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Citizenship in Transformation in Canada

Citizenship in Transformation in Canada

Edited by Yvonne M. Hébert
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 320
  • Book Info
    Citizenship in Transformation in Canada
    Book Description:

    Contributors argue persuasively that since conceptions of democratic citizenship are changing, so too should operational definitions of citizenship education.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7296-3
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-2)
  3. The Citizenship Debates: Conceptual, Policy, Experiential, and Educational Issues
    (pp. 3-36)

    Citizenship is in transformation, its meaning is expanding, and interest in the subject is exploding. Citizenship has moved from being closed to being open, from exclusion to inclusion. Once having had a unitary, stable meaning, citizenship is now diffuse, multiple, and ever-shifting. Originally defined clearly by geographical borders and a common history, citizenship is increasingly in question. Frontiers have become permeable in the midst of massive social changes, including international trade agreements and ententes as well as global migration. These transformations are occurring in open, pluralist, and democratic societies, including Canada, and we are preoccupied with their significance. Crucially concordant...

  4. Who Counts? Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Struggles about Gender, Race, and Class in Canada
    (pp. 37-56)

    Citizenship education is, ultimately, about who counts and who has counted in the past, today, and in the future. It reveals, at one step removed, both the state of public debate on the meaning of “belonging” to Canada and the relative power of the various actors in that debate. It is not surprising that discussions about citizenship education at the start of the twenty-first century reflect the unsettled nature of relationships, constitutional and otherwise, among Canadians. Groups long disadvantaged as citizens – notably women, visible minorities including First Nations peoples, and workers – are reclaiming their place in Canadian history...

  5. From Eclectic Theory to Coherence: Citizenship Virtues for Our Time
    (pp. 57-80)

    Citizenship has received increased prominence in political discourse in the last fifteen years. The term itself has been defined in a variety of ways,¹ however, and whether an underlying conception is identifiable remains a problem.² In his historical examination of the notion of citizenship, R. Freeman Butts attempts to identify the essence of citizenship by highlighting two elements that have coalesced and come down to us as the received conception of citizenship. In his words: “(1) Citizenship was based upon membership in a political community regulated by man-made laws rather than upon membership in a family, a clan, or tribe...

  6. Recognition of Cultural and Religious Diversity in the Educational Systems of Liberal Democracies
    (pp. 81-92)

    In liberal democratic societies, the management of the State’s public institutions gives rise to the question of the delicate balance to be established between recognition of a multiplicity of values on the one hand, and the necessity of maintaining the coherence of the institutions on the other. This problem has been placed on the public agenda by the discussion around the hijab controversy in France, Belgium, Denmark, and Québec, about the Sikh’s turban and kirpan in Great Britain and Canada, as well as around the public prayer and the teaching of history in the United States and in Canada.¹


  7. First Thoughts on First Nations Citizenship: Issues in Education
    (pp. 93-111)

    Citizenship issues in education for First Nations peoples in Canada historically have concerned civilization, assimilation, and colonization. The early formal educational experiences of First Nations peoples in boarding and federal schools were founded on forced citizenship and false belonging to an alien concept of Canada in which loyalty and allegiance to Eurocentric civilization and oppression were glorified into daily curricula. This colonial baggage continues to inform current curricula in public schools, forging conceptions of citizen rights, privileges, and responsibilities as defined within modern liberal society. The neglect of Aboriginal conceptions of society, individual roles, and responsibilities to the collective consciousness...

  8. Citizenship and Schooling in Manitoba between the End of the First World War and the End of the Second World War
    (pp. 112-133)

    In the last few years there has been a renewed interest in citizenship education and in a reformulation of educational aims in the light of some kind of ideal of a polity in a global society. With the exception of Ken Osborne’s work, however, there have been few historical studies in relation to the understanding of citizenship and schooling in Canada.¹ In this chapter I examine the official discourse of Canadianization as expounded in theWestern School Journaland by the Department of Education in Manitoba and then analyse examples of the intersection of the official discourse and life experience...

