Letters of Robert Grosseteste

Letters of Robert Grosseteste

F.A.C. Mantello
Joseph Goering
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 608
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/9781442698833
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  • Book Info
    Letters of Robert Grosseteste
    Book Description:

    This volume contains the first complete translation of Grosseteste's collected Latin letters and shows that these were most likely chosen and arranged by Grosseteste himself.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-9883-3
    Subjects: History, Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-2)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 3-34)

    This book provides an annotated English translation of the medieval collection of Robert Grosseteste’s Latin letters. This collection includes conventional epistles as well as documents and other kinds of texts that circulated with them, and is part of one of the largest and most diversified literary legacies of any age. Long valued as an important source of information about their author, bishop of Lincoln from 1235 to 1253 and the most learned and influential churchman of his day, Grosseteste’s letters illustrate, perhaps better than any other source, the character and convictions of a man who was, in the words of...

  6. LETTERS
    • 1 To Adam Rufus, a former student
      (pp. 35-49)

      To Master Adam Rufus,¹ dear to him in Christ, Robert Grosseteste, so-called master,² sends greeting.

      With a bountiful and sweet affection you have asked me to send you in writing my thoughts about these words: ‘God is the first form and the form of all things.’³ This I have done as best I could, though not as I wished to do, for I have preferred to offer an inquiring friend the small amount I had than to be thought to have refused the great amount I was supposed to have. Indeed, on so great a subject as this nothing that...

    • 2 To Agnellus of Pisa, Franciscan provincial minister, and the Franciscans at Oxford
      (pp. 49-53)

      To lords most beloved and sincere, and surpassing all others in the most abundant grace, Brother Agnellus,¹ minister of the Friars Minor, and the community at Oxford,² Robert, archdeacon of Leicester,³ sends greeting.

      You are men of true charity who know it has been written thatwhere your treasure is, there also is your heart[Mt 6:21], and you do not question that every precious object of a person’s deeply felt love is called a treasure. You remember, too, that the word ‘heart’ stands for ‘love.’ Hence you acknowledge with complete certainty that love is in the same place as...

    • 3 To the dean and canons of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 53-58)

      To the venerable lords, William,¹ revered father in Christ and dean of Lincoln, and the revered brothers and fellow canons² in residence there, Robert, archdeacon of Leicester, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards, together with all his respect.

      To all of you together as one I respectfully give as many thanks as I can, though not as many as I owe, for so kindly permitting me to go abroad on pilgrimage, and for deigning to bear witness in letters patent to the granting of this permission.³ But I do not wish to hide from men of your discretion the...

    • 4 To the abbot and monks of St Mary’s Abbey, Reading
      (pp. 58-65)

      To the beloved lords in Christ, the abbot¹ and community of Reading, Robert, archdeacon of Leicester, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      I wrote you a letter in which I humbly begged you to be willing to agree to a later date for the restoration of peace between us, one, that is, as late as my return from pilgrimage, which I hoped would be around Pentecost, and which would involve also the deferral of the lawsuit.² If this was unsatisfactory, I requested a postponement at least until one or two days before the day fixed for the suit, promising...

    • 5 To Margaret de Quincy, countess of Winchester
      (pp. 65-70)

      To the excellent lady, most dear in Christ, the Lady Margaret de Quincy,¹ countess of Winchester, Robert, archdeacon of Leicester, sends greeting and an assurance of his readiness to serve, together with his sincere and affectionate regards.

      I offer you heartfelt thanks for your lavish generosity, which has anticipated my needs with the greatest number of kindnesses, and not only that, but has completely overwhelmed me on later occasions with even more kindnesses.² Although kindnesses require no repayment, for the reason that, if they are kindnesses, they are conferred without expectation of any return, a person is nevertheless ungrateful who...

    • 6 To Richard Marshal, earl of Pembroke
      (pp. 70-73)

      To the illustrious and noble man, the Lord Richard Marshal, earl of Pembroke,¹ his own Robert, archdeacon of Leicester, sends greeting and an assurance of his eagerness to serve.

      It is typical of those of noble character to anticipate with kindnesses the needs of others and, as if taking on the form of those of humbler rank, to defer to others and to welcome them benevolently into the embrace of close friendship. For as the blessed John Chrysostom says: ‘The principal glory, worthy of admiration, of those of noble rank is their ability to be submissive and humble.’² The son...

    • 7 To Richard Marshal, earl of Pembroke
      (pp. 73-75)

      To the illustrious man and noble lord, Richard Marshal, earl of Pembroke,¹ his own Robert Grosseteste² sends greeting.

      Public opinion greatly extols your wisdom, which I confidently hope and ardently desire is not false wisdom but true. To be certain, however, that public opinion is speaking the truth, that my hope is not misplaced, and that my love has what it desires, I wanted to make known to you, who have the ability to choose responsibly, how to distinguish between true wisdom and false, drawing not on my own discoveries, but on authoritative sources. My goal is to ensure that,...

    • 8 To Grosseteste’s sister Ivette
      (pp. 75-77)

      Master Robert Grosseteste sends to his sister Ivette (or Juetta),¹ beloved to him in Christ, his wish for her eternal salvation.

      As you want to know the state of my health and are very anxious for me to tell you about it in a letter, let me say briefly that before the feast of All Saints I was taken seriously ill with a severe attack of fever. But the hand of divine grace was extended to me, I recovered from my illness, and have been restored to my former and usual good health.

      You should also know that I have...

    • 9 To Adam Marsh, Grosseteste’s friend and collaborator
      (pp. 77-80)

      To Master Adam Marsh,¹ most beloved to him in Christ, his own Robert Grosseteste sends greeting.

      My spirit has in no small way been refreshed by the letter I received from you, with its words of sweet comfort and also of loyal congratulations and generous encouragement. For after laying aside the heavier part of a heavy burden that I did not have the strength to bear, I found no real comfort from anyone until your letter came; instead there were many harsh rebukes, biting detractions, and even expressions of contempt, so hard to bear, from close friends. Moreover, my laying...

    • 10 To an unnamed master of theology
      (pp. 80-82)

      To Master N.,¹ beloved to him because of Christ, Robert Grosseteste sends greeting.

      You, whom I am accustomed to lovinginChrist, I cannot but love because of Christ, forcharity never fails[1 Cor 13:8]. Now, I say that I love you notinChrist butbecauseof Christ, since, as a rumour is emphatically and stridently proclaiming about you, you are notinChrist. For the dangerous and putrid infection of lewdness has cut you off from the body of Christ and made you one with the body of the old enemy. Through you, too, the name of...

    • 11 To Michael Belet, administrator and judge
      (pp. 82-86)

      Robert, with divine permission bishop-elect of Lincoln,¹ sends greeting and sincere affection in the Lord to Master Michael Belet,² beloved to him in Christ.

      I send you many heartfelt thanks for the loving concern with which you watch over the progress and outcome of my affairs. But my thanks are greater and even more sincere and heartfelt because you have been good enough to rebuke and reproach me with compassion and affection for my own rebuke and reproach, which, as many believe and feel, exceeded all measure and moderation. Now, the root from which this reproach and rebuke of yours...

    • 12 To Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 86-88)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Edmund,¹ by the grace of God, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert, by the same grace bishop-elect of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      The Apostle says to the Romans:Make this judgment instead, not to place an obstacle or stumbling block in a brother’s way[Rom 14:13]; and a few words later in the same letter he adds:If your brother is grieved because of your food, then you are no longer walking according to charity; do not by your food cause the...

