Casino State

Casino State: Legalized Gambling in Canada

JAMES F. COSGRAVE
THOMAS R. KLASSEN
Copyright Date: 2009
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442687547
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Casino State
    Book Description:

    Casino Stateis a timely collection that examines the controversial role of the state as a promoter of gambling activities often against the best interest of its citizens.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-8754-7
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-2)
  5. 1 Introduction: The Shape of Legalized Gambling in Canada
    (pp. 3-16)
    JAMES F. COSGRAVE and THOMAS R. KLASSEN

    The impetus forCasino State: Legalized Gambling in Canadais the pressing need to bring together analysis and foster dialogue regarding the unprecedented growth of legalized gambling. In Canada as of 2007, there were 66 casinos and 28 racinos (racetracks with electronic gambling machines), more than 7,200 electronic gaming machine venues with over 88,000 machines, including slot machines and video lottery terminals, 33,000 lottery ticket outlets, and 256 racetracks and tele-theatres (Alberta Gaming Research Institute 2008; Statistics Canada 2007; CPRG 2007). Between 1992 and 2006, net revenue from government-run lotteries, video lottery terminals, and casinos rose from $2.7 billion to...

  6. PART ONE: MORALITY, MARKETS, AND THE STATE
    • 2 ‘Blood Money’: Gambling and the Formation of Civic Morality
      (pp. 19-45)
      WILLIAM RAMP and KERRY BADGLEY

      Stories and anecdotes about gambling are to be found in the lore of many middle-class Canadian families (e.g., Morton 2003, ix). Some celebrate wins, while others communicate reproof, admonition, or caution. They are ways of making moral statements about labour, wealth, weakness, and chance; and ways of orienting to a world in which work, money, and risk condition social success or failure. These anecdotes teach the arts of parsing wisdom from foolishness, legitimate reward from ill-gotten gain, and legitimate wealth production from ‘blood money.’

      They also reflect elements of a broader moral-reform discourse that dominated the characterization and regulation of...

    • 3 Governing the Gambling Citizen: The State, Consumption, and Risk
      (pp. 46-66)
      JAMES F. COSGRAVE

      The cultural liberalization of gambling that has occurred in North America in the late twentieth century reflects the overturning of particular social values, grounded in Protestant world-views, which framed gambling as problematic for the social and economic order. After the Second World War, Canadian attitudes towards non-commercial gambling ‘coincided with new perspectives on moral issues as diverse as alcohol, extramarital sex, and Sunday observance’ (Morton 2003, 169). In this climate of permissiveness the traditional power of Protestant churches to enforce their moral standards declined. Moving into the twenty-first century, many forms of gambling have been legalized and commercialized, and liberalization...

  7. PART TWO: COMPARATIVE GAMBLING POLICY FRAMEWORKS
    • 4 Canadian Gambling Policies
      (pp. 69-90)
      COLIN S. CAMPBELL

      Gambling is a big business in Canada. It employs a sizeable number of people; provides a significant source of revenue for provincial governments and for community-based, non-profit charitable organizations; and offers social and recreational opportunities for those who are motivated to participate in its diverse formats.

      There are currently over 145,000 venues and/or opportunities to gamble legally in Canada (Azmier 2005). Government-run gambling (bingo, EGMs, table games, and lotteries) generated a gross profit of $13 billion in 2005 (Statistics Canada 2007). After paying costs associated with generating gambling revenues, government-run gambling produced a net profit of $7.1 billion (Statistics Canada...

    • 5 Gambling Policy and Regulation in Australia
      (pp. 91-118)
      JAN MCMILLEN

      Preceding chapters have focused attention on the historical context of gambling policy in Canada. This chapter amplifies those contributions to offer a reflective overview of gambling regulation in Australia. Given their shared Anglo-European heritage and the hegemonic influence of American-style casinos and electronic gaming machines on contemporary gambling, it is instructive to consider the historical events and themes that have contributed to national gambling development in both nations.

      Particular attention is given to the role of governments and industry in the policy-making process and to the notion of public interest. This focus raises questions about democratic policy formation and gambling...

  8. PART THREE: GOVERNMENTS AND GAMBLING POLICY
    • 6 The Policies of Gambling Legitimation and Expansion in Ontario
      (pp. 121-139)
      THOMAS R. KLASSEN and JAMES F. COSGRAVE

      In the past several decades public policies have legitimized many forms of gambling and made them part of mass culture, albeit under the regulatory umbrella of the state. In this chapter we examine how governments have sought to secure and solidify gambling as a legitimate activity – for both individuals and the state – as well as to set the stage for further expansion. Specifically, we analyse how, in its interest in using gambling as a source of revenue, the state developed a series of policies designed to secure this source of revenue. The fact that provinces have jurisdiction for gambling policy...

    • 7 Government as Gambling Regulator and Operator: The Case of Electronic Gaming Machines
      (pp. 140-158)
      RAY MACNEIL

      It is impossible to analyse the recent history of gambling proliferation in Canada without concurrently discussing, in some detail, the role of the state. The complexities of governmental structures and functions, and their operation, are interrelated with the rise of the modern gambling infrastructure. As a long-time government employee and bureaucrat, it is my hope that this chapter will provide useful insights that are not always brought forth in more academic treatments of this issue. In particular, the chapter analyses critical aspects of gambling oversight, regulation, and promotion in Canada.

      To understand current developments, it is useful to recall two...

  9. PART FOUR: GAMBLING AND SOCIAL ISSUES
    • 8 Gambling-Related Crime in a Major Canadian City
      (pp. 161-191)
      GARRY J. SMITH, TIMOTHY F. HARTNAGEL and HAROLD WYNNE

      Studies from various regions worldwide suggest an association between criminal activity and easily accessible gambling. Yet, despite spectacular growth in the Canadian commercial gambling industry as discussed in previous chapters, surprisingly little is known about the nature, extent, or impact of gambling-related crime in Canada. The present study provides a general overview of the topic and investigates the relationship between crime and gambling in a major Canadian metropolitan area, the city of Edmonton, Alberta.

      Legal gambling offerings in Canada were sparse until several decades ago when theCriminal Codeamendments in 1969 and 1985 changed the situation dramatically. These amendments...

    • 9 Youth Gambling: A Canadian Perspective
      (pp. 192-220)
      JEFFREY L. DEREVENSKY

      As described in earlier chapters in this book, the landscape of gambling within Canada has radically changed since the early 1990s. In spite of the widespread media coverage highlighting problems associated with gambling, most Canadians perceive gambling as a legitimate form of entertainment and appear ambivalent concerning its expansion. The prevailing attitudes of legislators (that gambling is an excellent source of government revenues) and the public at large suggest that new gaming venues (for example, an increased number of provincial casinos/racinos¹ in jurisdictions currently without such forms of gambling) and new technologies in the form of interactive lotteries and Internet...

  10. Appendix A: Major Canadian Gambling Resources
    (pp. 221-224)
  11. Appendix B: Problem Gambling Helplines
    (pp. 225-226)
  12. Bibliography
    (pp. 227-258)
  13. Index
    (pp. 259-268)