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A Compendium of Effective, Evidence-Based Best Practices in the Prevention of Neurotrauma

A Compendium of Effective, Evidence-Based Best Practices in the Prevention of Neurotrauma

Richard Volpe
John Lewko
Angela Batra
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 370
  • Book Info
    A Compendium of Effective, Evidence-Based Best Practices in the Prevention of Neurotrauma
    Book Description:

    Portrays examples of injury prevention practices that have the potential to reduce the incidence of neurotauma injuries, and by providing a detailed methodology that is effective in identifying innovative best practices.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7028-0
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Robert Conn

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for Canadians aged 1 to 44, and outnumber all other causes of death combined for Canada′s children. In 1995,6,170 Canadians died of unintentional injuries, of which nearly 30% had suffered neurotrauma or spinal cord injuries.¹ In the same year 37,494 Canadians were hospitalized for their injuries, with over one-third of these cases resulting from neurotrauma and spinal cord injuries.² While many have called this a silent epidemic, and lamented the fact that little is being done to curb these incidents, the issue has nevertheless received considerable attention.

    SMARTRISK and a number of...

  4. Introduction
    (pp. 3-24)

    The enormous social and personal cost of preventable unintentional injury has been well documented in terms of societal well-being and individual life prospects (see SMARTRISK, 1998). The Public Health Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Health recently completed the creation of injury control objectives in 1997, through the Mandatory Health Programs and Services Guidelines. However, while injury reduction targets were set and indicators established to measure progress, the guidelines do not provide an overall strategy identifying best practice and innovative injury prevention (SMARTRISK, 1998). OurCompendiumattempts to fill this gap by portraying exemplars that have the potential to reduce...


    • Prevention of Asphyxiation-Related Injuries
      (pp. 27-38)

      Many children drown or experience near-drowning in backyard swimming pools and in small kiddie pools (Health Canada, 1997). Children are in greatest danger because they like to play in water, they move quickly, and they can drown in only a few centimetres (1 inch) of water (Health Canada, 1997). In Ontario, 8 to 15 drowning victims die each year in backyard pools. About half of backyard pool victims are young children under 5 years of age (43%), of whom many are mobile toddlers in the 2-to-4-year-old group. Both above-ground and in-ground backyard pools are involved in these incidents (Ontario Drowning...

    • Prevention of Motor Vehicle and Other Road Vehicle-Related Injuries
      (pp. 39-124)

      Traffic signals are explicitly designed to control conflicting traffic movements and reduce motor vehicle crashes at intersections. However, the effectiveness of traffic signals is dependent on the level of compliance by motorists with the signals. Enforcement of traffic signal compliance presents 2 major issues: not only is enforcement constrained by limited police resources, it has also become increasingly dangerous for police to pursue violators through urban areas. Red light cameras help to enforce traffic laws by automatically photographing vehicles whose drivers run red lights (Retting, Williams, Farmer, & Feldman, 1999).

      In William Haddon′s paper, ″Energy Damage and the Ten Counter-measure Strategies,″...

    • Prevention of Sports, Playground, and Recreation-Related Injuries
      (pp. 125-150)

      Bicycle riding is chosen by millions of people worldwide for exercise, recreation, or transportation purposes. An unfortunate by-product of this popularity is the significant toll of human suffering and strain to social resources that result from bicycle-related injuries and fatalities each year. Studies conducted in Canada suggest that this toll can be substantially reduced if policy makers and other interested parties direct efforts towards lessening the frequency and severity of bicycle-related unintentional injuries (SMARTRISK, 1998; Morris, Trimble and Fendley, 1994). Rates vary among communities and nations, but some studies estimate that close to 1,000 deaths and more than a half...

    • Prevention of Farm-Related and Occupational Injuries
      (pp. 151-178)

      Farm machinery-related injuries are significant from a medical perspective as they commonly lead to fractures of the limbs, head and spinal cord injuries, major lacerations, and crush injuries (CAISP, 1999). When machinery-related injuries are divided by machinery type, tractors are the leading cause of hospitalized farm machinery injuries for both children and adults. From 1990 through 1996, 133 children (aged 0–14) and 471 adults (aged 15–59) were hospitalized as a result of tractor-related injuries (CAISP, 1999). The average length of stay in hospital for treatment of these injuries is 2–5 days (CAISP, 1999).

      In addition to being...

    • Prevention of Fall-Related Injuries
      (pp. 179-212)

      Falls from one level to another are a major cause of accidental death and injury in urban children (Barlow et al., 1983). In the early 1970s, the incidence of child mortality and morbidity due to falls from windows was recognized as high after a study of child mortality due to falls from heights was conducted between January 1965 and September 1969 in New York City (Spiegel & Lindaman, 1977). The study showed that 123 or 12% of all deaths of children under age 15 were the result of falls from heights. As a result, in 1972, the New York City Health...

    • Comprehensive Community-Based Prevention Strategies
      (pp. 213-258)

      Preventing unintentional injuries to children is an important concern for communities, and one which presents unique challenges in inner city neighbourhoods. The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) is an example of an effective community-based effort, and one which is distinguished from similar efforts by its examination of injury rates as the chief evaluative measure. The HHIPP was launched in 1988 in response to several concerns:

      Injury is the leading cause of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality among children in the United States.

      These rates were found to be considerably higher among Harlem children than the national average or the...

  6. Discussion and Conclusion
    (pp. 261-264)

    Previous sections of thisCompendiumemphasize 4 important points:

    1 Unintentional injury is a major worldwide problem that is currently addressed through a variety of effective prevention strategies; the programs and strategies reviewed in thisCompendiumare highly pertinent to the Canadian injury context.

    2 Systematic evaluation of injury prevention initiatives are establishing support for evidence-based practice; to improve this evidence base, the evaluation methods highlighted in the case studies presented in thisCompendiumare worthy of replication in Canada.

    3 Because of the complexity of injury dynamics, best practices are not proven practices.

    4 Best practices are strategies and...

  7. Appendices

    • Appendix A: Interview Guide
      (pp. 267-274)
    • Appendix B: Injury-Producing Events by Age Group
      (pp. 275-275)
    • Appendix C: Summary Tables of Case Studies
      (pp. 276-292)
    • Appendix D: Contact Directory
      (pp. 293-324)
    • Appendix E: URLs for Injury Prevention and Control Research Centres
      (pp. 325-327)
    • Appendix F: Research Team Profile
      (pp. 328-330)
    • Appendix G: Consortium Members Profile
      (pp. 331-333)
    • Appendix H: Partner List
      (pp. 334-335)
    • Appendix I: Index of CD Contents
      (pp. 336-336)
  8. References
    (pp. 337-364)
  9. Index
    (pp. 365-371)