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Inside the Mosaic

Inside the Mosaic

Edited by Eric Fong
Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 280
  • Book Info
    Inside the Mosaic
    Book Description:

    The majority of recent immigrants to Canada have chosen to settle in large cities and immigrants have become an integral part of the country's urban experience. How the presence of immigrants shapes the urban structures, and social processes of large cities, and how these structures and processes affect immigrants' ability to adapt to their new surroundings, are the dual foci of Eric Fong'sInside the Mosaic, a collaborative and detailed assessment of immigration in Canada from some of the field's top minds.

    Focusing on Toronto, the contributors explore residential patterns, physical environment, family structures, social networks, and health. Their findings clearly demonstrate that the relationships of immigration with urban structures and group processes are multi-faceted, and that the integration process of today's immigrant groups is complex.

    Toronto has benefited greatly from successive waves of immigration, but this has never negated the difficulty faced by the city in making adjustments to accommodate newcomers, nor the difficulties faced by immigrants in creating new lives.Inside the Mosaicis an essential tool for understanding the struggle faced by both the city and its new residents, which will bring clarity to a subject that has historically been fraught with divergent views.

    Contributors:Joe DardenEric FongNancy HowellJanet LumWilliam MichelsonEmi OokaJeffrey G. ReitzJanet W. SalaffJacinth Tracey-WortleyJack VeugelersBarry WellmanBlair Wheaton

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7617-6
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-2)
  4. 1 Introduction: Immigration, Social Structures, and Social Processes
    (pp. 3-14)

    How is recent immigration shaping the structures and processes inside the Canadian mosaic? This is the major question addressed in this volume. Most people agree that major Canadian cities have become more diversified racially and ethnically - mainly the result of a large influx of immigrants. Although high levels of immigration are not uncommon in Canadian history, the recent wave is unique because of the disproportional representation of immigrants from non-European countries. This new immigration wave has brought both quantitative and qualitative changes to major Canadian cities. In quantitative terms, proportions of various racial and ethnic groups have grown considerably....

  5. 2 Immigration and Diversity in a Changing Canadian City: Social Bases of Intergroup Relations in Toronto
    (pp. 15-50)

    One of Toronto’s most striking characteristics today is the great ethnic diversity of its population. And because of Canada’s aggressively expansionist immigration policy, this diversity keeps increasing. No longer the staid and inward-looking British enclave - Northrop Frye called it ‘a good place for minding your own business’ - Toronto is now Canada’s largest metropolis and one of the North America’s most heterogeneous cities. Toronto's population had passed 4.6 million by 2001, making it larger than all but ten American urban centres, and is now 44 per cent foreign-born - more than New York, Los Angeles, or San Francisco. Many...

  6. 3 Residential Segregation of Visible Minority Groups in Toronto
    (pp. 51-75)

    Racial and ethnic residential integration has been viewed as an indicator of group relations in any society. It is a basic form of association that provides the mechanisms and occasions for intergroup interaction. Intergroup contact in neighbourhoods is unique because it is informal and not competitive (White 1987; Park 1967). Thus it fosters intergroup friendships and corrects misunderstandings among groups (Sigelman et al. 1996; Jackman and Crane 1986).

    Racial and ethnic residential segregation is perceived as a barrier that minority groups must overcome in order to achieve full integration with the larger society (Massey and Mullan 1984). Massey and Mullan...

  7. 4 Metropolitan Government and the Social Ecology of Minority Residential Distribution: The Experience of Metropolitan Toronto
    (pp. 76-98)

    The postwar suburbanization of Toronto sheds light on how the particular implementation of a two-tiered metropolitan government had a surprising impact on minority residential distributions, which now differ greatly from those in other countries and in different circumstances. This example of social ecological dynamics, in which many factors interacted, suggests that to explain minority residential patterns we must understand the unique combination of circumstances in individual cities.

    Toronto is interesting, first, for the extent of its recent immigration. ’The United Nations has designated Toronto as the world’s “most ethnically-diverse city”’(Tourism Toronto 1997). It has evolved to the point where no...

