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Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2234-2113 BC)

Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2234-2113 BC)

Copyright Date: 1993
Pages: 522
  • Book Info
    Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2234-2113 BC)
    Book Description:

    In this corpus we find the first extensive use of the Akkadian language, in it oldest known dialect, for royal inscriptions.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-5857-8
    Subjects: Language & Literature, History, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Editorial Notes
    (pp. xi-xi)
    R. F. G. Sweet
  5. Bibliographical Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-xxii)
  6. Other Abbreviations
    (pp. xxiii-xxiv)
  7. Object Signatures
    (pp. xxv-2)
    (pp. 3-4)

    The time period covered by the inscriptions edited in this volume extends from the accession of Sargon of Akkad to the end of the Gutian period, the latter arbitrarily defined here as the beginning of the reign of Ur-Nammu of Ur. According to J.A. Brinkman’s chronology (found in an appendix to A.L. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia, second edition), this corresponds to 2334–2113 B.C. These are, of course, not precise dates; the details of the chronology of this period remain to be sorted out. The following terminology is used in this volume. This phase of ancient Mesopotamian history is designated as...

  9. Akkad E2.1.1
    (pp. 5-218)

    There is a particular scarcity of sources concerning the foundation and early expansion of the Akkadian state. In order to understand better the process of its state formation we should first examine the political situation that existed in Babylonia at the end of the Early Dynastic period, that is, in the period immediately preceding the one treated in this volume. P. Steinkeller has recently written on this subject (in an article ‘History of Mesopotamia [Third Millennium]’ Anchor Bible Dictionary 4 [1991] pp. 725–26):

    To begin with the question of N[orthern] government, the most striking fact is that the Nforth]...

  10. GUTIUM E2.2
    (pp. 219-230)

    The Sumerian King List places a dynasty of 21 Gutian kings between its Uruk V and VI dynasties. Of the 20 RNs in the list only a handful can be identified with rulers known from contemporary inscriptions. Curiously, the longest extant inscriptions of a Gutian ruler belong to Erridu-pizir, whose name does not even appear in the list. We have, following Jacobsen (SKL p. 117), identified him with the ‘king without a name’ who heads the list and have accorded him the number E2.2.1.

    The reading of many of the Gutian kings’ name is uncertain and the order of the...

  11. MARI E2.3
    (pp. 231-237)

    The history of Mari during Sargonic times is obscure because of the relative lack of sources for this period. In contrast, a long series of independent rulers is known for the preceding Early Dynastic period, from contemporary building and votive inscriptions, from a list of rulers of Mari in the Sumerian King List, and from the extensive epigraphic finds from ancient Ebla, Mail’s rival. Man’s independence was brought to an end by the incursions of a Sargonic king. According to a recent analysis by M. Lebeau (MARI 4 [1985] p. 135), the archaeological record clearly shows a massive destruction in...

  12. AŠŠUR E2.4
    (pp. 238-239)

    Relatively little is known about the history of the city of Aššur in Sargonic times. While there is no evidence at present for Sargon’s control over the city, the discovery of a mace head with an inscription of Rīmuš (E2.1.2.19 ex. 42) and a spear point with the name of a servant of Man-ištūšu (E2.1.3.2002) suggests that Agade held the city during the early part of the Sargonic period. Man-ištūšu is known from a later inscription of Šamšī-Adad I (RIMA 1 A. 0.39.2) to have built the temple of the goddess Aštar at Nineveh, a city not far upstream, and...

  13. GASUR E2.5
    (pp. 240-241)

    Very little of the political history of Gasur, later Nuzi, a small town not far from modern Kirkuk, is known for the Sargonic period. The administrative texts discovered there were dated by Meek to the early Sargonic period, but a reconsideration of their chronology by B. Foster (OrAnt 21 [1982] p. 39) suggests a date to the time of Narām-Sîn or later. One fragmentarily preserved year name in the Gasur archive (HSS 10 no. 40) may belong to Šar-kali-šarrī; it is so badly broken that the attribution is not certain. The name of a Sargonic period governor of Gasur is...

  14. NIPPUR E2.6
    (pp. 242-246)

    Nippur, Sumer’s religious capital, was an important prize for the Sargonic kings and it is significant that Sargon’s first act after defeating Lugal-zage-si was to take the captive king in a neck stock to Nippur, the city which not long before had recognized the Uruk ruler himself as king of the land.

    There is abundant evidence for the Akkadian kings’ reverence toward the god Enlil and his cult city. Excavators have found, for example, many pieces of booty, generally vases, that were dedicated by the Sargonic kings to Enlil in Nippur. Sargon’s daughter En-ḫedu-ana recognized the importance of the city...

  15. ISIN E2.7
    (pp. 247-248)

    Although recent archaeological work at Isin has revealed that the city was indeed occupied in Sargonic times, we do not yet know how important the city was at that time. Sargonic royal inscriptions from Isin are rare; only two (E2.1.3.5 and E2.0.0.1013) are known at present. Archival texts of Sargonic date, on the other hand, are more plentiful (see Foster, ZA 72 [1982] pp. 6-7)....

  16. ŠARRĀKUM E2.8
    (pp. 249-249)

    The city of Šarrākum was an important centre in Early Dynastic and Sargonic times; its influence declined considerably, however, in the succeeding Ur III and Old Babylonian periods. For a proposed location of the city on the Iturungal canal north of the city of Adab, see D. Frayne, Early Dynastic List §2.2.6. The city was probably part of the domains of Lugal-zage-si of Uruk and passed to Akkadian control when Sargon defeated the Uruk ruler. As part of the Sargonic realm its shrine was celebrated by En-ḫedu-ana in her famous collection of temple hymns. Unlike the other cities of the...