    • 13 To W. of Cerda, a master in the schools of Paris
      (pp. 88-90)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop-elect of Lincoln, sends greeting, etc. to Master W. of Cerda,¹ beloved to him in Christ.

      I have received from you, dearly beloved, a letter in which you say that since you are unwilling to lecture at Paris as a regent master and hold a cure of souls simultaneously, your choice for the present is to proceed with your course of lectures rather than to bear the burden of a pastoral charge. For the time being, then, you have postponed taking on the cure of souls to which I have summoned you out of...

    • 14 To Alard, Dominican provincial prior
      (pp. 91-92)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Alard,¹ provincial prior of the Friars Preachers in England, Robert, by divine mercy bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      I am well aware of what your holiness has vowed: to long with every impulse of charity for the salvation of souls, to direct your every effort towards that goal, and to bring it about at any cost of sweat and toil. There is no need, then, of many arguments to induce you to support whatever contributes to the salvation of souls. For in this regard you have...

    • 15 To Alard, Dominican provincial prior, and definitors
      (pp. 92-93)

      To the venerable men, most beloved to him in Christ, Brother Alard, provincial prior of the Friars Preachers in England, and the definitors¹ in the chapter to be held at York, Robert, by divine mercy bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      I am firmly bound by the responsibilities of the office that has been imposed upon me, despite my unworthiness, to purify the house of God, but I am unable to make even the slightest progress in that task without vigorous and courageous helpers. No such effective helpers in this charge can be found as there...

    • 16 To John of St Giles, OP
      (pp. 93-94)

      To the venerable man, most beloved to him in Christ, Brother John of St Giles,¹ of the Order of Friars Preachers, his own Robert, by divine permission bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and as much as he has of sincere love and affection.

      I know thatzeal for the house of God consumes you[Jn 2:17], strongly arousing in you the desire to build that house. The skill to build is also something you have, not on a modest scale but conspicuously. It is up to you to put this skill to work gladly and quickly in a place where...

    • 17 To William of Raleigh, treasurer of Exeter Cathedral
      (pp. 94-96)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, William of Raleigh,¹ treasurer of Exeter.

      I have received from you, dearly beloved, a letter that made me feel, the Lord knows, sad and not a little anxious, because it expressed towards me, someone who loves you in the Lord with sincere affection, an indignation that is unreasonable. For as my witness I call upon our God and Lord, Jesus Christ, who is one and the same judge and witness, that I am not admitting W. of Grana² to a...

    • 18 To John le Romeyn, subdean of York Cathedral
      (pp. 97-99)

      To the venerable man, Master John le Romeyn,¹ subdean of York, Robert, by divine permission bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      I have received a letter from the venerable man, Lord Boezio,² nuncio of the lord pope and member of his household, supplicating on your behalf that I permit you free disposition of your church at Chalgrave.³ Accordingly, since disposition is not a wilful action but an orderly one, consistent with right reason, I am, and with the Lord’s assent shall be, most ready to grant free disposition of his churches, not only to you, whom...

    • 19 To John Blund, chancellor of York Cathedral
      (pp. 99-100)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Master John Blund,¹ chancellor of York, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and ever increasing sincere affection.

      The law of friendship brings even things that seem impossible to the level of possibility, and compels us to bear courageously and gladly any adversity rather than break the bond of love. But the sincerity implicit in this law does not wish anything sinful or dishonourable committed for its sake, nor can the name of friendship or friendship itself in any way endure when someone presumes to do...

    • 20 To Adam Marsh, Grosseteste’s friend and collaborator
      (pp. 100-102)

      To his own Adam Marsh,¹ his unworthy and sinful bishop sends greeting and himself.

      May the requiter of all good things reward you for your diligence and toil. That toil, so conscientious as it is, will not be a wasted effort for you, but eternally fruitful, whatever result it may have as far as I am concerned. As I also trust in the mercy of our blessed Saviour and in the prayers of his most holy mother, I hope that your toil will produce a favourable result even so far as it concerns me. For what seems like tedious and...

    • 21 To the archdeacons of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 103-104)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, all the archdeacons appointed throughout the bishopric of Lincoln.¹

      You are to know that the lord king recently, at Northampton, in response to some brief and mild exhortation, kindly approved, granted, and conceded that merchants henceforth at their fair in Northampton may not offer any goods for sale or engage in buying or selling in the Church or cemetery of All Saints at Northampton.² The king himself cited in this regard the fact that the Lord cast out of the...

    • 22 To the archdeacons of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 104-107)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, all the archdeacons appointed throughout the bishopric of Lincoln.¹

      It is a pastor’s duty to suffer with those who are ignorant and go astray, andto keep watchover the flock entrusted to himas if he will have to give anaccount of its souls[Heb 13: 17], andto feedthat flock, as is written in Jeremiah,with knowledge and doctrine[Jer 3:15]. I acknowledge this duty and desire to do all I can to heal those in...

    • 23 To William of Raleigh, treasurer of Exeter Cathedral
      (pp. 108-122)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, William of Raleigh, treasurer of Exeter.¹

      Although, in imitation of the blessed apostle Paul, who exhorts usto follow his example as he followed Christ’s, I am under obligation to Greek and foreigner, to learned and simple, and thus am ready to proclaim the gospel also to you who areat court [1 Cor 11:1, Rom 1: 14–15], to you I am nevertheless much more bound and beholden in my obligation to preach the gospel, so that in you...

    • 24 To William of Raleigh, treasurer of Exeter Cathedral
      (pp. 123-125)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, William of Raleigh, treasurer of Exeter.¹

      I have received your reply wherein you thank me for what I enjoined upon you in my brief, which was indeed, as you say, not a ‘brief’ but a ‘dissertation.’ But this was necessarily the case, if I were to write to you with proper zeal. He who is a jealous(zelotes) God knows that I wrote to you out of zeal for your salvation and that of the king and the realm, as you...

    • 25 To Hugh of Pattishall, royal clerk and treasurer of the Exchequer
      (pp. 125-128)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, Lord Hugh of Pattishall.¹

      The more fervently I love and embrace you with a father’s affection in arms of charity, the more I am obliged to proclaim to you what I believe will hinder or help the salvation of your soul. Not only does love draw me to proclaim what will bring salvation, but fear presses and pushes me with great force to do so, as there are those threats in Scripture, where it says:A curse on him who...

    • 26 To Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 128-132)

      To the revered father and lord in Christ, Edmund,¹ by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, his own devoted Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      With proper respect, father, I have received your letter on behalf of the abbot and community of Osney.² From its wording it was evident to me that that abbot and community have suggested and given you to understand that, because I sequestered the fruits of the Church of Iver, I was the...

    • 27 To Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 132-135)

      To the revered father and lord in Christ, Edmund,¹ by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, his own devoted Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      You should know, father, that the abbot of Ramsey,² of the Order of St Benedict, has received a mandate from the lord king in these words:

      Henry, by the grace of God, etc., to the abbot of Ramsey, greeting. You are to know that we have appointed you, along with our beloved...

    • 28 To Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 135-140)

      To the revered father and lord in Christ, Edmund,¹ by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, his own devoted Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      Since you, as a solicitous father and shepherd, are the one most nearly responsible for the welfare of my soul, it is not only proper but necessary to seek your advice most of all when my soul is troubled by uncertainties, and to find with you the most secure of refuges when...

    • 29 To Henry III, king of England
      (pp. 140-142)

      To his most excellent lord, Henry,¹ by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      The supreme pontiff receives under his personal protection and that of St Peter the persons and property of crusaders once they have taken up the cross. He also orders the defence of their persons and property at the hands of the archbishops, bishops, and all the prelates of the...