  8. 5 Immigration and the Environment: Polemics, Analysis, and Public Policy
    (pp. 99-120)

    Research on international migration is broadening its focus to better capture the range and complexity of immigration's effects, even those which are difficult to quantify (Kanjanapan and Rosenzweig 1995, 3). How immigration affects the natural environment of industrialized countries has received little attention, however, for environmental degradation tends to be treated as a cause rather than a consequence when studied in connection with the movement of people. Understanding how the environment affects migration is important: millions of people are displaced for environmental reasons each year, with heightened social conflict one result among others (Homer-Dixon 1994). But migration also affects the...

  9. 6 ‘Getting the Message’: Effects of Canadian Law and Social Policy on Families That Immigrate to Toronto
    (pp. 121-145)

    Family dynamics are changing in Canada as a whole and in Toronto specifically. Statistical studies compiled by Statistics Canada confirm what we observe all around us: fertility is at a very low level among current families, and divorce is at a high level (Jones et al. 1995; Baker 1995). As sociologists and demographers, we note that Canadians are, more often than they used to be, living in common-law arrangements rather than marriages. In opinion surveys, in classroom discussions, and around family dining tables, young Canadian men and women say they are wary of marriage, and they often express some reluctance...

  10. 7 The Impact of Canadian Immigration Policy on the Structure of the Black Caribbean Family in Toronto
    (pp. 146-168)

    Immigration decisions are made within existing economic, political, and social structures. Immigration policy affects these structures by influencing the size and composition of the immigrant population. In Toronto, immigration is a major component of change that works constantly on the structure and the identity of the population (Beaujot and Rappak 1986). Immigration also alters the demographic make-up of a metropolitan area by making it more diverse. Thus, immigration changes the employment and housing structures. The main thesis in this chapter is that Canadian immigration policy has clearly affected the composition of the black Caribbean immigrant population, with profound social and...

  11. 8 Ethnoracial Differences in Mental Health in Toronto: Demographic and Historical Explanations
    (pp. 169-198)

    Throughout the past half-century, a substantial body of empirical research in the social epidemiology of mental health has produced consistent findings that link position in a social structure to psychological functioning. The stress process paradigm posits that social position within a hierarchical social structure is involved both in the etiology of stress experience and in the allocation of resources across groups (Aneshensel 1992; Broman 1989; Pearlin et al. 1981; Pearlin 1989; Travis and Velasco 1994; Pettigrew 1985; Pettigrew and Martin 1987; Takeuchi and Adair 1992; Turner et al. 1995; Wheaton 1982; Ulbrich et al. 1989).

    The accumulated literature on the...

  12. 9 Does Social Capital Pay Off More Within or Between Ethnic Groups? Analysing Job Searches in Five Toronto Ethnic Groups
    (pp. 199-226)

    In the early twenty-first century, Canada continues to receive a large share of global migrants and is facing old and new challenges of immigrant incorporation (Reitz 1998; Mercer 1995). Governmental immigration and refugee policies, the individual characteristics of immigrants, the place of settlement, and the condition of local markets determine interactively the patterns and the degree of immigrant incorporation. These, in turn, shape the long-term effects of immigration on the host society (Massey 1995).

    First-generation immigrants set the stage for what is to come (Portes 1998, 814). In particular, the economic marginalization of particular groups, resulting in joblessness and spatial...

  13. 10 Different Crossings: Migrants from Three Chinese Communities
    (pp. 227-256)

    New skilled immigrants from Asia find it hard to get good jobs. Some may return home, while others stay. We think these decisions are not purely personal. They are shaped by structures. We need to systematically explore how social connections and political economic institutions shape the paths that international migrants take as they work out the settlement process (Basch et al. 1994; Boyd 1989; Massey and Garcia Espana 1987). In this chapter I explore some of these issues. I do so from the perspectives of three comparable individuals from three different places of origin: the People's Republic of China (henceforth...

  14. Contributors
    (pp. 257-260)