declined. But in the late 1940s and 1950s a new community of users emerged in the larger urban centres. These young users were primarily working class or poor and often came from troubled family backgrounds. For them, heroin use was a way of establishing a sense of identity and community. Heroin’s status as a banned substance with a frightening reputation ensured that consuming it was also an act of defiance and resistance....

  10. 6 ‘Just Say Know’: Criminalizing LSD and the Politics of Psychedelic Expertise, 1961–8
    (pp. 169-196)

    In 1962 the Canadian public learned about the tragic consequences of taking Thalidomide while pregnant and the federal government responded after some deliberation by reclassifying the drug as a prohibited substance. During those debates, federal politicians and drug regulators also considered adding LSD to the list of prohibited substances, owing to its assumed potential for harm and abuse. Medical researchers familiar with LSD felt that the proposal to include LSD with Thalidomide was unprovoked and unwarranted. The association with Thalidomide particularly stung because published studies on LSD had shown promising results in clinical experiments in an era where thousands of...

  11. 7 Setting Boundaries: LSD Use and Glue Sniffing in Ontario in the 1960s
    (pp. 197-218)

    When thinking of the 1960s, terms such as counterculture and marijuana go hand in hand. Although marijuana captured public attention and scientists debated its health risks, many individuals, and in particular youth, experimented with other drugs. The head of Ontario’s Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Research Foundation,² H. David Archibald, acknowledged the proliferation of chemical and non-chemical drugs and called this new reality ‘the age of drugs.’³

    In addition to marijuana, reports on the use of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) and glue sniffing triggered fear among social actors who dealt with young people. Both these latter substances crossed the boundaries of...

  12. 8 From Beverage to Drug: Alcohol and Other Drugs in 1960s and 1970s Canada
    (pp. 219-241)

    In 1967 noted American addiction expert David J. Pittman, in ‘The Rush to Combine,’ criticized the trend towards merging research on and treatment of alcohol and illicit drugs.¹ The development that helped to trigger Pittman’s article was the renaming of one of North America’s most influential addiction research organizations, Ontario’s Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Research Foundation (ADARF), as the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF).² Originally set up to research and assist with the treatment of alcoholism, in 1961 the Alcoholism Research Foundation had been given an additional mandate, to work on drug addiction. The gist of Pittman’s critique was that alcohol...

  13. 9 Considering the Revolving Door: The Inevitability of Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System
    (pp. 242-263)

    For more than half a century, the Canadian criminal justice system has been intent on ‘closing the revolving door on crime by curing addiction.’¹ Underlying the long-standing practice of criminal-justice-based addiction treatment are two key assumptions: first, that drug use actually causes crime; and second, that curing drug use will also cure offenders of their criminal behaviours. As the entrenchment of addiction treatment in the justice system continues through the advent of mechanisms such as drug-treatment courts, specialized treatment prisons, and conditional sentences mandating addiction treatment, there is good reason to pause and pay careful and critical attention to these...

  14. 10 Biopolitics, Geopolitics, and the Regulation of Club Drugs in Canada
    (pp. 264-284)

    On the morning of 16 March 2008, 14 Division of the Toronto Police Service in conjunction with the Toronto Drug Squad, Emergency Task Force, Gun and Gang Task Force, Organized Crime Enforcement, Toronto Anti-Violence Intervention Strategy Rapid Response Unit, Police Dog Services, Forensic Identification Bureau, Ontario Provincial Police Biker Enforcement Unit, Toronto Emergency Services Unit, Toronto Transit Commission’s Special Constable Services, University of Toronto Police, and the Toronto Fire Services conducted a raid on the Comfort Zone club.¹ The club was located at 480 Spadina Street, close to the corner of a busy downtown intersection, and the raid was authorized...

  15. Afterword: A Personal Reflection on the Law and Illicit-Drug Use
    (pp. 285-302)

    In reading the diverse set of essays that compriseThe Real Dope, I was both delighted and dismayed. I was delighted because I believe it is important that scholars study and report upon the short history of our drug and alcohol policies so that the public can better understand the ill-advised and ill-informed nature of our domestic drug policy. I was also dismayed because, as I read each essay, I was painfully reminded of the primary reasons why my professional work in trying to reform our drug laws has largely been an exercise in futility.

    For the past two decades,...

  16. Contributors
    (pp. 303-306)
  17. Index
    (pp. 307-311)