The Voyages of Jacques Cartier

The Voyages of Jacques Cartier

With an introduction by Ramsay Cook
Copyright Date: 1993
Pages: 177
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt1287pq0
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  • Book Info
    The Voyages of Jacques Cartier
    Book Description:

    In addition to Cartier'sVoyages, a slightly amended version of H.P. Biggar's 1924 text, the volume includes a series of letters relating to Cartier and the Sieur de Roberval, who was in command of cartier on the last voyage. Many of these letters appear for the first time in English.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-2732-1
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    RAMSAY COOK
  4. Donnacona Discovers Europe: Rereading Jacques Carrier’s Voyages
    (pp. ix-xlii)
    RAMSAY COOK

    Jacques Carrier’sVoyagesis the most informative and reliable French description of the northern coast and the St Lawrence region of North America written in the sixteenth century. The report that the Florentine navigator Giovanni Verrazzano composed for the French king, Francis i, describing the 1524 voyage along the coast from the Carolinas to Cape Breton, captures both the changing topography and the different groups of people who lived on the Atlantic seaboard. But it lacks detail and depth. André Thevet, cosmographer to Francis i, wrote two works about ‘France antartique’ during the second half of the century – though...

  5. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)
  6. The Voyages

    • Cartier’s First Voyage, 1534 JACQUES CARTIER’S FIRST ACCOUNT OF THE NEW LAND, CALLED NEW FRANCE, DISCOVERED IN THE YEAR 1534
      (pp. 3-34)

      When Sir Charles de Mouy, Knight, Lord of La Meilleraye and Vice-Admiral of France,¹ had received the oaths of the captains, masters, and sailors of the vessels, and had made them swear to conduct themselves well and loyally in the King’s² service, under the command of the said Cartier, we set forth from the harbour and port of St Malo with two ships of about sixty tons’ burden each, manned in all with sixty-one men, on [Monday] 20 April in the said year 1534; and sailing on with fair weather we reached Newfoundland on [Sunday] 10 May, sighting land at...

    • Carrier’s Second Voyage, 1535–1536
      (pp. 35-95)

      The second voyage undertaken by the command and wish of the Most Christian King of France, Francis the First of that name, for the completion of the discovery of the western lands, lying under the same climate¹ and parallels as the territories and kingdom of that prince, and by his orders already begun to be explored: this expedition carried out by Jacques Cartier, native of St Malo on the island², in Brittany, pilot of the aforesaid prince, in the year 1536.

      To the Most Christian King³

      Considering, O my most redoubted Prince, the great benefits and favours it has pleased...

    • Carder’s Third Voyage, 1541
      (pp. 96-106)

      King Francis the first having heard the report of Captaine Cartier his Pilot generall in his two former Voyages of discovery, as well by writing as by word of mouth, touching that which hee had found and seene in the Westerne partes discovered by him in the parts of Canada and Hochelaga, and having also seene and talked with the people, which the sayd Cartier had brought out of those Countreys, whereof one was king of Canada, whose name was Donnacona and others: which after that they had bene a long time in France and Britaine² were baptized at their...

    • Roberval’s Voyage, 1542–1543
      (pp. 107-114)

      Sir John Francis de la Roche, knight, lord of Roberval, appoynted by the king² as his lieutenant general in the countreis of Canada, Saguenay, and Hochelaga, furnished three tall Ships, chiefly at the kings cost: And having in his fleete 200 persons, aswel men as women, accompanied with divers gentlemen of qualitie, as namely with Monsieur Saine-terre his lieutenant,³ l’Espiney his Ensigne,⁴ captain Guinecourt, Monsieur Noirefontaine,⁵ Dieu lamont, Frote,⁶ la Brosse⁷ Francis de Mire, la Salle,⁸ and Roieze and John Alfonse of Xanctoigne,⁹ an excellent pilot, set sayle from Rochel the 16 of April 1542.10The same day about noone...