    • 30 To Philip of Kyme
      (pp. 142-144)

      To the noble man, Lord Philip of Kyme,¹ Robert, by divine permission bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      It is written thatcharity is patient and kind[1 Cor 13:4] and for that reason bears calmly matters grievous and harsh, not only when they are just, but also when unjust. Now, I realize that to you it seems harsh and grievous that I have, on the authority of the council, instituted a prior to your house at Kyme.² But if charity, without which no one will possess the kingdom of God, burns in your heart, you...

    • 31 To Elias, Franciscan minister general
      (pp. 144-145)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Elias,¹ minister general of the Friars Minor, Robert, by divine mercy bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      I send you the warmest possible thanks for the favour you did me in permitting some friars to remain with me,² but I wish I could repay you as you deserve for your affection, which the favour I mentioned has shown to be so abundant. For if I could, by returning your love, match your own, if only in part, I would then, although physically apart from you, take pleasure...

    • 32 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 145-146)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, William the dean and the chapter of Lincoln.¹

      Sincethe house of God, by testimony of the prophet and the Son of God,is the house of prayer[Is 56:7, Mt 21:13], it is sacrilegious to turn it into a house of buffoonery, scurrility, and frivolity, and to profane with diabolical inventions a place dedicated to God. And since the circumcision of our Lord Jesus Christ was his first suffering and of no little pain, and is also the sign of...

    • 33 To John of Foxton
      (pp. 146-147)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards to Lord John of Foxton,¹ beloved to him in Christ.

      I thank God that you are bearing with thanks to him the discomforts that come with illness and are drinking the bitter cup of tribulation with the sweetness of patience. I thank God, too, that for you the whip is conducive to learning, vexation to understanding, temptation to testing,and testing to the hope that does not prove false[Rom 5:4–5]. I also thank you for your love, because out of that love...

    • 34 To Alexander of Stavensby, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
      (pp. 147-150)

      To his venerable brother in Christ and most dear friend, Alexander,¹ by the grace of God bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere brotherly affection in the Lord.

      The holiness of the religious life as well as persons who live such a life are worthy of veneration and should be brought to our attention and imitated. How this should be done, my brother, you in your discretion know much better than I. For steady and intimate acquaintance with those living this life as well as your uninterrupted...

    • 35 To Pope Gregory IX
      (pp. 150-152)

      To the most holy father and most excellent lord, Gregory, by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet his holiness’s servant Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, most devoutly kisses with all submission and respect.¹

      Because of a common debt of submission, by which not only the Christian people but the entire human race is bound, and without whose payment no one is saved, I owe to you, most holy father and most excellent lord, the fullness of obedience, respect, honour, and fear. It is, however, the special claim of your virtues and...

    • 36 To Giles, cardinal deacon of Sts Cosmas and Damian
      (pp. 152-155)

      To the venerable father in Christ, the lord Giles,¹ cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, offers greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with all honour.

      Just as the universe is supported by its cardinal points (cardines mundi) and has them to hold it up, as has been surmised and described by those whose concern is the study of its movement,² so the unshakeable world, that is, the universal Church, which no shaking shall dislodge from the steadfastness of faith, rests firmly upon the cardinals of the holy...

    • 37 To Raymond of Peñafort, OP
      (pp. 155-156)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Raymond¹ of the Order of Friars Preachers, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      Although I have not seen your face, I nevertheless firmly believe that I know you because I have become acquainted with the face of your inner man from the trustworthy accounts of those who have told me of your character and works of wisdom;² and if knowledge of the face within were not the true knowledge of a man, no one would truly...

    • 38 To Arnulf, OFM, papal penitentiary
      (pp. 156-157)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Arnulf,¹ penitentiary of the lord pope, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting.

      With the utmost devotion I give you back for your love all the thanks I can, though not as many as I would wish. For you knew in advance what my needs were and even anticipated them with your special affection, and, what is more, with a most extraordinary act of kindness, as I have learned for a fact partly from the trustworthy accounts of several people, and partly from a written...

    • 39 To Ranfred of Benevento, papal notary
      (pp. 157-158)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Ranfred,¹ notary of the lord pope, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      If I have omitted anything from your title or have mistaken it, please be kind enough not to hold me responsible. For I know you not so much from the fact that you have this title as from the remarkable renown of your character. From the trustworthy accounts of many people and especially that of my dearly beloved friend, that venerable man, Lord John of...

    • 40 To Jordan of Saxony, Dominican master general
      (pp. 159-160)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Jordan,¹ prior general of the Friars Preachers, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      I am certain that you in your charity remember how great was the friendship you showed me when you were at Oxford² and often welcomed me with gracious courtesy to share private conversations. You will remember, too, how great was the love with which you so kindly embraced me, though I did not deserve it, out of the goodness of your heart. And...

    • 41 To Elias, Franciscan minister general
      (pp. 160-162)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Elias,¹ minister general of the Friars Minor, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      Because your sons, the Friars Minor in England, out of kindness and in a special way embrace me tightly with arms of love,² and because a father’s affection cannot be separated from that of his sons, and because the head, which sets the body in motion, cannot but be involved in the movements of the body’s members, I am certain that you in...

    • 42 To Arnulf, OFM, papal penitentiary
      (pp. 162-162)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Brother Arnulf,¹ penitentiary of the lord pope, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      For the salutary advice, affable conversation, and sweet consolation you are generously providing without recompense to Simon, my proctor,² I respectfully send you, a man of true charity, all possible thanks, earnestly imploring that the deep-rooted affection you have for me, which has, I know from services rendered, not only sent forth new growth, but has also increased in strength from being watered with...

    • 43 To John of Ferentino, papal chamberlain
      (pp. 163-163)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Lord John of Ferentino,¹ chamberlain of the lord pope, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends both greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      Charity’s extent is neither fixed nor confinable but always expands ever more broadly, so that it may always receive with an increasing abundance anyone it has once taken into its embrace. Knowing as I do that you have taken me into the embrace of your charity, as one who has been received there ever more often I heap request upon request...

    • 44 To Thomas of Capua, cardinal priest of Santa Sabina
      (pp. 163-165)

      To the venerable father in Christ, the lord Thomas,¹ cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with all honour.

      From a trustworthy report I have learned that out of sincere affection you embraced my predecessor Hugh,² of happy memory, with a special, personal love, and that by reason of the Lord’s approval you have in your discretion promoted, much more effectively than anyone else, the affairs of the church over which I, despite my unworthiness, with the Lord’s permission now preside....

    • 45 To Giles, cardinal deacon of Sts Cosmas and Damian
      (pp. 165-166)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Lord Giles,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of Sts Cosmas and Damian, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with all honour.

      I have received with deference and devotion, as was proper, revered father, the letter you recently sent me by way of the lord bishop of Chester.² This I carefully read, marvelling at the way its words blossom like flowers and how it shines with the silver of eloquence, gleams with the gold of wisdom, and glows red...

    • 46 To Giles, cardinal deacon of Sts Cosmas and Damian
      (pp. 166-168)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Giles,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of Sts Cosmas and Damian, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with all honour.

      The guarantee of your testimony and evidence of his integrity have recommended Master Richard of Cornwall² to me in many ways. So, in accord with your wish and, in the end, simply for the sake of God, I have taken care to ‘plant’ this master in the Church of Lincoln. The place, however, in which he has been...

