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Research and Innovation Policy

Research and Innovation Policy: Changing Federal Government - University Relations

Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 324
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  • Book Info
    Research and Innovation Policy
    Book Description:

    This collection is the first systematic examination of the evolving relationship between the federal government and Canadian universities as revealed through changes in federal research and innovation policies.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-9747-8
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    G. Bruce Doern and Christopher Stoney
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-xii)

    • 1 Federal Research and Innovation Policies and Canadian Universities: A Framework for Analysis
      (pp. 3-34)

      This book examines the changing relationships between the federal government and Canada’s universities as revealed through changes in federal research and innovation policies. As the analysis will show, the federal role vis-à-vis universities has increased in form and importance in the last decade through a new or changed set of programs, processes, and institutions of engagement. Our focus clearly is on Canada but with some relevant contextual reference to broad developments regarding research and innovation policies and universities elsewhere in the U.S., the U.K., and Australia.

      The book draws on and contributes to Canadian and comparative literature on science and...

    • 2 Pushing Federalism to the Limit: Post-Secondary Education Policy in the Millennium
      (pp. 35-58)

      This book’s focus on research and innovation policy and the changing relations between universities and the federal government must first be seen in the context of the larger domain of federalism and postsecondary education (PSE) policy. Post-secondary education is a policy area in Canada with many interesting characteristics and controversies that play out usually amongst specialized constituencies rather than at a mass political level. First, PSE is a substantial expenditure realm for both the federal and the provincial governments. In every province, it is the third largest expenditure behind only health and ‘K to Twelve’ education. In 2006–07, for...

    • 3 Higher Education Funding and Policy Trade-Offs: The AUCC and Federal Research in the Chrétien-Martin Era
      (pp. 59-86)

      As the two previous chapters have shown, a variety of new federal funding programs and initiatives have been instituted in the last decade to provide a steady flow of research funding to Canadian universities. The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the role that the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) played in influencing the trajectory of federal research and related policies on universities in the last decade.¹ It also shows some of the tensions and collaborations between the AUCC and other stakeholder interests such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) and the Canadian Federation...


    • 4 The Granting Councils and the Research Granting Process: Core Values in Federal Government–University Interactions
      (pp. 89-122)

      The purpose of this chapter is to examine core values in the interactions between the federal government and universities in the research granting process through a comparative analysis of the evolution of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), formerly the Medical Research Council, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), and through an examination of recent changes in federal policy concerns and capacities.¹ The focus is very much on the granting process rather than on research infrastructure via the Canada Foundation for Innovation (examined in chapter 5) or the...

    • 5 The Canada Foundation for Innovation as Patron and Regulator
      (pp. 123-147)

      The aim of this chapter is to provide an analysis of a relatively new independent agency, the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), created by the government of Canada in 1997 to support research infrastructure.¹ Such university infrastructure had not been supported before in any focused way by the federal government. Its research grant funding through the three granting councils examined in chapter 4 has focused on the operational costs of research, with even overhead costs only being supported in very recent years. We examine the CFI in the context of the Canadian university system. The CFI also supports research hospitals,...

    • 6 Universities, Commercialization, and the Entrepreneurial Process: Barriers to Innovation
      (pp. 148-171)

      The federal government has committed substantial resources in an attempt to steer Canadian universities towards increased commercialization, innovation, and entrepreneurship. It has also sought to exhort universities to move in this direction through studies, reports, and ministerial speeches. This more overt commercialization strategy has been prompted by a changing international context that has seen industrialized countries being challenged by low wages, government subsidies, and market potentials of many less developed, particularly Asian, nations. As noted in chapter 1, the Harper Conservative government in Ottawa has released its new vision for maintaining and enhancing Canada’s competitive advantage (Industry Canada 2007). The...

    • 7 Intellectual Property, Technology Offices, and Political Capital: Canadian Universities in the Innovation Era
      (pp. 172-191)

      This chapter builds on the broader discussion of commercialization as discussed in chapter 6 by Madgett and Stoney, but focuses more particularly on how Canadian universities are approaching issues of intellectual property rights, patents in particular, and in developing technology transfer offices (TTOs) as features of managing their new roles in the innovation era and the ‘knowledge-based’ economy.¹ The federal influence via intellectual property law is direct, whereas TTOs emanate from universities’ own judgment about how to respond to the varied federal and provincial pressures to disseminate the research and knowledge they produce. The intellectual property (IP) generated by universities,...

    • 8 Federal Government–University Collaboration in the Conduct of Research: Trust, Time, and Outcomes
      (pp. 192-214)

      In addition to federal government–university relations that operate through the granting agencies, the CFI’s infrastructure funding, and pressures to commercialize and transfer technology, such relations also occur through collaboration in the actual conduct of research. Typically, this involves actions and funding by the federal science-based departments, three examples of which are examined in this chapter. More particularly, the purpose of this chapter is to develop a conceptual framework that helps us to understand more completely the value and limits of partnerships between the federal government and Canadian universities in the conduct of research both in terms of the university’s...

    • 9 The Co-Location of Public Science: Government Laboratories on University Campuses
      (pp. 215-241)

      The science policy dialogue in Canada often seems to dwell on the basic rationales for public sector support and performance of research and development (R&D), i. e., ‘Why public science?’² I wish to move beyond this question about fundamentals by acknowledging that the federal government has a legitimate, indeed critical, role to play, not only in supporting academic research but also in the conduct of science in the public interest (Doern and Kinder 2007). Other questions then present themselves, including what should be the priorities for public science, i.e., ‘Which public science?’ and what is a sustainable level of support,...

    • 10 Universities and the Regulation of Research Ethics
      (pp. 242-264)

      This chapter examines how research ethics are regulated in Canadian universities and explores the effects of these rules. It begins with a discussion of the origins of research ethics, which are the ‘normative expectations’ of behaviour and action, designed for researchers to follow (Johnson and Altheide 2002, 64). In a crucial sense, research ethics were first a system of self regulation arising from within the social system of science. In the last few decades, however, federal requirements for the regulation of research ethics have grown via rules, guidelines, and standards established or reinforced by the granting agencies (singly and collectively),...

    • 11 Universities and Knowledge Transfer: Powering Local Economic and Cluster Development
      (pp. 265-287)

      Previous chapters have in various ways indicated the important changed relations and interactions between federal research and innovation policy and universities. These relationships have been shown to be both direct and indirect and involve complex uses of spending, regulation, and changed boundary organizations and institutions. In this chapter, the federal role is very indirect in part because this chapter focuses on universities, knowledge transfer, and regional economic development and cluster development, realms of research and innovation that are quite simply spatially more distant from the federal government and also decidedly non-linear in nature. Examples will certainly emerge in this chapter...

    • 12 Conclusions: Changing Symbiotic Research Relationships: Conflict and Compromise
      (pp. 288-314)

      The purpose of this book has been to provide an integrated examination of the changing relationships between the federal government and Canada’s universities as revealed through changes in federal research and innovation policies. The analysis has shown that the federal role vis-à-vis universities has increased in form and importance in the last decade through a new or changed set of research programs, processes, and institutions of engagement. In the basic literature on Canadian science and technology and related innovation policies, this kind of more integrated assessment has been absent.

      This final chapter brings together our own overall views about why...

  7. Appendix: Key Research and Innovation Data
    (pp. 315-322)
  8. Contributors
    (pp. 323-324)