Durable Peace

Durable Peace: Challenges for Peacebuilding in Africa

Taisier M. Ali
Robert O. Matthews
Copyright Date: 2004
Pages: 440
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442674134
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  • Book Info
    Durable Peace
    Book Description:

    The African continent has been racked with war in the years since decolonization. In the aftermath of violent conflict, peace is often fragile. WithDurable Peace, Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews have brought together leading scholars to discuss the experiences of ten African countries —Angola, Ethiopia, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, and Zimbabwe— in recovering from violent civil war.

    In this series of remarkable and thought-provoking essays, the contributors shed light on the process of peacebuilding. Collectively, they demonstrate that if efforts to restore peace in war-torn societies are to be successful, such efforts must be wide in scope, involving security and political issues, as well as economic development and socio-psychological reconciliation. Additionally, they must be extended over long periods of time and, above all else, anchored in the local community.

    Peacebuilding is a difficult process, subject to frequent setbacks, and sometimes outright failure.Durable Peaceconcludes that any peacebuilding effort must include at least four building blocks: a secure environment, new political institutions that are broadly representative, a healthy economy, and a mechanism for dealing with injustices of the past and future. How these blocks are put together will vary, but if they are arranged to fit the specific local circumstances, the outcome will likely be self-sustaining peace.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7413-4
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. LIST OF MAPS AND CREDITS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 3-16)
    Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews

    The idea for this book emerged from our earlier publicationCivil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution.¹ In that volume we examined the causes of civil wars in Africa and the manner in which they were resolved, if at all. In at least three of the cases examined – Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Uganda – where the fighting had stopped several years before, the authors devoted a portion of their chapters to a discussion of the steps taken by the states and international agencies involved in the earlier peace-making efforts and by the post-conflict governments to build an enduring peace. For...

  7. Part One: Peacebuilding after Military Victory
    • 1 Post–Civil War Transitions in Ethiopia
      (pp. 19-60)
      John Young

      Ethiopia’s development from an ancient autocracy to a modern state in the last half of the twentieth century has been difficult, prolonged, and beset by violent conflict. During the country’s thirty-year-long civil war there were numerous attempts at mediation and negotiation, but in the end the war concluded in 1991 with the military victories of the Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front (EPLF), which led to the establishment of the independent state of Eritrea, and the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Power-sharing was attempted in Ethiopia during the initial transition period, but failed and the EPRDF has since ruled alone. The...

    • 2 Obstacles to Peacebuilding in Rwanda
      (pp. 61-85)
      Timothy Longman

      The genocide and war that ravaged Rwanda in 1994 represent one of the most intense periods of violence ever to sweep across an African state. In a three-month period after President Juvénal Habyarimana died in a plane crash on 6 April 1994, more than one-tenth of Rwanda’s population perished. Most of the victims of the violence were members of the Tutsi ethnic minority group, who were driven into places of presumed refuge, such as churches and schools, then systematically slaughtered by civilian death squads, usually organized by government officials and backed up by soldiers or police.¹ In addition to sparking...

    • 3 Uganda: The Politics of ‘Consolidation’ under Museveni’s Regime, 1996–2003
      (pp. 86-112)
      John Kiyaga-Nsubuga

      In an earlier essay on Uganda’s political transition under Yoweri Museveni’s National Resistance Movement (NRM) regime,¹ I argued that restoring normalcy in a country which has been devastated by civil war requires strong, nationalistic leadership. Such a regime must have several abilities: drawing a broad range of contending elites into the political process to minimize polarization; generating intra-elites consensus on the fundamentals of political discourse; pursuing policies that focus on reversing economic decline; and improving the well-being of the majority of the populace. I also stressed that the efforts of regimes that are trying to establish order out of chaos...

  8. Part Two: Peacebuilding after a Negotiated Settlement
    • 4 Reconstructing Peace in Liberia
      (pp. 115-141)
      William Reno

      In July 1997 Charles Taylor, head of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) faction, won 75 per cent of the popular vote for the office of president. Taylor accomplished his goal of becoming the president of the Republic of Liberia, after seven years of fighting (1989–96), the devastation of the country’s economy, and a national death toll of two hundred thousand, about 7 per cent of all Liberians. Taylor’s election was the culmination of a seven-year-long, convoluted negotiating process, involving at least six indigenous rival militias, a multinational West African expeditionary force, fourteen peace treaties, and over forty...

    • 5 The Peace Dividend in Mozambique, 1987–1997
      (pp. 142-182)
      Alexander Costy

      Mozambique is widely perceived as a singular success story in African peacebuilding. Politically, it has successfully kept the peace since 1992, despite the formidable difficulties of military demobilization, the social reintegration of some 1.6 million war refugees, and conversion from a centralized socialist state to a liberal democracy. Economically, Mozambique has been lauded by foreign donors and international financial institutions as a successful ‘adjuster,’ reflecting a general approval over the country’s structural adjustment efforts.¹ By ‘succeeding’ on both political and economic fronts, Mozambique has provided a rare validation of Western blueprints for postwar recovery in Africa.