    • 47 To Richard of Cornwall
      (pp. 168-169)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord to the venerable man, Master Richard of Cornwall.¹

      Upon reflecting that, with the Lord’s favour, your outstanding knowledge, enhanced as it is in an exceptional way by a praiseworthy character, will give rise to a large harvest of souls, and desiring to share in that harvest, I have conferred upon you a certain prebend that is in my church and has a cure of souls attached to it.² Although it is small, do not refuse it, or you may perhaps – God...

    • 48 To Simon de Montfort
      (pp. 169-172)

      To the venerable man, most dear in Christ, Lord Simon de Montfort,¹ Robert, by divine mercy unworthy minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      Holy and righteous people are of the opinion that it is as wrong not to punish the guilty as it is to punish the innocent. So the person whose concern it is, by virtue of his office, to correct others is unjust if he fails to punish their transgressions. That is why we read that even King Saul was condemned for sparing the king of the Amalechites, whom he should...

    • 49 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 172-174)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      I have received with proper respect your holiness’s letter, wherein you mention that you have decided that the prebend formerly held by Master R. of Warminster in the Church of Lincoln should be conferred upon your clerk, Master Azzo.² First, then, you should know, holy father, that I had already made an appointment to...

    • 50 To Robert of Hayles, archdeacon of Lincoln
      (pp. 174-175)

      Robert, by the grace of God, bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, Robert,¹ archdeacon of Lincoln.

      As I have the duty to spread the word of God to everyone in my diocese and am unable to satisfy this obligation by speaking personally to everyone – there are so many parish churches and such a large number of people – I have no other solution in such a situation than the following: When I travel throughout my diocese, and when the rectors of churches, vicars, and parish priests have been assembled before me in their...

    • 51 To Thomas of Wales, canon of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 176-179)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, Master Thomas of Wales,¹ canon of Lincoln.

      Now that Robert,² archdeacon of Lincoln, has gone the way of all flesh – may God have mercy on his soul! – I have conferred upon you the archdeaconry of Lincoln together with the prebend held by the late archdeacon, as you are ready to reside in it. For, filled with fear of God, I presumed to confer such an important cure of souls only upon someone who was willing to undertake this charge personally...

    • 52 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 179-182)

      To the revered father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      I have received your holiness’s letter requesting that I admit to the Church of Rand the clerk Thomas, son of that noble man, Earl Ferrers, although he is ineligible because of his young age to hold an ecclesiastical benefice and is not in holy orders.² You nevertheless make this request because he is a...

    • 52* To the clergy of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 182-193)

      Since I am duty bound to give a good account of my stewardship over you – an accounting which, according to Augustine,¹ requires me to speak and not to keep silent, and to weep when I speak and no one listens to me – I cannot pass over in silence what I believe you must know and do.²

      [1] Because souls are not saved without obeying the Ten Commandments, I exhort in the Lord and firmly charge that every shepherd of souls and each and every parish priest know the Decalogue, that is, the ten commandments of the law of Moses. These...

    • 53 To the abbot and monks of Fleury
      (pp. 193-195)

      To the venerable men, the abbot by the grace of God of St Benoît-sur-Loire and the members of that community,¹ Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.

      Although the glory of the good is from within,and their left hand does not know what their right hand is doing, nor do they practise their righteousness before others so as to be seen by them, but they do their good deedsin secret, that theirheavenlyFather, who sees in secret, may reward them[Mt...

    • 54 To the abbot of Fleury
      (pp. 195-196)

      To the venerable man, the abbot¹ by the grace of God of St Benoît-sur-Loire, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.

      The Lord has said,if one blind man leads another, both will fall into the ditch[Mt 15: 14]. Now the ‘blind’ are also foolish people who have no knowledge of God and whom, it is plain to see, the light from God’s law does not illuminate. Only those, then, whom this light shines upon should be appointed spiritual leaders. It is by...

    • 55 To the abbot of the Augustinian canons of Leicester
      (pp. 196-197)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, the abbot of Leicester¹ by the same grace.

      With the Lord’s help I shall come to your parts and become better acquainted with the condition of H., a canon of Dorchester. You have asked me to let him return to his home and have inquired as to whether he may still do so with the approval of the abbot and community at Dorchester.² You are trying to convince me to permit his return because he is ill and old and...

    • 56 To William, earl of Warren
      (pp. 198-199)

      To the noble man and most dear friend in Christ, William, earl of Warren,¹ Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere affection in the Lord.

      You have written me to express your great astonishment that I have ordered the citation of you and of N. your chaplain to give answer and submit to due legal process before me or my official. You mention, too, that N. your chaplain has been summarily suspended. The astonishment expressed by a man of your discretion is your way of complaining that in this citation I wronged you and...

    • 57 To the abbot and monks of Bury St Edmunds
      (pp. 200-204)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the abbot by the same grace and the community of Bury St Edmunds.¹

      While taking a little rest this past week from the turmoil of worldly preoccupations, I happened one day, when I was free for a moment to do some reading, upon a text about the life of monks that praises it appropriately. And because I believed that this work would be something you would enjoy studying were I to share with you what I could understand of it,...

    • 58 To Pope Gregory IX
      (pp. 204-206)

      To the most holy father and lord, Gregory,¹ by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, kisses.

      It is not only accounts of your reputation, the good odour of which fills the world, but also my own personal experience of our close relationship on many occasions, which have together made me truly conscious of your holiness’s extraordinarily fervent zeal to remove from the house of the Lord all abominations of impiety, to repair what is fissured, to give support to what is about to fall, to strengthen...

    • 59 To Rinaldo of Jenne, cardinal bishop of Ostia
      (pp. 206-208)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Rinaldo,¹ by the grace of God bishop of Ostia, cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Robert, by divine permission humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      By their beneficial preaching the Friars Minor appointed throughout the kingdom of England are effective in lighting the people’s way to a knowledge of the truth, and by the example of their most holy way of life they strongly rouse the people to do what the truth requires, so that what I might call a...

    • 60 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 208-211)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      Becausethe faith that works through love[Gal 5:6] unites you indissolubly with Christ,your zeal for the house of God can only consume you[Ps 68:10]. Yet the closer your true union in the body of Christ to its head, all the more are you constantly consumed by the fiery ardour of this...

    • 61 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 211-213)

      To the revered father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      That you have thought fit, holy father, in the midst of so many great responsibilities, to reply so graciously and attentively to an insignificant person like myself reveals that you, in imitation of the love of the Lord who reigns over us, have covered yourself with invincible courage and the admirable adornment of humility....

    • 62 To Ralph de Neville, bishop of Chichester
      (pp. 213-216)

      To his venerable brother in Christ and most dear friend, Ralph,¹ by the grace of God bishop of Chichester, chancellor of the lord king, Robert, by the same grace humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in brotherly love.

      With sincerity and affection you have asked me to write to the lord pope and my special friends at the curia in support of your postulation² and in a form I would consider appropriate to God, to the Church, and to your own high rank. Because of your love for me you should know that...

    • 63 To the abbot and monks of Ramsey Abbey
      (pp. 216-217)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the abbot and convent of Ramsey.¹

      Because it is right that I doeverything decently and in order[1 Cor 14:40]so that my ministry may not be brought into discredit[2 Cor 6:3], I am obliged to make every effort to guard against attempting anything in that ministry that may be contrary to ancient and approved customs, or the regulations of the sacred canons, or what has been handed down by the holy fathers and interpreters of Sacred Scripture....

    • 64 To Pope Gregory IX
      (pp. 218-218)

      To the most holy father and lord, Gregory,¹ by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, kisses.

      The goodwill demonstrated by numerous kindnesses, which is not only abundant but even superabundant, and which your holiness with gracious benevolence has freely shown to my humble self, impels so utterly insignificant a man as myself to offer thanks in perpetuity. And because it is typical of goodwill to satisfy with even more benefits the entreaties of the suppliant it freely helped before, it is my firmest hope that the...

