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Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs

Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs: 1993

  • Book Info
    Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs
    Book Description:

    Featuring essays on parliament and politics, Ottawa and the provinces, and external affairs, the Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs provides a comprehensive account of the year?s events.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7206-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Canadian calendar 1993
    (pp. xiii-2)
    (pp. 3-10)

    The year 1993 marked a changing of the political guard, as leadership races and elections at the federal level and in some provinces led to a new cast of characters in political leadership positions. However, while many lead characters may have changed, their agendas remained very much the same and public policy continued to be dominated by concerns about deficit and debt. The realm of foreign policy was primarily focused upon trade issues and peacekeeping.

    After two terms as prime minister, Brian Mulroney stepped down as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, but his successor found that public disenchantment with...


    • Parliament and politics
      (pp. 13-55)

      Four years and eleven months after the previous federal election, and one year less a day after the Charlottetown Accord referendum, Canadians returned to the polling booths on Tuesday 25 October. Although the campaign lacked the polemics of the free trade election of 1988, the collective verdict rendered that day no less arresting and potentially consequential. After winning two straight elections with comfortable majorities, the Progressive Conservative Party was suddenly reduced to a cadre of just two members. The punishing scale of the loss was a repudiation without precedent in Canadian electoral history. It was also a stinging personal defeat...

    • Ottawa and the provinces
      (pp. 56-69)

      The failure of the Charlottetown constitutional accord to win majority support in the October 1992 national referendum ushered in a new era of relations between Ottawa and the provinces. With the multilateral path to constitutional reform blocked, the federal Conservative government soon turned to bilateralism in working out the administrative arrangements required for Canada to function as a federal system. Throughout 1993 this new intergovernmentalmodus vivendiworked itself out – although the respite in the country’s three-decade-long constitutional struggle promised to be short-lived, as Quebec inched closer and closer to a provincial election in which, as in 1976, sovereignty...

    • External affairs and defence
      (pp. 70-126)

      As in 1992, international peacekeeping operations again represented Canada’s most tangible commitment to the post-Cold War order in 1993. Trade, arms control, environmental concerns, and relations with principal allies all made some claims on Canadian attention and resources during the year, but it was peacekeeping, for individual Canadians as for their governments, that continued best to represent their country to the outside world and, in no small measure, to themselves. There was, as always, some irony in this, given the United Nations’ somewhat spotty record of peacekeeping successes, but nothing seemed to satisfy the national self-image so much as the...


    • Ontario
      (pp. 129-151)

      In the fall of 1993, Ontario’s first NDP government began its fourth year in office. Facing the clear prospect of an election within twelve to eighteen months, the government must have looked back at the summer of 1993 with considerable unease. The recession of the early nineties persisted, producing lower tax revenues, while requiring increased expenditures for programs like social assistance, over which the government had little discretion. (When the province took over welfare costs from the municipalities in January, Community and Social Services Minister Marion Boyd observed that welfare payments had risen 13.5 per cent since 1990, while inflation...

    • Quebec
      (pp. 151-166)

      The failure of the Charlottetown Accord in the 1992 referendum continued to make news in Quebec politics in 1993. The leadership of the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP) was renewed following the resignation of Robert Bourassa while the Parti Québécois (PQ) continued to hone its strategy in preparation for the upcoming provincial election. The year also saw the consolidation of the Bloc Québécois (BQ) after the October federal election. The Quebec Liberal government gave the impression that it was at the end of its mandate with the announcement of numerous ministerial and caucus departures as well as the weakness of its...

    • Nova Scotia
      (pp. 166-175)

      For the first time in fifteen years, the Conservative Party lost a provincial election, as Donald Cameron’s government was defeated by the Liberals under Dr John Savage, the former mayor of Dartmouth. In giving the Liberals a majority government mandate in the election in May, voters were reacting to the sagging economy, to the legacy of government scandals under the previous administration of John Buchanan, and to the Westray disaster. Later in the year, the Liberals won all the seats in the province in the federal election.

      The investigation into the Westray mine disaster of 1992 was plagued by legal...