  7. Documents relating to Jacques Cartier and the Sieur de Roberval

    • 1 GRANT OF MONEY TO CARTIER FOR HIS FIRST VOYAGE
      (pp. 117-117)

      To Jean de Vimond, treasurer of the Marine, the sum of six thousandlivres tournoisordered to be delivered to him from the moneys coming from the funds of the general receiver’s office for Outre-Seine for the year ended on the last day of December 1532 by the King and his letters patent issued in Paris on the 12th day of March 1533, signed François Bochetel and sealed with the seal of the said seigneur, to change and use in the exercise of his said office, and also for the payment of the expenses that will have to be incurred...

    • 2 COMMISSION FROM ADMIRAL CHABOT TO CARTIER
      (pp. 118-118)

      Philippe Chabot, knight of the Order, Comte de Buzançais et de Charny, Baron d’Aspremont, de Paigny, et de Mirebeau, seigneur of Beaumont and Fontaine-Française, admiral of France, Brittany, and Guienne, governor and lieutenant general for the King in Burgundy, also lieutenant governor for Monseigneur the Dauphin in the government of Normandy, to the captain and pilot Maître Jacques Cartier of Saint-Malo, greetings. We have commissioned and appointed, commission and appoint you as our deputy, at the wish and command of the King, to conduct, guide, and employ three ships, each equipped and provisioned for fifteen months, to complete the navigation...

    • 3 CHOICE OF VESSELS FOR THE SECOND VOYAGE
      (pp. 119-120)

      On Wednesday the third day of March in the year 1534 at the abbey of Saint-Jean in the presence of my said seigneur the Captain, being present Maître Pierre Le Gobien, Monsieur the agent of the court of the said Saint-Malo, Maître Regné Le Maire, Sieur de Tormie, Constable of Saint-Malo, Monsieur de Baudetz, senior chaplain of Monseigneur the bishop of Saint-Malo; also present Maîtres Georges Bastard, Jean Du Liscouet, canons; Jacques Cartier, Julien Cronier for Jean Billard, attorney of the bourgeois, etc., Jacques Chenu, Bertrand Beaulbois, Gilles Aran, Robin Gaultier senior, Robin Boulain, Etienne Richomme, Guillaume Boulain the son...

    • 4 PAYMENT OF THREE THOUSAND LIVRES TO CARTIER FOR HIS SECOND VOYAGE
      (pp. 121-121)

      To Jean de Vimond, treasurer of the Marine of Normandy, the sum of three thousandlivres tournoisordered to be paid him out of the monies held for the King’s personal use by the said seigneur and his letters patent issued at Le Bec-Hellouin on the 25th day of March before Easter 1534, signed François Bochetel and sealed with the seal of the said seigneur, to change and employ for the fitting-out, equipping, provisioning, and other expenses that will have to be paid for the conduct of the voyage that Jacques Cartier, master pilot from the country of Brittany, has...

    • 5 ROLL OF THE CREWS FOR CARTIER’S SECOND VOYAGE
      (pp. 122-124)

      On Wednesday the last day of March before Easter 1535 at the abbey of Saint-Jean, in the presence of my said seigneur the Captain, being present Maître Jean Le Juif, lieutenant of the court of Saint-Malo, the constable, Jean Billard, attorney of the said bourgeois, Jn Cronier, Jac. Chenu, Jean Grout junior, Bertrand Beaubois, Pierre May, François Gaillard, Jean Maingard Huperie, Jacques Martinet, Robin Boullain, Etienne Richomme, Guillaume Boulain Villauroux, Pierre Hancelin, Guillaume Maingard, Guillaume Pepin, Jean Brisard senior, Jean Boulain Belestre, Thomas de La Bouille, Robin Gaultier junior, Thomas Maingard, François Martin, Guillaume Grout, Roullet Souchart, Yrlet Morel, Guillaume...

    • 6 ORDER FROM KING FRANCIS THE FIRST FOR THE PAYMENT TO CARTIER OF FIFTY CROWNS
      (pp. 125-125)

      Francis by the grace of God King of France to our beloved and faithful counsellor, treasurer and receiver general of our extraordinary finances and perquisites Maître Jean Laguette, Greetings and affection. We wish and order that out of the first and most certain funds of your said general revenue that have come or will come from the sale and creation of offices and other perquisites you pay, give, and deliver in ready money to our dear and beloved Jacques Cartier, our pilot in the Western fleet, residing at Saint-Malo in Brittany, the sum of fiftyécus soleilworth at 45...