    • 65 To Robert of Somercote, cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio
      (pp. 219-220)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Robert,² by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      I have given thanks to the Lord Jesus Christ for your promotion, as you asked me to do when you wrote, and have expressed the hope that this is not a lifeless promotion but one that is alive. Now, a promotion is alive when a high office, endowed with power but transitory by nature, is animated by the lifting...

    • 66 To John of Ferentino, papal chamberlain
      (pp. 221-221)

      To the venerable man, Lord John of Ferentino,¹ chamberlain of the lord pope, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere affection in the Lord.

      I know well enough that you love me sincerely and have closely embraced me not because of any meritorious action on my part, but because of your own goodness. That love prompted you, upon your return to the curia from my part of the world and at all times thereafter, to silence the spiteful gossip of my jealous detractors and of those who are striving to destroy entirely...

    • 67 To Giles, cardinal deacon of Sts Cosmas and Damian
      (pp. 222-222)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Giles,¹ by the grace of God cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      The light of your affection, which you shine upon everyone without exception,² you have with what might be called the pleasant radiance of a special friendship generously shone – may the Almighty repay you! – upon so insignificant a person as myself. As I feel the many manifestations of the warmth and consolation of this light, without ceasing I give...

    • 68 To Thomas of Capua, cardinal priest of Santa Sabina
      (pp. 222-223)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Thomas,¹ by the grace of God cardinal of the Roman Church, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      Timbers made strong by long growth are good for bearing loads in buildings, even if such weights are extremely heavy. Your affection for the Church of Lincoln, which dates from the time of my predecessor Hugh,² of happy memory, has to this point continued to grow and become strong, like a tree that does not decay, and for that...

    • 69 To Arnulf, OFM, papal penitentiary
      (pp. 223-224)

      To one most beloved to him in Christ, Brother Arnulf,¹ penitentiary of the lord pope, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      Many waters cannot quench love, nor will floods sweep it away[Sg 8:7]. Fleeting pleasure² will not muddy it, nor will a sudden and violent onrush of terrors overpower it; the destructive wear and tear of passing time will not erode it, whether time flows on gently in prosperity or rushes torrentially in adversity. No, love grows under all these conditions, taking every opportunity to increase until...

    • 70 To Rinaldo of Jenne, cardinal bishop of Ostia
      (pp. 224-225)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Rinaldo,¹ by the grace of God bishop of Ostia, cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience, together with all his respect.

      Because of your bountiful and sweet benevolence, father, your concern is to anticipate with acts of kindness the needs of my humble self, and therefore to help me generously in advance with a more than ample supply of the most welcome beneficence. For you have shown yourself, without my deserving it, to be very friendly...

    • 71 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 225-228)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, William the dean and the chapter of Lincoln.¹

      According to divine and natural law, children of the flesh repay their parents with love, fear, honour, obedience, and forbearance, and by covering their nakedness and forgiving and excusing any defect in their understanding. And the greater and better the spirit is than the body, and the purer the ties of spiritual kinship are than any physical relationship, the more sincerely and purely and completely do children of the spirit value these...

    • 72 To John le Romeyn, subdean of York Cathedral
      (pp. 229-230)

      To the venerable man and most dear friend in Christ, Master John le Romeyn,¹ subdean of York, Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards.

      The Son of God came from the bosom of the Father into the womb of the Virgin of whom he was born a man. God of God he was eternally born, and though incapable of suffering in his divine nature, to save sinners he submitted himself to a most shameful and bitter death on a cross, after enduring insults, scourgings, blows, spittle, and mockery. He instructed the...

    • 72* For Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 230-257)

      The lord king of England has appointed abbots as itinerant justices with a writ of this kind:¹

      Henry, by the grace of God, etc., to Abbot [A.], greeting. You are to know that we have appointed you, along with our beloved and faithful [B.] and [C.], our justice in eyre for all our lawsuits in the county of [D.]. And we therefore command and beseech you to be willing to assume for the time being the aforementioned burden of the office of justice, together with the aforementioned and faithful [subjects] of ours, and to do so in such a way...

    • 73 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 257-262)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, William the dean and the chapter of Lincoln.¹

      Your statement of your claim has been made available to prudent and God-fearing men.² You are devoting your every effort to making good your position that your bishop is not to decide any cases or correct any transgressions of any of the canons of the Church of Lincoln, or of the clerks who belong to that church’s choir, or of any vicars, whether priests or clerks, or even of laypeople, from the...

    • 74 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 262-264)

      To the revered father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      You have asked me, holy father, through Master P., your clerk, to confer a prebend that belonged to my clerk, Master H., upon your clerk, Master Azzo.² I told Master P. that I would consider your request for the present and give you my answer, father, on your arrival in these parts.³

      The fact...

    • 75 To Simon de Montfort
      (pp. 264-266)

      To the noble man and dearest friend in Christ, the Lord Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester,¹ Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere affection in the Lord.

      I have received the letter, dear friend, in which you make known the weight of your suffering,² for which, and rightly, I feel much compassion, although it is my hope that this suffering will benefit your spiritual wellbeing, for the Apostle says:All who want to live piously in Christ Jesus suffer persecution[2 Tm 3:12]; and again,Now all discipline certainly seems for the present...

    • 76 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 266-268)

      To the revered father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the Apostolic See, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      When they came back to me after calling upon you, holy father, my clerks, Roger of Raveningham and John of Crakehall,² reported to me the kind words you privately communicated to them that expressed the fullness or, I should rather say, the overflowing, of your love for me. And because love is the most...

    • 77 To Pope Gregory IX
      (pp. 268-270)

      To the most holy father and lord, Gregory,¹ by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, most devoutly kisses.

      It is the duty of a shepherd to get to know his sheep, andthe just manis obligatedto know the souls of his beasts[Prv 12:10]. And there can be no better way fora shepherd and bishop of souls[1 Pt 2:25] to acquire that knowledge than through the office of visitation and investigation. But investigation is pointless and illusory unless followed closely by correction...

    • 78 To William of Auvergne, bishop of Paris
      (pp. 270-271)

      To the venerable father in Christ and most dear friend, William,¹ by the grace of God bishop of Paris, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.

      Just as tiny drops of moisture fill even the smallest cavities, so your affection, as it strives to penetrate everyone, finds among the others even my own small self, and fills me with what might be called the special fullness of its sweetness. What I am to give as compensation for your affection I do not know, because...

    • 79 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 271-273)

      To the revered father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      For the honeyed sweetness of your letter and your most kind forgiveness I offer you my thanks, holy father, thanks that, though they do not, because of my inadequacy, match what you deserve, are nevertheless as numerous and as devoted as I am able to express. I cannot, however, explain how much I rejoice...

    • 80 To Simon of Arden, Grosseteste’s proctor at the papal curia
      (pp. 273-279)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to Simon of Arden,¹ his proctor at the Roman curia.

      As I informed you through my clerk, William of Hemingborough,² I have suspended the dean, precentor, and subdean of Lincoln from entering the church, because the dean and chapter, though often exhorted to do so, refused to revoke the order they had directed to the vicars and chaplains who minister in the prebends and the churches of the common property, forbidding them to submit to me when I want to visit them in those places. On...

    • 81 To Pope Gregory IX
      (pp. 280-281)

      To the most holy father and lord, Gregory,¹ by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, most devoutly kisses.

