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Race, Racialization and Antiracism in Canada and Beyond

Race, Racialization and Antiracism in Canada and Beyond

Copyright Date: 2007
Pages: 384
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  • Book Info
    Race, Racialization and Antiracism in Canada and Beyond
    Book Description:

    The intent ofRace, Racialization, and Antiracism in Canada and Beyondis to probe systemic forms of racism, as well as to suggest strategies for addressing them.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-8556-7
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
    Randy Enomoto
  4. List of Contributors
    (pp. xi-2)
  5. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-16)

    Canadian society is a landscape of negotiation, in which skin colour takes on multiple shades of meaning. As inhabitants of this landscape, we use culture, ethnicity, and physical characteristics to assign places and positions to one another, to fix identities. We do so every day by a simple word or gesture, an exchange over a service counter, or a glance across a room, so that the racialized body is constantly marked and its meaning reinforced. Such assignments of place can deepen or reduce the racial divides created by the meanings we attribute to identity.

    Canada was the first modern state...

  6. 2 Negotiating School: Marginalized Students’ Participation in Their Education Process
    (pp. 17-36)

    In many ways, the practice of multicultural education – its policies, programs, curricula, and pedagogies – in Canada has proven to be insufficient when it comes to addressing the diverse needs, concerns, issues, interests, and aspirations of marginalized students. In fact, that multicultural education can reduce prejudice, promote sensitivity to and respect for ethno-cultural differences, and integrate minority students into the school system remains to be seen. As critics attest, marginalized students – those for whom these program initiatives are purportedly designed, to accommodate and integrate them into the educational system – tend to find that what is presented to...

  7. 3 Multicultural Education: Teacher Candidates Speak Out
    (pp. 37-50)

    The principal aim of my study is to understand how a faculty of education in an urban Canadian university prepares teacher candidates to meet the needs of a multicultural student population. This chapter focuses on how a teacher education program addresses multicultural education in its curriculum and courses. For this study, eighty-one teacher candidates reflected on the effectiveness of the program and offered suggestions for its improvement.

    The objectives of my research are (1) to understand the importance of multicultural education in a teacher education program at a large urban university; (2) to understand how courses in that program seek...

  8. 4 ‘The Sky Didn’t Fall’: Organizing to Combat Racism in the Workplace – The Case of the Alliance for Employment Equity
    (pp. 51-78)

    The Alliance for Employment Equity (AEE) is a grassroots non-governmental coalition that emerged as a unifying force to advocate for employment equity policies in the Province of Ontario during the height of the debate in the 1990s.¹ This saga, which involves the rise of comprehensive provincial employment equity legislation under the NDP government of Premier Bob Rae, and its demise under the subsequent Conservative government under Premier Mike Harris, illustrates the complex and fraught relationships between politics, public policy, and community activism. Our research project followed the course of these developments as the AEE positioned itself, initially, to support the...

  9. 5 Employment Conditions of Racial Minorities in Canada: How Bad Is the Problem of Discrimination?
    (pp. 79-104)

    Like its population, Canada’s workforce is becoming increasingly pluralistic. Forty-two per cent of Canadians report origins other than French or British, while 16 per cent of Canadians are foreign born.² Census data indicate that the racial minority population has almost trebled over the past two decades, from 4.7 per cent in 1981 to 13.4 per cent in 2001. The proportion of racial minorities in Canada’s total labour force rose from 4.9 to 12.6 per cent between 1981 and 2001.³ Because of this highly diversified workforce, it is essential that there be equal opportunity for all individuals in a non-discriminatory work...

  10. 6 Immigrant Women’s Activism: The Past Thirty-Five Years
    (pp. 105-116)

    Historically, immigrant women’s organizations co-existed with the Canadian state on a terrain of struggle, with their relationship characterized by tension, resistance, and negotiation.¹ Although many immigrant women’s organizations allowed themselves to be co-opted in order to continue in good favour with state funders,² many played counterhegemonic³ roles by questioning and challenging the state’s accepted practices. Despite funding limitations, they were able to carve out a space in which they could engage in critical community development work with their members. In this context, there was an illusion that these organizations of immigrant women had some influence, if not power, within the...