    • 7 LIST OF MEN AND EFFECTS FOR CANADA
      (pp. 126-129)

      Statement of the men and supplies needed for the vessels that the King wished to send to Canada.

      Through this statement can be seen the piety, magnanimity, and open-heartedness of the great King Francis, & how, notwithstanding that wars had exhausted his finances and even involved His Majesty in enormous debts, nevertheless, finding himself in a state of peace, he is not afraid to engage in new expense, to establish the Christian Religion in a country of Savages at the other end of the world from France, and where he was well aware that there were no gold or silver mines...

    • 8 LETTER FROM LAGARTO TO JOHN THE THIRD, KING OF PORTUGAL
      (pp. 130-133)

      Item. On the same day I spoke with the King and, as Latin is commonly used in France, I spoke Latin, and he said he did not know it, and the grandees who were round him said: ‘Speak in Spanish to his Majesty, he will understand you.’ and he said: ‘I know it well, but I may not be able to remember it.’ I then spoke in Spanish and told him who I was, and how I had come from far away to serve him; and I gave him the letter given me by the grandee, who by his order...

    • 9 THE BAPTISM OF THE SAVAGES FROM CANADA
      (pp. 134-134)

      On this day of Our Lady the 25th of March in the year 1538 [1539 n.s.] were baptized three male savages from the parts of Canada, taken in the said country by the worthy man Jacques Cartier, Captain for the King our Liege Lord to discover the said lands. The first was named Charles by the venerable and judicious Dom Charles de Champ-Girault, dean and canon of the said place, and principal godfather, and the second godfather Monsieur the Lieutenant, seigneur of La Verderye, and the godmother, Catherine des Granges. And the second was named Francis, the name of the...

    • 10 CARTIER’S COMMISSION FOR HIS THIRD VOYAGE
      (pp. 135-138)

      Francis by the grace of God King of France, to all to whom these presents may come, Greetings. Since, desiring to learn of and be informed about several countries that are said to be uninhabited, and others to be possessed by savage peoples living without knowledge of God and without the use of reason, We had some time ago sent at great expense and outlay of money for discovery to be made in the said countries by several good pilots and others of our subjects of good judgment, knowledge, and experience, who had brought to Us from those countries various...

    • 11 LETTERS PATENT FROM THE DUKE OF BRITTANY EMPOWERING CARTIER TO TAKE PRISONERS FROM THE GAOLS
      (pp. 139-140)

      Henry, eldest son of the King, Dauphin du Viennois, Due de Bretagne, Comte du Valentinois et du Diois, to our beloved and faithful members of our council and chancellery, seneschals, agents, lieutenants, and all our other justiciaries and officers in our said country and duchy, Greetings. We instruct you that in accordance with the contents of the Letters Patent of the King our highly respected seigneur and father, delivered at this place of Saint-Prix on the seventeenth day of the present month, to which these presents are attached under the counter-seal of our chancellery, you are forthwith to deliver, surrender,...

    • 12 THE EMPEROR TO THE CARDINAL OF TOLEDO
      (pp. 141-142)

      I have received today letters from my ambassador in France, in which he advises me that in spite of the efforts of the ambassador of the most Serene King of Portugal, there residing, and what he, himself, has told the Council of the King of France respecting the licence that the said King gave to his subjects to proceed to the Indies, a certain Jacques Cartier has received a commission to equip a fleet of ships to go to the New Lands. And it is said he will sail with, some say twelve, others eighteen, others twenty vessels; and my...

    • 13 AN ORDER FROM KING FRANCIS TO INQUIRE INTO THE HINDRANCES PLACED BEFORE CARTIER
      (pp. 143-143)

      Francis, by the grace of God, King of France, to the seneschal of Rennes his lieutenant and agent of the said place, Greetings and affection. Our dear and beloved Jacques Cartier, captain general and master pilot of all the ships and other sea-going vessels that We desire to send to the lands of Canada, Hochelaga, as far as Saguenay, forming one of the extremities of Asia on the North, has had it told and pointed out to Us that for the expedition of the said enterprise it is necessary for him to obtain a large number of pilots, sailors, and...