    • New Brunswick
      (pp. 175-185)

      From the very beginning of his premiership in October 1987, Frank McKenna served notice that he would be the boss; midway through his second term, no one had any doubts that he was. Not since the ten-year rule of his Liberal predecessor Louis Robichaud in the 1960s had a premier so dominated the New Brunswick political scene. Far more austere and lacking the wit of the colourful Acadian, McKenna, as Robichaud had done before him, repeatedly caught the attention of central Canada’s media – to the point where pundits were predicting he would move to the federal scene. Considering the...

    • Manitoba
      (pp. 185-192)

      The ruling Progressive Conservatives continued with their attempt to control the cost of government in 1993. The economy continued sluggish, and the Liberals got a new leader.

      The session of 1993 was a short one. Indeed, there seemed some evidence that the government had run out of ideas. And before the end of the year they had virtually run out of a voting majority.

      New legislation was minimal. The government’s main interest appeared to be in fiscal matters and in ‘downsizing’ government. The budget projected a deficit of $367 million, after an influx of $90 million from the Fiscal Stabilization...

    • British Columbia
      (pp. 192-204)

      British Columbia enjoyed moderate economic growth and continued to attract newcomers during 1993, which helped to insulate it from the economic downturn endured by the rest of the country. The province was again chosen as the most desirable place to relocate from elsewhere in Canada, and remained one of the most favourable destinations for immigrants. Despite generally positive signs, politicians in Victoria had a difficult year, particularly when it came to reconciling competing interests. Premier Harcourt ended the legislative session in July as the most unpopular premier in provincial polling history. The Liberals, the pollster’s choice, remained divided over what...

    • Prince Edward Island
      (pp. 204-211)

      Public life in Prince Edward Island in 1993 was dominated by electoral and party politics. The Liberal Party of Prince Edward Island elected a new leader in January. A provincial general election was held in March, and a long-awaited national general election was held in October. In the federal election, Islanders once again returned only Liberals, this time giving each Liberal candidate roughly 60 per cent of the popular vote. Between visits to the voting booth, Islanders continued to worry about the state of the economy. In the words of the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council, economic growth during the year...

    • Saskatchewan
      (pp. 211-223)

      If a wartime analogy were wanted to describe Saskatchewan’s condition in 1993, it was that period fifty years ago, when the province and the country slogged on hoping for wartime victory in the absence of evidence to sustain that hope. Now the enemy was debt, its casualties health care and just about every other service government once provided. Rhetoric this year was studded with references to retrenchment and rationalization, but practice more often took the form of pinchfaced economy.

      The practice of economy did not, however, appear to prevail in the legislature – here the public judged the behaviour of...

    • Alberta
      (pp. 223-245)

      The theme for Alberta in 1993, in both the political and the economic sphere, would have to have been ‘a new beginning?’ In both cases the question mark is intentional. In politics, Ralph Klein took the helm of the Conservatives and the provincial government, won a general election, and began sketching a political style and a policy direction dramatically different from that of Lougheed and Getty; in economics, both the oil and gas industry and the agricultural sector showed signs of recovery. For both, however, the changes were tentative rather than substantive, a provisional sketch of further developments that might...

    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      (pp. 245-253)

      Newfoundland and Labrador found 1993 to be a peculiar year. The province’s economy improved marginally despite further closures in the fishery. The government continued its program of fiscal restraint, but did so without the massive lay-offs and tax increases that had marked 1992. The public sector unions challenged the government’s restraint program but were soundly whipped by Premier Clyde Wells, who continued to enjoy wide popularity in spite of the province’s economic troubles. The government carried on with its plan for economic and social renewal as the province continued to play catch up with the rest of Canada.

      An unexpected...

    • Yukon and Northwest Territories
      (pp. 254-268)

      Canada’s two territories experienced 1993 quite differently. While federal spending restraint and problems in the resource sectors exerted pressure on both, Yukon experienced a sharp turn to the political right and economic shocks in the private and public sector. The NWT’s government faced a diminishing role in internal politics in the wake of land dispute settlements with aboriginal communities, decentralization, and the approaching division of the territories. But while the cabinet showed the strains of maintaining a consensus-style government in a region with little real consensus, truly momentous changes appeared reserved for the recent past and the immediate future.


  9. Obituaries 1993
    (pp. 269-272)
  10. Index of names
    (pp. 273-286)
  11. Index of subjects
    (pp. 287-302)