  17. ŠAR-A-TI-GU-BI-SI-IN E2.8.1
    (pp. 250-251)

    A fragmentarily preserved plaque bears a dedicatory inscription in Sumerian for the life of ŠAR-A-TI-GU-BI-SI-IN....

  18. ADAB E2.9
    (pp. 252-258)

    Adab was an important centre in late Early Dynastic and Sargonic times; according to Adams (Heartland of Cities p. 160), ‘The Adab region thus became particularly densely occupied, and it is arguably the largest urban concentration yet known within the Old Akkadian realm’. The importance of the city at this time is also indicated by the large number of archival texts of Sargonic date found by E.J. Banks at Bismāyā (see Foster, ZA 72 [1982] pp. 4–5). The city may well have been independent for a least some part of the Early Dynastic period, since a dynasty from Adab...

  19. ŠURUPPAK E2.10
    (pp. 259-260)

    Although archaeological evidence attests to some occupation of Šuruppak during the Sargonic period (H. Martin, Fara p. 116), virtually nothing is known of its history during this time. The city does not appear as the target of any military campaign of the Sargonic kings. It is named, however, as one of the Sumerian cities which supported the king of Uruk in his rebellion against Narām-Sîn(E2.1.4.6).

    An inscription of Ḫala-adda, governor of Suruppak (E2.10.1), may possibly date to late Sargonic or Gutian times....

  20. UMMA E2.11
    (pp. 261-268)

    The city of Umma, marked today by the extensive tell named Jōkha, was, along with Adab, one of the largest regional centres in the area northeast of Uruk in Sargonic times. The importance of the city at this time is indicated by its extensive archives; B. Foster (ZA 72 [1982] pp. 5–6) estimates that almost 500 economic texts of Sargonic date derive from Umma.

    The combined evidence of the archival texts and the royal inscriptions of both native Umma rulers and Sargonic kings provides us with the names of thirteen Sargonic-Gutian period rulers of Umma. In the list below,...

  21. LAGAŠ E2.12
    (pp. 269-273)

    Although many economic texts of Sargonic date were unearthed by the French excavators of Telloh, ancient Girsu, relatively little is known of the history of the region in Sargonic imes. Lagaš was one of the main targets of Sargon’s campaign against the south. The defeat of the city is recorded in inscriptions E2.1.1.1–3, and a caption accompanying inscription E2.1.1.12 gives us the name of the defeated governor of Lagaš: Mes-zi. A later attack on the city by Rīmuš is narrated in E2.1.2.3; from this source we learn the name of the contemporary city governor: Kituš-id. Lagaš participated in both...

  22. URUK E2.13
    (pp. 274-296)

    The Sumerian King List places a dynasty of five kings from Uruk, conventionally designated by modern historians as the Uruk IV dynasty, between its list of Sargonic and Gutian rulers. In total they are said to have reigned thirty years. Following the Gutian kings, it places another Uruk dynasty (Uruk V), whose sole member, Utu-hegal, is credited with a reign of seven years; in all likelihood, he ruled immediately after the last Uruk IV king. The synchronism between Utu-ḫegal and Tirigan, the last Gutian king, which is provided by inscription E2.13.6.4, indicates that the Uruk IV and V kings date...

  23. BÀD.KI E2.14
    (pp. 297-298)

    Two inscriptions of Sargonic date refer to a certain Puzur-Šullat,šangûpriest of the city BÀD.KI. The identification of this toponym is uncertain....

  24. Ur E2.15
    (pp. 299-301)

    Sargon’s conquest of Ur, part of his campaign against Sumer, was one of the most notable achievements of his reign, and he commemorated the deed in three monuments set up in Nippur; their inscriptions are known from later Old Babylonian tablet copies (E2.1.1.1–3). In one of the captions accompanying another inscription, E2.1.1.12, we learn the name of the defeated ruler of Ur: Lu-Nanna. Of interest is the fact that Lu-Nanna, like Lugal-zage-si of Uruk, is given the title LUGAL ‘king’. It may be that Lu-Nanna presided over a small independent kingdom centred at Ur in late pre-Sargonic times. Probably...

  25. ELAM E2.16
    (pp. 302-308)

    The fertile plain of Susiana and the neighbouring highland areas of Elam and Parahsum were a tempting target for the Sargonic kings, and the history of the period is marked by their almost constant warfare in the east. As noted in the introductory remarks for Sargon, a first step in the conquest of Elam was Sargon’s defeat of the city of Arawa (Sargon year name [a]); the city was a western outpost of Elamite control. The conquest of Elam (NIM. KI) — presumably a reference to Susiana — followed soon after this (Sargon year name [b]). The later conquest of Parahsum marked...

  26. Unattributed E2.0.0
    (pp. 309-320)

    A Sargonic cylinder seal in the British Museum bears the inscription of a servant of Ubil-Astar, brother of the king....

  27. Index of Museum Numbers
    (pp. 321-326)
  28. Index of Excavation Numbers
    (pp. 327-330)
  29. Concordances of Selected Publications
    (pp. 331-338)
  30. Scores of Inscriptions
    (pp. 1-155)