    • 14 ROBERVAL’S COMMISSION
      (pp. 144-151)

      Francis, by the grace of God, King of France, to all to whom these presents may come, greetings. Since, desiring to hear and learn about several countries, parts of which are said to be uninhabited and others possessed by savage and foreign peoples, living without knowledge of God and without good use of reason, We had some time ago, at great expense and outlay of money, sent to be discovered in several of the said countries by some good pilots and other subjects of ours of good judgment, knowledge, and experience, who had brought back to Us various men from...

    • 15 SECRET REPORT ON CARTIER’S EXPEDITION: REPORT BY A SPANISH SPY ON JACQUES CARTIER’S PREPARATIONS [SAINT-MALO, APRIL 1541]
      (pp. 152-155)

      From Saint-Malo there are seven hundred and sixty leagues and from the said Newfoundland to Canada, where it is intended to take the said army, another six hundred. And one must necessarily go by Newfoundland. The said Canada faces the emperor’s Indies, and certainly it is a cape of the latter. For where the ships of his Most Christian Majesty wish to put into port there falls a great river of fresh water coming from the said Indies. And Jacques Cartier is quite sure of that, according to Rolet Morin.

      The order that they intend to keep to discover the...

    • 16 CARTIER’S WILL
      (pp. 156-158)

      Here in our presence, notaries sworn & admitted to the court of Saint-Malo signing below & in the name of the court, were today present and their identity established in person Jacques Cartier, captain Si master pilot of the King in Newfoundland, & Catherine Des Granges his partner and wife, Sieur and Dame of Limoilou, & bourgeois in this town Si city of Saint-Malo, on both sides. This said Catherine having been authorized at her request adequately and who has promised to agree to, respect, & carry out what follows, both by her said husband and Jacques Des Granges, Sieur de la Ville-ès-Gards, her father,...

    • 17 EXAMINATION OF NEWFOUNDLAND SAILORS REGARDING CARTIER
      (pp. 159-168)

      In the town of Fuenterrabia¹ on the twenty-third day of the month of September of the year of Our Lord Jesus Christ 1542, I, Antonio de Ubilla, notary public of their Majesties, one of the notaries of the said town, did, by order of his Excellency Don Sancho Martins de Leybra, Captain General of this province of Guipúzcoa, alcalde of the said town, in presence of the undersigned witnesses, administer to and receive oath from Robert Lefant, a Frenchman resident of Bayonne,² upon the sign of the Cross, as by law directed, and confronting him with the anathemas due to...

    • 18 CARTIER TAKES PART IN A ‘NOISE’
      (pp. 169-170)

      On the said day of Friday [20 May 1541].

      Etienne MurditAlexandre, manufacturer of missile weapons, dwelling in this town, aged xxxiiii or thereabouts, a witness sworn to tell the truth, & interrogated by court order about the complaint by Jean Brillault, deposes that last Wednesday in the afternoon of the said day, as the speaker was in his shop working at his craft, he heard quarrelsome language which was coming from a certain Pierre, he does not know his surname, who is a trumpeter & is married to one of the daughters of Marie Cochon, on one hand; & Jean Brillault,...

    • 19 STATEMENT OF CARTIER’S ACCOUNT
      (pp. 171-176)

      (Collation done by us Etienne Gravé and Julien Lesieu, royal notaries of the court of Rennes established at Saint-Malo and Châteauneuf, respectively, on the originals presented to us by Jacques Odièvre, a merchant living in the said Saint-Malo, one of the successors of the said late Jacques Cartier, and in addition the said Odièvre has presented to us an account written on paper and signed Jac. Cartier, containing seventy sheets of writing, the commencement of which to as far as the third sheet verso only, with the conclusion that appears on the last sheet of the said account, we have...

    • 20 DEATH OF CARTIER
      (pp. 177-177)