Deaf-Blind Infants and Children

Deaf-Blind Infants and Children: A Developmental Guide

J.M. McINNES
J.A. TREFFRY
Copyright Date: 1982
Pages: 284
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt13x1pr2
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  • Book Info
    Deaf-Blind Infants and Children
    Book Description:

    This is a comprehensive reference guide for teachers, parents, and paraprofessionals working or living with children who are both deaf and blind.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-5735-9
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
    J.M. Mclnnes and J.A. Treffry
  5. 1 The Multi-sensory Deprived Child
    (pp. 1-14)

    A basic concept of current twentieth-century philosophy is the uniqueness of the individual. This uniqueness is especially apparent among those who are deaf-blind. Each one has a particular degree of visual and auditory loss, ranging from moderate to total. Other sensory input channels may or may not have similar damage. The onset of the visual and hearing loss may have been before birth or at any age. Vision and hearing may be lost at the same time or independently. Either or both losses may be gradual or immediate and may or may not be accompanied by the loss of other...

  6. 2 Organizing a Program
    (pp. 15-32)

    The goal of any program for the multi-sensory deprived child must be to aid the child to develop to his full, unique potential as a human being and as a participating member of his family and of society. In more practical and operational terms the goal is to provide each MSD child with an individualized program designed according to his needs, interests, abilities, past performance, and present levelof functioning,delivered at the rate, in the depth, and by the methods best suited to the child's learning style, and evaluated in termsofthe child’s improved levelof functioning.This...

  7. 3 Social and Emotional Development
    (pp. 33-56)

    As in all areas of development, maturational factors affect social and emotional development. Physical factors, such as the ability to walk, beauty, height, and of course the ability to see and hear, also contribute to both social and emotional growth. Interaction with the environment plays an extremely important role in the development of each of us towards a socially acceptable, emotionally stable adult.

    At one time psychologists debated at length the relative importance of heredity and environment in the development of the child. Both factors seem to play important roles. The exact nature and extent of the influence of each...

  8. 4 Communication
    (pp. 57-92)

    The concept of communication is much broader than the concept of reception and expression of oral or written language. We receive communication from, and communicate with, our environment constantly throughout our waking hours. The smell of turkey roasting in the oven, the sound of water running, the feel of silk, the taste of coal gas in the air, a raised eyebrow, or a shrug all communicate things to us about our world. We use body language, pictures, physical closeness or distance, and oral and written language to communicate to others. Communication can be summed up as our attempts to obtain...

  9. 5 Motor Development
    (pp. 93-150)

    Motor development is an essential phase in the total development of all children. There is more information about this aspect of early development than any other area; it is the easiest to observe, record, and compare. With the MSD infant and child, however, it is not the easiest type of development to motivate. In this chapter we have subdivided the topic into ‘gross’ and ‘fine’ motor activity for ease of organization, although the development of each aspect is interwoven.

    Motor development is dependent on physical activity.

    Dr Lange (1975) asserts that because a child is blind and deaf does not...

  10. 6 Perceptual Development
    (pp. 151-206)

    Multi-sensory deprivation implies that more than one sensory input channel has been damaged or is currently not functioning to its full potential. The deaf-blind child or adult has been deprived of the effective use of his two distance senses. His ability to perceive accurately his total environment or the results of his interaction with the environment has been so hampered that unless adequate intervention is available he is not able to function to his full potential.

    The intermediate distance sense (smell) is an ineffective substitute. This sense very quickly becomes overloaded and ceases to provide the necessary discrimination. The near...

  11. 7 Cognitive-Conceptual Development
    (pp. 207-222)

    The manipulative, problem-solving, and reactive techniques which we stress throughout this book are designed to foster concept formation and provide the environmental interaction necessary for cognitive development. Success will depend on a total approach rather than on the application of a set of specific techniques. The evaluation of the MSD child’s cognitive functioning (intelligence) often becomes the focus of both professional frustration and parental apprehension. This chapter will provide guidance for professionals and background and reassurance for parents.

    One of the most frustrating and devastating experiences for the parents of a deaf-blind child occurs when the child is forced to...

  12. 8 Orientation and Mobility
    (pp. 223-242)

    A planned development of orientation and mobility skills is essential for all blind and multi-sensory deprived individuals. Without such skills their chances for an active, happy life will be severely curtailed. (Orientation refers to the ability to locate one’s place in space; mobility refers to the ability to move through space and arrive at a desired destination.)

    Close your eyes and think of the room you are now in. Imagine that it has just started to rain and you are going to get up, go to the window, close it, then go and close the other windows in the house....

  13. 9 Life Skills
    (pp. 243-260)

    The non-handicapped child learns most of his life skills through a combination of trial and error, imitation, and incidental instruction delivered on the spur of the moment. The non-handicapped infant and young child is ‘done for,’ ‘done with,’ and finally expected to ‘do’ acts such as eating, dressing, caring for clothing and possessions, and toileting according to well-established cultural patterns and parental expectations. Only when difficulties arise is special advice or assistance sought.

    The parents of the retarded, deaf, or blind child can turn to a wealth of literature and to professional advice on how to teach their child specific...

  14. 10 Some Frequently Asked Questions
    (pp. 261-270)

    The focus of this guide has been upon the development and implementation of an effective program which will stimulate the deaf-blind infant or child to develop in the most natural and least restrictive way. This approach naturally eliminates some important topics, and others have been touched upon only briefly. In this final chapter we shall look at three of the questions most commonly asked by parents:

    1 How should I discipline my child?

    2 Is my child deaf-blind? How do I sort out the conflicting opinions?

    3 Integration, segregation, or institutionalization – which is best for my child? We believe that...

  15. Glossary
    (pp. 271-278)
  16. References
    (pp. 279-280)
  17. Index
    (pp. 281-284)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 285-285)