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Historical Atlas of Canada

Historical Atlas of Canada: Volume III: Addressing the Twentieth Century

Donald Kerr EDITOR
Deryck W. Holdsworth EDITOR
Copyright Date: 1990
Pages: 197
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  • Book Info
    Historical Atlas of Canada
    Book Description:

    In 1891 the young nation of Canada stood on the brink of a great surge of growth and development. During the seven decades covered in this volume Canada would be transformed from a rural, agricultural society, almost exclusively British and French in background, to an urban, industrial nation with more cultural diversity. These developments are illustrated in the exceptionally vivid plates of the Historical Atlas of Canada, III: Addressing the Twentieth Century.

    The first part of the volume, the Great Transformation, covers developments from 1891 to 1929, the year the stock market crashed. In this period of economic and social change are charted, among other aspects, land and resource development, the growth of financial institutions, prairie agriculture and the grain-handling system, industrial growth, and changes in education, religion, and social structures. Individual plates include detailed studies of the formation of the United Church of Canada in 1925; the evolution of suburban neighbourhoods in Edmonton; the wave of strikes in 1919; Ukrainian settlement in southern Manitoba in 1901; the interlocking business interests of Toronto financiers in 1913; the formation of the National Hockey League and the rise of spectator sport; and the development of Montreal as a great industrial city.

    The second part of the volume. Crisis and Response, deals with the Depression, the Second World War, and the post-war boom. Here are charted shifts in the make-up and distribution of the population, a growing range of social services, and the emergence of a national economy. The plates in this section include graphic representations of drought on the Prairies in the 1930S; the routes of unemployed people riding the rails in search of work; the development of Ottawa as the nation's capital; the rise of retail trade; the strong growth in the uranium and petroleum industries; and the spread of television.

    With unsurpassed clarity, the Atlas presents the forces that have shaped Canadian society today. Anyone who wishes to understand contemporary Canada will find this volume richly rewarding

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7576-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-xv)
  3. Donors
    (pp. xvi-xvi)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
    Wm G. Dean and Paul-André Linteau

    Maps are a vital part of our cultural heritage. There is an apt description of their power to communicate in G.B. Greenoughʹs presidential address to the Royal Geographical Society, London, in 1840: ʹWords following words in long succession, however ably selected … can never convey so distinct an idea of the visible forms of the earth as the first glance at a good map … In the extent and variety of its resources, in rapidity of utterance, in the copiousness and completeness of information it communicates, in precision, conciseness, perspicuity, in the hold it has upon the memory, in vividness...

  5. Preface
    (pp. xix-xxi)
    Donald Kerr, Deryck W. Holdsworth and Geoffrey J. Matthews
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xxii-xxiv)
  7. Canada 1891–1961: An Overview
    (pp. 1-11)

    In the seven decades between 1891 and 1961 Canadaʹs economy, society, government structures, and connections to the outside world changed dramatically. Although Canadaʹs historical dependence on the extraction and export of natural resources persisted, the mix of commodities varied over this period, bringing about important changes in the status of its regions. In 1891 Canadaʹs work-force was largely agricultural and male; by 1961 employment in manufacturing, trade, and services had come to predominate and women had established an important role in the paid labour force. Massive waves of immigration, especially before 1914 and after 1945, as well as increasing mobility...


    • National Economic Patterns
      (pp. 13-28)

      The remarkable changes within the Canadian economy in the years between 1891 and 1929 have been called the Great Transformation. The total output of the economy grew dramatically, the population doubled, and there was a great increase in the capital stock of the country. A huge territory, rich in natural resources, was brought into production. At the same time the structure of the economy underwent striking changes. Major new export staples, such as pulp and paper and industrial minerals, were developed. The manufacturing sector grew in stature and complexity as Canada joined the ranks of the leading industrial nations. The...

    • Regional Dimensions of the Production System
      (pp. 29-66)

      The extraordinary growth of the Canadian economy and the changes in its structure during the Great Transformation had significant regional consequences. The scale of production, the location of markets, and the degree and pattern of integration in the national economy varied from region to region. The growth in the manufacturing industry occurred at a relatively small number of locations, largely in Central Canada. The Shield and British Columbia attracted highly localized resource development. On the Prairies the wheat economy flourished. The Maritime Provinces struggled to make the difficult adjustment from maritime trade to a continental orientation. During the four decades...

    • Canadian Society during the Great Transformation
      (pp. 67-97)

      At the close of the 19th century Canada was a predominantly rural society, although a number of small towns and a handful of larger urban centres served regional economies based on agriculture, resource extraction, and a few industries. By 1921, however, more Canadians lived in cities than in the countryside and the nation′s economy had been reorganized on industrial, corporate, and metropolitan lines. These changes reflected the social and economic forces characteristic of most western capitalist nations, but also the imprint of various individuals, groups, and classes who sought to direct, extend, or challenge these forces. Not all Canadians were...


    • The Great Depression
      (pp. 99-116)

      The world came crashing down on many Canadians in the Great Depression of the 1930s. The severe economic decline which Canada suffered after 1929 was part of an international crisis that had its origins in world overproduction of primary commodities. The downturn in the economy in Canada began as early as April 1929, while that in the United States came in August; both started before the crash of the stock market in October 1929. The crisis of the 1930s is notable as much for its duration as for its severity. In 1931 the Depression in North America deepened as the...

    • The Second World War and the Post-War Period
      (pp. 117-162)

      The Second World War was a major turning-point for Canada. Changes occurred in Canada′s relationship with the outside world, in the role of government, in the nature of the economy and society, and in Canadians′ sense of themselves. Dynamic economic growth was associated with post-war prosperity, and waves of immigration, population growth, and suburbanization changed the composition and distribution of the population. None the less, differences based on class, language, ethnicity, and region remained embedded in the very different society that emerged during the 1940s and 1950s.

      The Second World War transformed Canada′s relationship with the rest of the world....

  10. Notes
    (pp. 163-198)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 199-199)