      I recently informed your holiness² that when I tried, not only with my authority as ordinary but with yours as well, to extend the hand of pastoral solicitude to performing the office of visiting the chapter of Lincoln and the churches of the prebends and the common property of that Church, the dean and chapter opposed my doing so with all their strength. For this reason I have...

    • 82 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 281-283)

      To the revered father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      Since in the face of heavy obstacles inferiors are from weakness unable to bring to fruition actions that their office nevertheless obliges them to complete, what other remedy do they have but to fall back on their superiors? In this way inferiors may be invigorated from the abundance of a greater power, which will...

    • 83 To Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 283-285)

      To the revered father in Christ, Edmund,¹ by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect.

      One must fight evils the moment they begin, because ‘too late is medicine prepared when they have gained strength by long delays.’²

      A rumour on everyone’s lips is loudly proclaiming that in the forthcoming elections the oppressive malady of terror, threats, violent intimidation, and bribery has already begun to grow strong, and unless it is cured very soon by a...

    • 84 To Robert of Lexington and fellow itinerant justices
      (pp. 285-287)

      To the venerable men and most dear friends in Christ, Lord Robert of Lexington¹ and his fellow itinerant justices of the lord king at Lincoln, Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      I have been informed that you have greatly reviled and insulted H.,² dean of Christianity at Lincoln, and caused the entrances to his house to be shut, and his goods and certain lands held by him as guardian of his brother’s daughters, and even certain goods belonging to his relatives, to be taken into the possession...

    • 85 To the Augustinian canons of Missenden
      (pp. 287-289)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons, the community of Missenden.¹

      The person who must choose one minister from among many for a ministry that is useful and necessary to many is undoubtedly obliged first to discover, by careful and prudent investigation, which person is more suitable, that is, more competent, more wise, more ready and willing, and more impassioned than all the others in that large group to take on the charge that the one who makes the choice intends to have properly administered, and then to select...

    • 86 To Boniface of Savoy, archbishop-elect of Canterbury
      (pp. 290-292)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Boniface,¹ by the grace of God archbishop-elect of Canterbury, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      I thank the Lord Jesus Christ, the supreme shepherd, who has provided a shepherd for his Church of Canterbury, long deprived of a shepherd’s comfort.² For it is my hope that, after the example of Jesus Christ, the supreme shepherd, in whom all shepherds are one, you will, as the prophet says, feed with knowledge and doctrine, and also with judgment...

    • 87 To Boniface of Savoy, archbishop-elect of Canterbury
      (pp. 292-294)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Boniface,¹ by the grace of God archbishop-elect of Canterbury, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      The second branch that springs from the root of charity is love of one’s neighbour.² That love is, moreover, not a crippled or passive desire but one that is sound and operates with vigour for the true good of the beloved, not for the sake of anyone else but for that of the beloved himself. Now, a true good is not...

    • 88 To Boniface of Savoy, archbishop-elect of Canterbury
      (pp. 294-295)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Boniface,¹ by the grace of God archbishop-elect of Canterbury, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      My diocese is very extensive and populous and therefore has many offenders in matters requiring the Church’s discipline, offenders whom I am duty-bound to guide by recourse to the punishments prescribed by canon law. Some offenders, too, I must strike with therod of guidance[Ps 44:7] more harshly than they would wish, to make them return to the way of...

    • 89 To Boniface of Savoy, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 295-297)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Boniface,¹ by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      Recently your clerks came to me on your behalf, father, and asked me to affix my seal to a certain letter that already bears the seals of the lord bishop of Hereford and the lord bishop-elect of Chichester.² This letter is addressed in my name and theirs to your other suffragan bishops in support of the subsidy...

    • 90 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 297-303)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the dean and chapter of Lincoln.¹

      The obligation to love one’s own offspring has been imposed by nature not only on mankind and domesticated animals but also on wild beasts. So, a parent who does not love his offspring puts aside not only his human nature, but also the nature he has in common with irrational beings, becoming not likeunwitting beasts of burden[Ps 48:13, 21], but much inferior to them. Now, the spiritual bond is better and more...

    • 91 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 303-306)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the dean and chapter of Lincoln.¹

      As if it were an appropriate response, you have written back to me to say that at the lord king’s command, which I succeeded in obtaining, or so it seemed to you, you went to him soon after the feast of All Saints, and that in his presence and in my hearing it was publicly declared on your behalf and that of the chapter of Lincoln that it was not your intention to prosecute...

    • 92 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 306-308)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the dean and chapter of Lincoln.¹

      I am not fully aware of why you are going so often to the lord king’s court, but I strongly suspect that the reason for your frequent visits there is to arrange with the lord king not to revoke the prohibition he has used to restrain the judges from proceeding in the case at issue between me and my chapter, and consequently to arrange with a lay and secular power to stop the case...

    • 93 To the dean and chapter of Salisbury Cathedral
      (pp. 309-309)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord to the dean and chapter of Salisbury,¹ who are beloved to him in Christ.

      You have asked and implored me to show myself ready to restore peace between myself and my chapter, but your affection for me should tell you that I ardently desire peace more than anything else. Because, however, as Augustine says,² the word ‘peace’ is used with many different meanings, and not every peace is true and honourable, and a particular peace may be shameful and...

    • 94 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 310-313)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the dean and chapter of Lincoln.¹

      At the beginning of your letter you promise words of peace in a spirit of clemency and affection – may the God of peace himself grant that the concluding words are not inconsistent with those at the beginning! – and so you write words that praise peace and the desire for it. But although the word ‘peace’ is used in various ways, as Augustine testifies, one would wish that the desire you mention is for the...

    • 95 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 314-315)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the dean and chapter of Lincoln.¹

      The strength of a city’s wall and the prudent, strong, and untiring defence provided by its citizens at the ramparts fend off the enemy, drive them back in confusion, and save the city. And should it happen that the wall is weak, but that a tireless defence by strong men is available, the city will not easily be endangered by an enemy’s assault. If, however, the wall has no strong defenders, regardless of how...

    • 96 To Hugh of Northwold, bishop of Ely
      (pp. 315-317)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Hugh, by the grace of God bishop of Ely, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.¹

      Solomon writes inProverbsthata friend loves at all times, and a brother is proven in times of distress[Prv 17:17]. Now, the proof of brotherhood and of friendship is a deed done for all to see. So the person who in times of distress does not provide help when he is able to do so plainly shows that he is...

    • 97 To Richard of Kirkham, papal judge-delegate
      (pp. 317-318)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord to Master Richard of Kirkham,¹ who is beloved to him in Christ.

      You have asked me not to take offence at any absence on your part, but who is not offended when someone has embarrassed him? If you were in fact to absent yourself, my embarrassment would be as great as it could be, and so too would be the offence, and not without good reason. You state that you have a fear of surprise attacks. Well, in your...

    • 98 To Walter of Cantilupe, bishop of Worcester
      (pp. 318-320)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Walter, by the grace of God bishop of Worcester, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.¹

      Of Moses we read thathe was the meekest man who ever lived on earth[Nm 12:3]. He loved the people entrusted to him with such deep feelings of charity that he begged the Lord thathe be blotted out of the book the Lord had written[Ex 32:32], that is, the book of life, or that his people be forgiven their...

    • 99 To Walter of Cantilupe, bishop of Worcester
      (pp. 321-322)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Walter, by the grace of God bishop of Worcester, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.¹

      My beloved clerk Master Leonard² has informed me, on behalf of your affectionate self, that you wish to hear my counsel as to whether or not you should journey with the lord king, at his expense, across the sea for a fixed period of time and for the sole purpose of discussing terms of peace between him and his adversaries.³

      Now, in...

