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Municipalities and Multiculturalism

Municipalities and Multiculturalism: The Politics of Immigration in Toronto and Vancouver

  • Book Info
    Municipalities and Multiculturalism
    Book Description:

    Municipalities and Multiculturalismexplores the role of the municipality in integrating immigrants and managing the ethno-cultural relations of the city.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-9041-7
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Preface
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. 1 The Municipal Role in ‘Managing’ Multiculturalism
    (pp. 3-15)

    Globalization is transforming the states, societies, economies, and cultures of the world. International migration is implicated in these global transformative processes. The UN Population Division estimates that there were almost 200 million international migrants in 2005 – a figure that has doubled since 1980 (GCIM 2005, 1). Migrants present both challenges and opportunities to host societies, which must ‘manage’ changes in the ethnocultural mix of their populations. How effectively this is done has implications for the social and economic well-being of host societies and migrants alike. It follows that managing the processes and consequences of international migration is a key challenge...

  7. 2 Linking Urban Regime Theory, Social Diversity, and Local Multiculturalism Policies
    (pp. 16-46)

    As these observations by Canadian urban scholars Caroline Andrew, Katherine Graham, and Susan Phillips attest, the traditional conception of the role of Canadian municipalities is very limited. However, as the authors also highlight, the view that local governments are mere service providers in relatively unimportant areas, or administrative extensions of provincial governments, is giving way to broader notions about the importance of local democracy. And as they also note, with municipal ‘democratization’ come greater expectations on the part of citizens. The question therefore becomes: Are local governments up to the leadership challenge? Do local leaders have the capacity to respond...

  8. 3 A Comparative Overview of Municipal Multiculturalism Policies
    (pp. 47-91)

    The Canadian municipalities in this study are at the forefront of social change and, as such, have become important innovators in multiculturalism policy development. Scholars rarely study policy making in local service areas such as planning, policing, recreation, and public-library services. Yet municipal governance and services play an important role both in the initial immigrant settlement process and in achieving the ongoing goals of Canada’s official multiculturalism.

    For instance, public libraries are among the first places new immigrants go to find information about their new community and to research employment opportunities (Buss 2004, interview; Harrison 2004, interview). Furthermore, as the...

  9. 4 Determinants of Multiculturalism Policies in the Greater Toronto Area
    (pp. 92-142)

    Toronto is Canada’s largest city. The Toronto CMA has a population of close to 5.1 million, just over 2.3 million of which is foreign-born (Statistics Canada 2007b). It is Canada’s largest immigrant-receiving city-region by far. In fact, in 2002, municipalities in the GTA received 111,580 immigrants, or 48.71 per cent of all immigrants to Canada that year (CIC 2002). The foreign-born population of the municipalities of Toronto, Mississauga, and Markham is 50 per cent or over; in Brampton the figure is close to 50 per cent (Statistics Canada 2007b).

    Toronto is Canada’s most ethnically diverse city as well as one...

  10. 5 Determinants of Multiculturalism Policies in Greater Vancouver
    (pp. 143-194)

    Greater Vancouver’s immigration experience is in some ways unique. Greater Vancouver has attracted a disproportionate share of Canada’s business immigrants (Olds 2001, 81). Relative to Toronto and Montreal, Vancouver’s immigrant population is mostly Asian, especially Chinese. Between the 1991 and 1996 censuses, Greater Vancouver received a staggering 44,700 immigrants from Hong Kong, which was returned to the People’s Republic of China in 1997 (GVRD 2003, 1). Many Hong Kong immigrants settled in Richmond, one of Greater Vancouver’s most popular suburban destinations for immigrants (Ahn 2004, interview). Vancouver’s non-European population increased by 422 per cent between 1971 and 1986 (Olds 2001,...

  11. 6 The Relationship between Urban Regimes, Types of Social Diversity, and Multiculturalism Policies
    (pp. 195-230)

    Municipalities vary significantly in their responses to the ethnocultural diversity that results from immigration. In chapters 4 and 5 we saw that local patterns of coalition building – or in some cases, the failure of local leaders to build socially productive urban coalitions that include multiculturalism policy goals – help explain these differences. Urban regime theory suggests that policy outputs are products of local coalitionbuilding processes; that is, they are products ofwho participatesand of theresourcesthat local leaders bring to bear on the governance arrangement. In tightly constrained fiscal environments, cities must extend the scope of local institutions in...

  12. 7 Multiculturalism and Multilevel Governance: The Role of Structural Factors in Managing Urban Diversity
    (pp. 231-276)

    In their review of the urban regime literature, Karen Mossberger and Gerry Stoker (2001) identify several factors that seem to cause regimes to form and change, including demographic shifts, economic restructuring, federal grant policies, and political mobilization (2001, 811). In chapter 6 we saw that demographic change shapes the urban governance of multiculturalism from ‘below,’ because the ethnoracial configuration of municipal societies affects the nature of political pluralism as well as patterns of political mobilization at the local level. It also structures the distribution of resources. This chapter explores what Jeffrey Sellers (2002a, 2002b, 2005) calls a ‘national infrastructure’ – that...

  13. 8 Municipal Multiculturalism Policies and the Capacity to Manage Social Change
    (pp. 277-303)

    Canadian municipalities are playing a new and largely unacknowledged role in immigrant settlement and integration. As municipal governments are at the forefront of social change, this book suggests that municipalities in immigrant-magnet city-regions can play an important role in fostering what Mario Polèse and Richard Stren (2000) call ‘socially sustainable growth’ by steering the development of civil society in the direction of social inclusion and interethnic harmony (2000, 16). Municipalities in these highly diverse city-regions can do so through a variety of local multiculturalism initiatives.

    Municipalities can influence the direction of change in civil society in the same way as...

  14. Postscript
    (pp. 304-308)

    Canada’s immigrant-magnet city-regions are highly dynamic social, political, and economic environments. Since the field research was conducted for this book, I have become aware (on an ad hoc basis) of new municipal initiatives in the eight urban and suburban communities. I would like to mention some of these responses here, with the caveat that it is impossible to evaluate these initiatives systematically without conducting further interviews. Furthermore, this list of recent initiatives is by no means exhaustive. All municipalities in the sample seem to have been experimenting with new ways to accommodate immigrants in their populations.

    Some of the new...

  15. Appendix: List of Interviews
    (pp. 309-314)
  16. Notes
    (pp. 315-330)
  17. References
    (pp. 331-350)
  18. Index
    (pp. 351-364)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 365-366)