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The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism

The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism: Galicia as Ukraine's Piedmont

Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 232
  • Book Info
    The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism
    Book Description:

    This study provides a solid background for understanding nineteenth-century Galicia as the historic Piedmont of the Ukrainian national revival.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-8225-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
  5. MAPS
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. chapter one Galicia: A Brief Historical Survey
    (pp. 3-37)

    The termGaliciais somewhat imprecise. It is generally associated with the boundaries of the pre-1918 province called in GermanGalizien(in English: Galicia), located within the Austrian half of the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg monarchy. The Austrian province ofGaliziencomprised territory north of the Carpathian Mountains that was divided more or less by the San River and included land to its west as far as Cracow inhabited mainly by Poles, and to the east as far as the Zbruch and Cheremosh Rivers inhabited primarily by Ukrainians. In terms of its territorial extent, Austrian Galicia was much different from historic Galicia....

  7. chapter two The Ukrainian National Revival: A New Analytical Framework
    (pp. 38-54)

    The Ukrainians are but one example of the many Slavic and other peoples in east-central Europe that experienced a national revival in the course of the nineteenth century. In comparative terms, the Ukrainian case is usually seen as one that entered the process of national revival relatively late, and as one that in the end was not successful in fulfilling the ultimate goal of national movements—political independence. Such a perception—that national movements should be analyzed and implicitly judged by the degree to which they were or were not successful in obtaining political independence—has inevitably determined the philosophical...

  8. chapter three A Subordinate or Submerged People: The Ukrainians of Galicia under Habsburg and Soviet Rule
    (pp. 55-64)

    In the context of the Center for Austrian Studies conference, “Great Power Ethnic Politics: The Habsburg Empire and the Soviet Union,” the Ukrainians are unique. They are the only indigenous people in the former Habsburg Empire subsequently to have experienced direct rule by the Soviet Union. The Soviet-ruled territories that before 1918 had been part of the Habsburg Empire comprised three areas in western Ukraine known as eastern Galicia, northern Bukovina, and Transcarpathia. The largest of these lands was eastern Galicia, which will be the focus of attention here.¹

    In comparing Habsburg and Soviet methods of rule in eastern Galicia,...

  9. chapter four The Tyroleans of the East: Galicia’s Ukrainians and the Revolution of 1848
    (pp. 65-72)

    Throughout the nineteenth century, Ukrainians lived within the borders of two multinational states, the Russian Empire and the Austrian or Habsburg Empire. Although no more than 15 percent of the Ukrainian populace lived within the Habsburg realm, the political, social, and cultural conditions that prevailed there made that relatively small group of far greater importance to general Ukrainian developments than their numbers (3.1 million in 1848) might suggest. The focus here is on one aspect of Ukrainian activity in the Habsburg Empire, namely, the reaction of Ukrainians, most particularly from eastern Galicia, to the revolutionary events of 1848 in the...

  10. chapter five Ukrainians and the Habsburgs
    (pp. 73-82)

    The era of Austrian Habsburg rule in Galicia and Bukovina that lasted from 1772 to 1918 represents one of the few instances of direct and long-term interaction between the Germanic world and territories inhabited by Ukrainians. Whether subsequent writers describe the Habsburg presence in western-Ukrainian lands in an impartial manner as the “Austrian era” or in negative terms as the Austrian Habsburg “occupation,” there is no denying that the new imperial government in Vienna created in Galicia and Bukovina a civil society governed by the rule of law in which, at least by the second half of the nineteenth century,...

  11. chapter six The Language Question as a Factor in the National Movement in Eastern Galicia
    (pp. 83-98)

    Reflecting in comparative terms on the nature of nationalism, a well-known student of the subject, Hans Kohn, wrote, “In Western Europe, modern nationalism was the work of statesmen and political leaders. ... In Central and Eastern Europe it was the poet, the philologist, and the historian who created the nationalities.”¹ Indeed, local nationalist leaders who represented stateless peoples were well aware of the importance of language for the movements they were propagating. Most had looked toward the German experience for ideological inspiration. Already in the late eighteenth century the historian-philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803) posed the now oft-quoted rhetorical...

  12. chapter seven Old Ruthenianism and Russophilism: A New Conceptual Framework for Analyzing National Ideologies in Late-Nineteenth-Century Eastern Galicia
    (pp. 99-118)

    Like other nationalities within the Habsburg Empire, as well as within eastern and western Europe as a whole, the Ukrainians of Galicia experienced a national revival in the course of the nineteenth century. This meant that people who before had been content with identifying themselves in terms of religious affiliation or territory of habitation (whether a province, smaller region, river valley, or village) were now being called upon to identify themselves in terms of nationality, that is, as belonging to a larger group of people because of similar cultural and linguistic characteristics.

    For Ukrainians as well as other nationalities, or...

  13. chapter eight The Kachkovs’kyi Society and the National Revival in Nineteenth-Century East Galicia
    (pp. 119-158)

    The nineteenth century was the era when most Slavic peoples, including Ukrainians, experienced a national revival. At the time, the vast majority of Ukrainians (approximately 85 percent) lived in the tsarist Russian Empire, with the remainder living within the neighboring Austro-Hungarian Empire. Although numerically fewer than their brethren in the Russian Empire, Ukrainians in politically more liberal Austria–Hungary had much greater opportunities to develop a national revival. This began seriously during the revolutionary years of 1848–1849, then blossomed during the 1880s and 1890s, and finally culminated in the first decade and a half of the twentieth century. Of...

  14. chapter nine Nationalism and National Bibliography: Ivan E. Levyts’kyi and Nineteenth-Century Galicia
    (pp. 159-189)

    The phenomenon of national bibliography has never really been discussed as an element in national movements. This is perhaps because at one level a bibliography simply records what has already been achieved. In that sense, national bibliographies are usually compiled during the second phase of a national movement, when the growth of national organizations makes the publication of such projects possible. We should also examine, however, what bibliographies contribute to the third phase, that is, a time when the growth of scholarship begins to provide a serious ideological basis for national movements.³ In this sense, bibliographers do play a positive...

  15. chapter ten Vienna as a Resource for Ukrainian Studies: With Special Reference to Galicia
    (pp. 190-214)

    There exists a rather widespread myth among scholars of eastern Europe that Vienna, the once powerful capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the repository for a wide variety of archival and printed materials dealing with the peoples of the Habsburg state, was largely depleted of its rich holdings after World War I. Allegedly, most material pertaining to countries that had just arisen in whole or in part from the ruins of the Habsburg Empire—Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary—was “returned” to those new states in the 1920s. Hence, in Austrian and east-European scholarly circles, one frequently hears the uninformed statement, “Such...