  9. Bridging the Boundaries for a More Inclusive Citizenship Education
    (pp. 134-149)

    As a legal term, “citizenship” is a term of identification rather than of action. As a political term, “citizenship” means active commitment. It means responsibility. It means making a difference in one’s community, in one’s society, in one’s country. Without citizenship, there cannot be that responsible commitment which creates the citizen and which in the last analysis holds together the body politic. Nor can there be the sense of satisfaction and pride that comes from making a difference. Without citizenship, the political unit, whether called “state” or “empire,” can only be a power. Power is then the only thing that...

  10. The Historical Context for Citizenship Education in Urban Canada
    (pp. 150-161)

    Democratic immigrant receiving states like Canada, which afford noncitizens the possibility of naturalization, cannot help but have shared interests in the immigrant integrative process and citizenship education. Nevertheless, they often differ in their understanding of citizenship education largely as a consequence of different understandings of the place of immigration and immigrants in their respective societies. The Canadian case, especially in urban English-speaking Canada, is shaped by a particular historical legacy, a shifting demographic reality, constitutional vagaries and uncertainty about any singular overarching national identity. In this chapter I will outline the century-long backdrop to citizenship education in English-speaking Canada, noting...

  11. Democratic Research to Inform Citizenship
    (pp. 162-174)

    Some will say that this is not a piece of scholarly work. It is, however, a historically grounded, politically explicit analysis with implications for scholarly work. I engage primarily with two notions: citizenship and its shifting meanings in current Canadian society, and democratic research which could inform future reconceptualizations of citizenship which this changing world demands. I draw on the popular press, poetry, children’s books, and other literature to argue my position.

    I want to begin with the abstract upon which this chapter is based, because it has taken on a new, problematic meaning since it was written.

    The hope...

  12. Paradoxes, Contradictions, and Ironies of Democratic Citizenship Education
    (pp. 175-190)

    In April 1995 I attended a conference on “Citizenship Education: Canadian and International Dimensions” at St Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick.¹ At the start of the conference, a group of boys dressed in school uniforms sang the national anthem in French and English. Listening to their proud voices and seeing them lined up so neatly, I wondered: Where are the youth of colour? Have they been selected to lend their voices to this choir of young Canadians? I looked around the room at the invited guests and delegates gathered together for what promised to be an international exploration of issues...

  13. Visible Minorities as Citizens and Workers in Canada
    (pp. 191-208)

    Regardless of the theoretical model of citizenship that could be proposed for a cultural pluralist society, one critical question is that of the integration of minorities as both citizens and workers in the state.¹ Issues related to the political and economic integration of minorities are critical, particularly for the social democratic model of T.H. Marshall as well as for the new communitarian views of liberal citizenship. In European countries, the debate about the level of formal and substantive citizenship granted to immigrants and their descendants is a major point of debate in the social policy agenda.² Although Canada (like countries...

  14. Literacy Policy and the Value of Literacy for Individuals
    (pp. 209-227)

    The quest for a good life is at the very core of citizenship and citizenship education. How one tries to achieve a good life depends on one’s “theory of success,” which does vary vastly and may or may not include a high value placed on literacy acquisition. Without nurturing the conditions that support a heightened “theory of success,” such as solid economic prospects, then valuing literacy and language facility will remain unchanged. As we shall show, however, there is a positive correlation between educational level and a heightened civic participation that is an essential aspect of active democratic citizenship. Without...

  15. Citizenship Education: What Research for the Future?
    (pp. 228-248)

    Citizenship education in Canada, including Québec, reflects and centres the major debate confronting citizenship. Simply, the objectives, content and pedagogy of citizenship education have not been determined in cognizance of the indeterminable citizenship debate. This raises a basic educational question:What kind of education is necessary to uphold our pluralistic democratic country?To respond adequately requires a body of systematic and comprehensive research as well as a renewed working model of citizenship which allows for contemporary realities.

    What is most remarkable, in this field as in most research fields, is a lack of coordination and of networking among researchers until...

  16. Appendix: Analysis of Models of Democratic Citizenship
    (pp. 249-258)
    Yvonne M. Hébert and Lori Wilkinson
  17. Selected Bibliography: Citizenship and Citizenship Education
    (pp. 259-284)
  18. Contributors
    (pp. 285-289)