    • 100 To Matthew, Dominican provincial prior, and definitors
      (pp. 323-324)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord to those beloved to him in Christ, Brother Matthew, provincial prior, and the definitors of the provincial chapter of the Friars Preachers in England.¹

      It is written,Do not say to your friend: ‘Go and come again and tomorrow I will give to you,’ when you can give at once[Prv 3:28]. From this maxim it is very clear that to delay giving is not to give at all, whereas to give at an opportune and proper time is...

    • 101 To Henry III, king of England
      (pp. 324-325)

      To his most excellent lord, Henry, by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou,¹ his own devoted Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      I send you my most devoted and heartfelt thanks because you were willing to give me news of your lordship’s health, my lady the queen’s, and your family’s – all of whom may the Lord forever keep safe and prosperous and in his favour – and to...

    • 102 To Henry III, king of England
      (pp. 326-327)

      To his most excellent lord, Henry, by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou,¹ his own devoted Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      I have heard that your excellency has ordered William of Compton, keeper of the temporalities of the abbey of Bardney, to arrange for Walter, former abbot of Bardney, and the monks who are his supporters, to be supplied with everything they need more generously and...

    • 103 To Eleanor, queen of England
      (pp. 327-328)

      To his most excellent lady, Eleanor, by the grace of God illustrious queen of England, lady of Ireland, duchess of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and countess of Anjou,¹ her own devoted Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      It is written in the book of Wisdom:Like the sun rising to the world in God’s heavens, so the beauty of a good wife is for the adornment of her house[Sir 26:21]. Now, the sun rising to the world drives away the horror...

    • 104 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 329-330)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      My clerk, Master Simon of Arden,² has returned to me from your presence, father, with news that he heard certain remarks from you that led him to be very much afraid that a shadow had been cast over the serenity of your usual affection for me. If this report were trustworthy,...

    • 105 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 330-332)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Otto,¹ by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, legate of the apostolic see, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      From the report of my beloved son in Christ, Master R.,² I have learned that you intend, holy father, to start on a journey to the Roman curia before the next feast of the Lord’s Circumcision.³ I earnestly wish I were able to share your journey and your labours and thus...

    • 106 To Martin, papal chamberlain, nuncio, and collector of revenues
      (pp. 332-334)

      To the venerable man, Master Martin,¹ chamberlain and nuncio of the lord pope, Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      I have received your letter concerning what happened at the vicarage of Pinchbeck,² and at the end there was a request that I write back to tell you what I intend to do about it and to send you my counsel. As I desire to the best of my ability to preserve unimpaired the lord pope’s honour and yours, I begin at the end and write back with...

    • 107 To the archdeacons of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 334-336)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, Archdeacon so-and-so.¹

      I have heard from a trustworthy source that a great many priests in your archdeaconry,showing no fear of God nor respect for anyone[Lk 18:1], either do not recite the canonical hours or do so incorrectly. And what they do recite they say without any devotion or sign of devotion – indeed, more with an open display of disrespect. And when they recite the divine office they do not keep to a time that may be more convenient...

    • 108 To the abbot and monks of Fleury
      (pp. 336-338)

      To the venerable men, the abbot and community of St Benedict at Fleury,¹ Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.

      You have professed the Rule of the blessed Benedict, a rule of preeminent holiness, and no one has any doubt that a professed monk is bound to observe his solemn profession and that those, therefore, who willingly and deliberately violate the rule, sin mortally. Furthermore, as the Apostle teaches,not only those who commitmortalsins, but also those who consent to such conduct in others,...

    • 109 To the abbot and monks of Cîteaux
      (pp. 338-340)

      To the venerable men, most dear in Christ, the abbot of Cîteaux by the grace of God, and the community there,¹ Robert, by the same grace bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.

      When I received a papal letter² specifying that I was to arrange, with the letter as my authority, for the buildings of the Friars Minor at Scarborough to be pulled down if certain statements in that letter should prove to be correct, by the authority of that same letter I arranged for those friars to be summoned. They appeared...

    • 110 To Otto of Tonengo, cardinal deacon and papal legate in England
      (pp. 341-345)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Otto, by the grace of God cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano,¹ Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      The assurance with which I write at such length to you, father, and make known my needs with simplicity and frankness, stems not only from your own gracious command on more than one occasion to write confidently to you when I am in need, but also from the deeply felt and tender mercy I know you...

    • 111 To Pope Innocent IV
      (pp. 345-346)

      To the most holy father and lord, Innocent, by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, most devotedly kisses.¹

      Blessed be God, who brings the calm after a storm and pours down exultation upon his Church after her weeping and wailing. For a long time now she has been violently battered by a tempest of many great afflictions and oppressions, and as if widowed, sheweptwith sorrowin the night, so thattearsran downher cheeks[Lam 1:2]. For her God has provided a spouse...

    • 112 To the archdeacons of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 346-349)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, all the archdeacons¹ appointed throughout the diocese of Lincoln.

      A man who was going abroad handed over his possessions to his servants[Mt 25:14] that on his return he might receive them back increased many times through their efforts. That man is a type of those prelates who are often obliged to go abroadto seek what was lost[Lk 19:10]. Their possessions, to the extent that this is what they are, consist of their ordinary powers and official duties...

    • 113 To William of Raleigh, bishop of Winchester, and Walter of Cantilupe, bishop of Worcester
      (pp. 350-350)

      To the venerable fathers in Christ, William¹ and Walter,² bishops by the grace of God of Winchester and Worcester, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord.

      The fervour of your love for me, which on many previous occasions I had read in your actions as if in a book written in ordinary script, I read again in the copious tears you shed for me on my departure, as if in a book written ostentatiously in letters that shine with the greatest brightness. I am...

    • 114 To William of Nottingham, Franciscan provincial minister
      (pp. 351-352)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting and a sincere increase in his charity in the Lord to his beloved brother in Christ, the minister of the Friars Minor in England.¹

      We who embrace God in true friendship are not troubled but rather comforted by whatever are his wise and beneficial dispositions. And since you are a true lover andfriend of God[Jdt 8:22], it follows that anything that happens at his direction cannot trouble you.

      Now, through God’s providence, which disposes all things wisely and for our benefit, Brother John,² companion of Brother Adam,³...

    • 115 To Hugh of St Cher, cardinal priest of Santa Sabina
      (pp. 353-354)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Hugh,¹ by the grace of God cardinal priest of the titular church of Santa Sabina, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      The sincerity of your love for me, despite my insignificance, has so clearly revealed itself in the cheerful tranquillity of your countenance, the sweetness of your words, and the effectiveness of your actions. So, although the thanks I offer you, father, cannot be worthy of you, they are nevertheless as abundant and devout as I...

    • 116 To Walter de Gray, archbishop of York
      (pp. 354-355)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Walter, by the grace of God archbishop of York,¹ Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      Out of obedience we are very often compelled to do what we then do with sadness and would be glad not to do if that were possible. But becauseit is like the sin of witchcraft to rebel and like the crime of idolatry to refuse to obey[1 Sm 15:23], we cannot neglect to do what a superior has instructed....

    • 117 To Pope Innocent IV
      (pp. 355-357)

      To the most holy father in Christ and lord, Innocent, by the grace of God supreme pontiff, whose blessed feet his own devoted Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, most devoutly kisses.¹

      On my return to England I met the lord king who was on his way back from Wales, and I had a private conversation with him.² When, among other matters, I had given him, as best I could, some words of advice about our obligation to show and practise obedience, loyalty, and devotion to your holiness and the holy Roman Church, and to...

