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Transnational & Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized World

Transnational & Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized World

  • Book Info
    Transnational & Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized World
    Book Description:

    Transnational and Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized Worldbrings together leading international scholars from a cross-disciplinary basis to examine the economic, social, regulatory, technological, and theoretical issues related to the impact of transnational entrepreneurs on business and economic development.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7008-2
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-xvi)

    Thanks importantly to the research of AnnaLee Saxenian (2002, 2006), the world has realized the economic importance of transnational entrepreneurs (TEs). Once thought to start only mom-and-pop stores, which they still do (Light and Gold, 2000; Light and Bonacich, 1988), immigrant entrepreneurs, it is now realized, have recently been involved in major technical sector start-ups, including Intel, Yahoo, Sun Micro Systems, E-Bay, and Google (Richtel, 2009). Approximately half of Silicon Valley start-ups from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s had founders born abroad. During this period immigrants were only 10 per cent of the U.S. population.

    Operating in their homelands, the...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xvii-2)
  5. 1 Researching Transnational Entrepreneurship: An Approach Based on the Theory of Practice
    (pp. 3-30)

    In recent years, the concept of transnational entrepreneurship (TE) as a distinct attribute of globalization has drawn considerable attention in social science disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, economics, economic geography, and regional planning (Light, 1972; Portes, 1987; Portes, Guarnizo, & Haller, 2002; Portes & Zhou, 1996; Saxenian, 2000). These diverse approaches to the study of TE are linked by a common desire to understand how, why, and when individuals and/or organizations build new business organizations in currently adopted countries while relying on resources and opportunities that stem from maintaining business-related linkages with their countries of origin. Transnational entrepreneurs are individuals who migrate...

  6. 2 Contemporary Diasporic Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual and Comparative Framework
    (pp. 31-59)

    Contemporary diasporic entrepreneurs (CDEs) are skilled immigrants who have returned to their country of origin in the pursuit of entrepreneurial activities, most commonly in knowledge-intensive, technological sectors (Lin, 2006). As CDEs are closely associated with migration, they therefore differ from the conventional international entrepreneurs, who do not share the experience of immigration. Despite their immigrant background, however, CDEs are also different from the classic ethnic entrepreneurs (EEs), who are limited to conducting business within their country of residence. When moving their businesses beyond the country of residence and into the international arena, ethnic entrepreneurs have a tendency towards their country...

  7. 3 Transnational Scientific Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Framework
    (pp. 60-74)

    Research on transnational entrepreneurship (TE) has taken a conceptual shift in recent years (Portes, Guarnizo, & Haller, 2002). Instead of focusing on traditional concerns such as the origins of the immigrants and their adaptation in the receiving community, the emerging approach focuses on the continuing relations with the home country, or country of origin (CO), and on how the traffic back and forth builds complex social fields that straddle national borders. Scientific communities that span national borders and enhance internationally shared assets such as information, technologies, and contacts are issues of globalization (Portes, 1997). Saxenian (2002) suggests that trasnational communities may...

  8. 4 Building Effective Networks: Network Strategy and Emerging Virtual Organizations
    (pp. 75-99)

    Recent studies have broadened the perspective on different types of social, virtual, and organizational networks (Byrne, 1993; Lawrence, Morse, & Fowler, 2005). Yet, few models have been developed so far that explain the behaviour of emerging transnational organizations and how these can become ʹliberated from geographic constraints by quantum leaps in communications, computing, and transportation technologies; unbound from traditional organizational structures by ongoing experimentation in management technology,ʹ and necessitated by mounting pressures of global competition (Parkhe, Wasserman, & Ralston, 2006: 560). The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to examine how transnational entrepreneurs (TEs) become immersed in their country of origin, their...

  9. 5 One World or Worlds Apart? Dual Institutional Focus to Enhance Venture Performance
    (pp. 100-121)

    Due to a number of factors including reduced transportation and communication costs of globalization, the ability of entrepreneurs to conduct new venture activities across different institutional settings is unprecedented. However, the entrepreneurship literature typically considers opportunity exploitation within a single setting. It is often assumed that entrepreneurs identify and exploit a given opportunity under a single set of economic, social, and political regimes. However, transnational entrepreneurs (TEs) could enjoy increased gains from exploiting institutional differences in two different institutional settings. By focusing on comparative advantages due to differences in social, economic, and political conditions across different institutional settings, TEs may...

  10. 6 The Progression of International Students into Transnational Entrepreneurs: A Conceptual Framework
    (pp. 122-144)

    This chapter clarifies the process of creating an important category of transnational entrepreneurs (TEs). Theoretical understanding is developed through a focus on integral transforming institutions, universities, and on a central group, international students. This latter group is uniquely prepared to link countries through venture creation. We present a framework that begins by discussing the entrepreneurial attitude inherent or developed in many international students. We describe the types of human and social investments that may aid in developing a bicultural mindset, as students are forced to adapt to national differences in personal and business expectations and routines. We consider how the...

  11. 7 The Trade and Immigration Nexus in the India-Canada Context
    (pp. 145-180)

    In this chapter I address the broader context of trade and immigration literature and, using fieldwork on India-Canada relations, assess what this particular case can tell us about seemingly underdeveloped levels of transnational entrepreneurship (TE). In place of economic models and measures, I use qualitative material gathered from immigrant traders and government officials in Vancouver, Canada, and Delhi and Mumbai, India, to explore not only how trade and immigration might be linked but also how structural and cultural dimensions inform this relationship. This chapter offers an empirical response to the demand that ʹtransnational entrepreneurship needs to focus more on the...

  12. 8 Legal and Social Institutions for Transnational Entrepreneurship: A Multiple Case Study in the Spanish Context
    (pp. 181-198)

    In recent years technological, social, and economic changes have enhanced the practice of transnationalism around the world (Wong & Ng, 2002). Typical examples of these transformations include such innovations as high-speed jet travel, inexpensive long-distance telephone communication, e-mail, and the Internet, all of which help to enable easy, cheap, and fast contact over long distances, as well as transnational business practices (Castells, 1996; Levitt, 2001; Roberts, Frank, & Lozano-Ascencio, 1999; Vertovec, 1999).

    Transnationalism also represents a topic of growing interest in the academic field, witnessed by the proliferation of scholarly articles, university seminars, and conferences devoted to exploring its nature and contours....

  13. 9 A Review of Related Streams of Immigration and Global Entrepreneurship Research
    (pp. 199-210)

    The scholars brought together in this volume have used multiple perspectives to examine one of the most ubiquitous, yet understudied phenomena of the day – the increase in labour and entrepreneurial mobility accompanying globalization that has created a new class of active agents of change and economic development. These ʹcitizens of the world,ʹ living next door to us in countries rich and poor, present both a challenge and a dilemma for policy-makers. Concerns, many addressed in this volume, range from understanding immigration and institutional frameworks, through science and legal policies, to learning how individuals develop networks and leverage their bicultural...

  14. Contributors
    (pp. 211-214)