  11. 7 Critical Discourse Analysis: A Powerful but Flawed Tool?
    (pp. 117-130)

    As antiracist theorists and practitioners, we have been engaged for the past two decades in the study of discourse and how it transmits racist ideology.¹ However, only in recent years have we turned to critical discourse analysis (CDA) to explore how forms of the ‘new racism’ are produced, reproduced, and transmitted through everyday discourses and representations found in the daily news media and other elite or dominant discourses.²

    A growing body of scholarship is analysing the links among ideology, language, and racism. These studies demonstrate that the everyday discourses that operate in the print and electronic media, in films and...

  12. 8 Special Plus and Special Negative: The Conflict between Perceptions and Applications of ‘Special Status’ in Canada
    (pp. 131-150)

    Increasingly over the past thirty years, Aboriginal¹ and non-Aboriginal Canadians have come to blows over conflicts based on discourses of special rights. Although segments of the dominant society perceive Aboriginal special rights as an advantage, history has shown otherwise. The result has been a disconnect between perceptions and applications of so-called ‘special’ rights. In this chapter, I examine this dissonance through an analysis of three months ofGlobe and Mailnewspaper coverage of the 1999Marshall² decision and the conflict between Mi’kmaq and non-Aboriginals that followed. Before turning to the decision, however, I will highlight the irony of the legally...

  13. 9 Who Belongs? Exploring Race and Racialization in Canada
    (pp. 151-178)

    On 14 June 2001, the Supreme Court of Canada for the first time ruled on the question of whether race should play a role in determining the custody of a child whose parents are of different racial backgrounds.² The Court was addressing the custody of a four-year-old boy named Elijah, the child of Theodore (Blue) Edwards, a Black American man who played for the Vancouver Grizzlies of the NBA, and Kimberly Van de Perre, a white single woman living in British Columbia. The custody dispute had been heard earlier (February 14–15, 2000) by the Supreme Court of British Columbia,...

  14. 10 The Racialization of Space: Producing Surrey
    (pp. 179-205)

    As part of Greater Vancouver, Surrey is a suburban space that has quickly burgeoned into a city (see map). Located 40 kilometres (25 miles) southeast of the City of Vancouver, Surrey is bounded by the Fraser River to the north, the Canada–U.S. border to the south, and the municipalities of Delta and Langley to the west and east, respectively. Surrey was ranked the fastest-growing major city in Canada in the 1991 and 1996 censuses, and in 1996 had a population of 304,477.¹ This site has been transformed immensely over the past two decades. Land development – for residential, educational,...

  15. 11 Raceless States
    (pp. 206-232)

    In the rush from explicitly racial formation in contemporary politics and political theorizing, conceptions of racelessness seem, if haltingly, to have become the public commitment of choice. The public discourse regarding raceless states has focused almost exclusively on whether and how they might be morally or legally imperative, and what sorts of compelling normative arguments might be offered for or against them.² The moral and legal insistence on racelessness has tended to rest on a historical narrative promoting it as the only fitting contemporary response to pernicious racist pasts.³ On this account, any contemporary invocation of race for policy purposes,...

  16. 12 Multi-identifications and Transformations: Reaching beyond Racial and Ethnic Reductionisms
    (pp. 233-252)

    This chapter is prompted by the many voices declaring antiracism a movement ‘in crisis,’ expressed, among other things, in the view that antiracism is dictatorial and that the practices it stands for are moralistic and patronizing.¹ The charge has been levelled, in particular in the United Kingdom and in France, that the antiracist movement has failed to respond effectively to the New Right.² According to others, the effectiveness and activities of antiracist organizations in both countries have been compromised as well by their reliance on state funding and on their need to compete with one another for state grants.³ Here,...