    • 118 To ‘T.,’ appointee to a pastoral charge
      (pp. 357-358)

      To the venerable man, most dear to him in Christ, the Lord T.,¹ Robert, by the grace of God, bishop of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and sincere and affectionate regards in the Lord.

      As I believe you are filled with fervour and zeal for the salvation of souls, I have, because of my desire for their salvation, conferred upon you the archdeaconry of Huntingdon and the prebend of Buckden.² These benefices you cannot now refuse to accept, just because once before you refused my offer of the prebend of Gretton.³ For there is now – blessed be the Lord!...

    • 119 To Henry III, king of England
      (pp. 358-359)

      To his most excellent lord Henry,¹ by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      Your revered lordship has written to me that you are not a little astonished and disturbed that I propose independently to assess and collect the tallage in aid of the lord pope from monks and clerks.² As a man of discretion and integrity please know that in this...

    • 120 To John of Offington, papal chaplain
      (pp. 360-361)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, Master John of Offington,¹ chaplain of the lord pope.

      Brother Adam Marsh and I, who have a special love for you in the Lord, very much, or rather most of all, long for you to come to England and to remain here in the service of Jesus Christ and the salvation of the souls for which he shed his blood. For he, the greatest lover of souls, has entrusted to you the talent of refined metal and approved coinage that...

    • 121 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 361-363)

      Robert, by the grace of God, bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, Henry the dean and the chapter of Lincoln.¹

      My beloved son, Master Robert,² precentor of the Church of Lincoln, came to tell me on your behalf of your surprise that, although I stated in chapter that it was my wish to begin my visitation with the chapter of Lincoln and to proceed next to visit the parts, I now intend to reverse the order. To your expressions of surprise about this I answer as follows: Before I came to Lincoln,...

    • 122 To the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 363-364)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, Henry the dean and the chapter of Lincoln.¹

      It is written,Whatever happens to a just man will not cause him distress[Prv 12:21]. By ‘whatever happens’ is meant anything a just man suffers, not what he does himself. Now, as you are just men, nothing that happens to you will cause you any distress, and if it does distress you, is it not a fact that you are not just men? And if you are not just, are you...

    • 123 To the regent masters in theology at Oxford
      (pp. 364-366)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, the regent masters in theology at Oxford.¹

      Skilful builders are very careful and vigilant that every stone to be placed in the foundation of a building is really a foundation stone, appropriate and suitable because of its solidity to support the weight of the building to be erected above it. Now, you are the builders of the house of God,constructingitupon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone[Eph 2:20]. So...

    • 124 To Henry III, king of England
      (pp. 366-369)

      To his most excellent lord Henry,¹ by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, his own devoted Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      It is at your lordship’s command that I am writing you this letter, and that is why I devotedly ask your excellency to be so kind as to receive, hear, and understand it with a king’s clemency. Its source is not only, as it were,...

    • 125 To Henry III, king of England
      (pp. 370-371)

      To his most excellent lord, Henry,¹ by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, his own devoted Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted respect, together with his sincere affection.

      I have heard that your royal excellency is angry with my insignificant self on the ground of my writing to oppose your mandates, as it would be proper for you to be had I done so.² Thesearcher of hearts and minds[Ps 7:10] knows...

    • 126 To Boniface of Savoy, archbishop of Canterbury
      (pp. 371-374)

      To the venerable father in Christ, Boniface,¹ by the grace of God archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert, by divine mercy humble minister of the Church of Lincoln, sends greeting and both dutiful and devoted obedience and respect in all things.

      You know, father, that you have been appointed head of the bishops so that you may rouse the negligent from neglect of their duties, aid the diligence of the diligent, and not compel anyone to do anything unjust, but instead canonically correct those who act unjustly. These are also the responsibilities of your official,² for it is...

    • 127 Document setting out Grosseteste’s position on visitation of the dean and chapter of Lincoln Cathedral
      (pp. 374-441)

      Entrusted¹ by the Lord with the task of guiding the entire people of Israel, so that he would lead them out of Egypt and liberate them from the yoke of Pharaoh, and thereby bring them into the promised land, Mosestook his seat from morning until evening to judge the people[Ex 18:13] entrusted to his care. He had no one to share with him the powers of the office of judge until Jethro came to him and saw thatthe taskof judging all the people,which Moses was bearing alone, was beyond his strength[Ex 18:18]. Jethro advised...

    • 128 To Stephen de Montival, archdeacon of Canterbury, and Innocenzo, papal scriptor
      (pp. 441-446)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting to the venerable men, the archdeacon of Canterbury¹ and Master Innocenzo,scriptorof the lord pope.²

      I have learned that you have received a letter from the lord pope³ in these words:

      Innocent, bishop, servant of the servants of God, sends greeting and apostolic blessing to his beloved sons, the archdeacon of Canterbury and Master Innocenzo, ourscriptorsojourning in England.

      Whereas our beloved son, Guglielmo, cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio,⁴ has, at our special command, reckoned that a canonry of Lincoln and all concomitant rights ought to be...

    • 129 To Robert Marsh, Grosseteste’s official
      (pp. 447-449)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends greeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved son in Christ, Master Robert Marsh,¹ canon of Lincoln and his official.

      My beloved sons in Christ, the chancellor² and the University of Oxford, have written to inform me that on the day of the feast of the Apostles Philip and James,³ some of the burgesses of Oxford came upon a scholar of noble birth and virtuous way of life as he was passing at a late hour by St Martin’s Church⁴ in Oxford, and without reason or provocation, it is said, horribly...

    • 130 To the regular and secular clergy of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 449-452)

      R[ichard], by divine mercy bishop of Lincoln, sends his wish for their perpetual salvation in the Lord and everlasting glory to the abbots, priors, archdeacons, deans, and each and every rector of a parish church, vicar, and chaplain appointed throughout the diocese of Lincoln.

      As I, although undeserving, am obliged by my office to proclaim the word of God and will render an account of you and of all the people in the presence of the eternal judge,dreaded among the kings of the earth[Ps 75:13], I tremble exceedingly before the eyes of that stern judge, the examiner of...

    • 131 To the lords of England, citizens of London, and common people of the realm
      (pp. 452-453)

      The bishop of Lincoln to the lords of England, the citizens of London, and the common people of the whole realm.

      If only the faithful and grateful noble sons and nurslings of their venerable mother, the English Church, would mark the serious wrong and loss suffered by so great a mother, who is the source of their new life through water and the Spirit! Behold that noble Church, which in comparison with the other churches of Christendom abounds in temporal wealth and has flourished by virtue of such a special privilege of liberty as to have been long free and...

    • 132 To the archdeacons of the diocese of Lincoln
      (pp. 454-458)

      Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, sends geeting, goodwill, and blessing to his beloved sons in Christ, all the archdeacons appointed throughout the diocese of Lincoln.

      I have received a letter in the following words from Lord John Saracenus,¹ subdeacon and chaplain of the lord pope, dean of Wells, and from Berard of Nimpha,²scriptorof the lord pope:

      To the revered father in Christ and lord, Robert, by the grace of God bishop of Lincoln, and to that man of discretion, his official,³ John Saracenus, subdeacon and chaplain of the lord pope, dean of Wells, and...

  7. Appendix: Summaries of Letters, by Correspondent
    (pp. 459-484)
  8. Select Annotated Bibliography
    (pp. 485-490)
  9. Index of Biblical Quotations and Allusions
    (pp. 491-502)
  10. Index of Classical, Patristic, and Medieval Sources
    (pp. 503-506)
  11. General Index
    (pp. 507-528)