      Yet despite these apparent...

    • 6 Postwar and Post-Apartheid: The Costs and Benefits of Peacebuilding, South African Style
      (pp. 183-218)
      John S. Saul

      Peacebuilding in South Africa? A success story, surely. Not that the actual transition from the violent and authoritarian society that had been apartheid South Africa was entirely peaceful: South Africa in the early 1990s (after Nelson Mandela’s 1990 release and during the 1990–1994 negotiations period) remained a killing-field. And yet, through those negotiations and the 1994 election that brought the African National Congress (ANC) to power, South Africa was to realize and to stabilize the shift to a constitutionally grounded and securely institutionalized democratie order – building peace without suffering the potentially crippling backlash from the right-wing, both black...

    • 7 Zimbabwe and Sustainable Peacebuilding
      (pp. 219-250)
      Hevina Dashwood

      Through an examination of the Zimbabwean case, this chapter sets out to establish the importance of approaching peacebuilding as a long-term, non-linear process. Peacebuilding is generally understood to refer to efforts to help societies that have been torn apart by civil war to build lasting conditions for peace. The literature, and governments such as Canada, tend to approach peacebuilding in post-conflict situations as a short term proposition spanning two to three years.¹ Yet peacebuilding generally entails fundamental political, economic, and social transformations that cannot be quickly engineered.² The central argument being advanced is that only a long-term approach to peacebuilding...

  9. Part Three: Peacebuilding under Threat
    • 8 Somalia: International versus Local Attempts at Peacebuilding
      (pp. 253-281)
      Hussein M. Adam

      A series of Somali civil wars has led to state collapse and layers of complicated problems. Like Chad in 1980–2, Somali state collapse in 1991–2 essentially resulted from a factional civil war among the United Somali Congress (USC) guerrilla victors who had overthrown the previous brutal Siyad-Barre regime; a war that caused the demise of all the branches of central government. The capital, Mogadishu, became a city divided by armed barricades, resembling Beirut during the Lebanese civil war. Somali minorities escaped by sea to Kenya and Yemen recalling Vietnam’s boat people. Chaos and anarchy engulfed Mogadishu, making it...

    • 9 Failures in Peacebuilding: Sudan (1972–1983) and Angola (1991–1998)
      (pp. 282-312)
      Taisier M. Ali, Robert O. Matthews and Ian S. Spears

      In this chapter we describe two cases in which a peace settlement was reached but subsequently broke down. The Addis Ababa Agreement was signed and ratified by the government of Sudan and the rebel Anya-Nya force in 1972, only to be undermined over the next decade and eventually annulled in 1983. In Angola, the MPLA government and the UNITA opposition reached an agreement to end fighting on two separate occasions, in 1991 and again in 1994, but in each instance, the agreement did not hold and the two protagonists returned to the battlefield.

      By comparing the failed peace experiment in...

  10. Part Four: General Themes
    • 10 Development and Peacebuilding: Conceptual and Operational Deficits in International Assistance
      (pp. 315-353)
      James Busumtwi-Sam

      Peacebuilding as a distinct concept and strategy applied in the context of intra-state war (as distinct from inter-state war) is relatively new. It was only added to the existing repertoire of United Nations peace operations after 1989.¹ Since then, peacebuilding has evolved to include three interrelated elements: the relief and reconstruction of societies torn by armed conflict; the creation of political and socio-economic institutions and mechanisms to build trust and increase a sense of security; and timely and effective interventions by external actors to create the conditions conducive to peace. Integral to the notion of peacebuilding, therefore, is an apparent...

    • 11 Structural Deficits and Institutional Adaptations to Conflict and Peacebuilding in Africa
      (pp. 354-392)
      James Busumtwi-Sam, Alexander Costy and Bruce D. Jones

      This chapter discusses the nature and evolution of institutions, both official and unofficial, involved in managing post-conflict interventions, and identifies the important historical and contemporary challenges they face in orchestrating effective interventions in Africa and elsewhere. It places the specific challenges of African peacebuilding within the wider setting of international institutional change.

      The first section opens with a critical overview of the historical evolution of peacebuilding since World War Two, with particular emphasis on the implications of institutional continuity and change for contemporary post-conflict interventions. The section argues that the institutions through which post-conflict efforts are currently organized were originally...

  11. Conclusion: The Long and Difficult Road to Peace
    (pp. 393-426)
    Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews

    Building a lasting peace in Africa has proven to be very difficult. Of the ten endeavours in peacebuilding examined in this study, only five were described as successful: Uganda, Ethiopia, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Even in these instances, their positive depiction was qualified, in some cases quite seriously. In Uganda, for instance, not only has Museveni opposed resumption of party politics, but his government continues to face armed opposition from groups in the north and west, resulting in considerable destruction and human suffering and forcing Uganda to send troops into the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Having abandoned a...

  12. Contributors
    (pp. 427-430)
  13. Index
    (pp. 431-443)