The Canadianization Movement

The Canadianization Movement: Emergence, Survival, and Success

Jeffrey Cormier
Copyright Date: 2004
Pages: 380
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442680616
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  • Book Info
    The Canadianization Movement
    Book Description:

    InThe Canadianization Movement, Jeffrey Cormier examines the 'Canadianization' of the Canadian intellectual and cultural communities from the 1960s to the 1980s. The author documents the efforts of cultural nationalists as they struggled to build a strong, vibrant Canadian cultural community.

    Cormier asks four questions to guide his analysis. First, why did the Canadianization movement emerge when it did? Second, how did the movement transform itself for long-term survival? Third, what kinds of mobilizing structures did the movement make use of, and what influence did these structures have on the movement's activities? And finally, how did the movement maintain itself in times when the political and media climate was unsupportive?

    Using data collected from archival sources as well as twenty-two in-depth interviews with participants, Cormier documents the actions that organizational intellectuals took in pushing for social and cultural change, an aspect of social movements literature that, until now, has largely been only theorized about.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-8061-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-2)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 3-18)

    During the summer of 1998, while conducting research on the Canadianization movement of the 1960s and 1970s, I had the occasion to visit the McMichael Art Gallery in Kleinburg, Ontario. The gallery houses, and is pretty well a shrine to, the Group of Seven, a loosely knit band of Canadian artists who painted during the 1920s and 1930s in an attempt to document the expansive wilderness of Canada’s North. National pride exudes from virtually every painting and from virtually every description of every painting: ‘Canada’s national treasure,’ ‘truly Canadian art,’ ‘expressions of the vastness of Canada’s great beauty,’ and so...

  5. Chapter One The Origins of the Canadianization Movement, 1967-1972
    (pp. 19-55)

    It is difficult to imagine the Canadianization movement emerging out of a period other than the late 1960s. At that time a series of social and political crises converged to generate widespread feelings of uncertainty and insecurity among many Canadians. The educational system was just one of many such crises. A massive wave of baby-boom generation children flooded into the system, especially at the university level. This influx wrecked havoc on a system that had been traditionally reserved for the sons and daughters of a small number of elites. Several problems immediately presented themselves. First, who would educate this almost...

  6. Chapter Two First Mobilizing Efforts and the Failure of Organization, 1967-1972
    (pp. 56-90)

    It is clear that from 1969 until roughly 1972 the Canadianization movement went through a period John Lofland (1979) has called ‘white-hot mobilization.’ The movement was extremely successful at attracting large numbers of both public supporters and academic activists to its goals because of its high media profile. In terms of the federal and provincial government, the movement’s agenda was soon taken seriously by politicians, largely as a result of the manner in which the issue was framed by its leaders. But was this all there was to the Canadianization movement as a whole? Was there no more to it...

  7. Chapter Three The Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association and the Transformation of Canadianization, 1972
    (pp. 91-124)

    In the spring of 1972 the Canadianization movement went thorough a significant process of transformation. Until that time it had been composed of a fragmented, loosely knit group of activists pushing for change at universities across Canada but without any solid organizational base. As the 1970s wore on, the Canadian media all but abandoned its interest and fascination with the movement’s leaders. Without the necessary media support, mobilizing students, faculty, and the public to actively lobby for greater Canadianization became extremely difficult.

    Yet organizational support for the movement eventually did come, in the form of a professional association dedicated to...

  8. Chapter Four Changing Strategies: The Canadian Society of Sociology and Anthropology Association in Action, 1972-1976
    (pp. 125-158)

    Following the bureaucratic insurgency of 1972, the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association became the leader among professional associations in adopting what would later prove to be an extremely effective Canadianization agenda. The CSAA also provided the Canadianization movement with a more or less permanent organizational base from which to continue its many lobbying activities. This organizational base became even more critical in the mid-1970s because media attention and public interest in Canadianization had all by disappeared. The organizational support provided by the CSAA allowed the Canadianization movement to survive in this otherwise unreceptive political and media environment while at the...

  9. Chapter Five Movement Abeyance and Success, 1977-1985
    (pp. 159-190)

    After 1976 the protest activity around the issue of Canadianization declined dramatically for close to five years. No longer was it considered a topic to be debated and discussed in the media, and its most ardent supporters all but stopped lobbying for policy changes. By most criteria the Canadianization movement was in a period of abeyance. In 1981, however, this situation changed radically, when the movement scored one of its greatest and most significant victories: the minister of immigration announced what became the federal government’s official policy on employing foreign academics in Canada. This has since become known as the...

  10. Chapter Six Conclusion
    (pp. 191-196)

    Over the course of the fourteen or so years under investigation here, the Canadianization movement came to embody many different and varied forms. It originated as a critical community of academics that attempted to build a formal social movement organization. While they failed at first, the movement as a whole was able to survive by relying on collegial networks and friendship ties to hold activists together and create solidarity among supporters. Canadianization movement activists organized consciousness-raising events and struggled to gain institutional support of one form or another over the years. Eventually, the movement found a permanent home by taking...

  11. Appendix A: Archival Sources
    (pp. 197-198)
  12. Appendix B: List of Persons Interviewed
    (pp. 199-200)
  13. Notes
    (pp. 201-214)
  14. References
    (pp. 215-222)
  15. Index
    (pp. 223-234)