Ukraine

Ukraine: An Illustrated History

Paul Robert Magocsi
Copyright Date: 2007
Pages: 352
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt13x1qdc
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  • Book Info
    Ukraine
    Book Description:

    Rather than limiting his study to an examination of the country's numerically largest population - ethnic Ukrainians - acclaimed scholar Paul Robert Magocsi emphasizes the multicultural nature of Ukraine throughout its history.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-2189-3
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. vii-vii)
  4. List of Maps
    (pp. viii-x)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. xi-xii)

    Ukraine is Europe’s second largest sovereign state. For this reason alone it has become in recent decades the subject of numerous studies, including several large scale historical surveys. History can best be understood when the reader has access to maps. The purpose of this book is to provide a concise historical survey of Ukraine from earliest times to the present through means of a text that has been constructed around forty-six historical maps. Therefore, the book may function for some readers as a brief introductory history, while for others it may be used as a historical atlas to supplement and...

  6. 1 Ukraine’s Physical Geography
    (pp. 1-5)

    The present-day independent state of Ukraine is territorially the second largest country in Europe. It comprises 232,200 square miles (603,700 square kilometers), which for comparative purposes is roughly the equivalent size of Germany and Great Britain combined, or of the states of Arizona and New Mexico combined, or of the province of Manitoba in Canada.

    Ukraine’s physical geography is not complex, and most of its territory consists of lowland plains and plateaus that at their highest rise to about 1,600 feet (500 meters) above sea level. These include the Northern Lowlands and Coastal Lowlands, generally referred to as the steppe;...

  7. 2 Ukraine’s Political and Human Geography
    (pp. 7-11)

    Ukraine shares borders with seven countries. By far its longest international boundary is with Russia, stretching 1,040 miles or 1,576 kilometers to the north and east. Ukraine shares another 588 miles (891 kilometers) of boundary with Belarus to the north, with Poland (282 miles or 428 kilometers) and Slovakia (60 miles or 90 kilometers) to the west, and with Hungary (68 miles or 103 kilometers), Romania (350 miles or 531 kilometers), and Moldova (619 miles or 939 kilometers) to the south. Ukraine’s shoreline extends for 1,836 miles (2,782 kilometers) along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, near which...

  8. 3 Greeks and Scythians
    (pp. 13-16)

    Archeological evidence has revealed that the territory of Ukraine was inhabited since the Stone Age, from its earliest chronological phase (the Paleolithic, between about 1,000,000 and 8000 BCE) to its most recent phase (the Neolithic, ca. 8000-5000 BCE). During this prehistorical era, the most important change occurred at the very beginning of the Neolithic period (ca. 5000 BCE) when Ukraine’s inhabitants changed their means of livelihood from that of mobile hunter-gatherers to sedentary agriculture and livestock raising.

    It is during the last phase of the prehistoric era, from about 750 BCE to 850 CE, that the first sedentary as well...

  9. 4 Khazars
    (pp. 17-20)

    The name Khazars refers to several Turkic-speaking tribes that appeared as early as the fourth century CE in the steppes north of the Caspian Sea. By the second half of the seventh century they were concentrated in the region just east of present-day Ukraine, between the Black and Caspian Seas. Originally nomads, the Khazars turned to sedentary farming and trade, and sometime around 650 they created a state structure known in history as the Khazar Kaganate. In contrast to the nomadic peoples from the north and east who preceded them during the three centuries before, the Khazars were interested in...

  10. 5 The Original Homeland of the Slavs
    (pp. 21-26)

    The vast majority of Ukraine’s population today as well as for the past several centuries is ethnically Ukrainian. Since Ukrainians are a Slavic people, it is not surprising that the origin of the Slavs has been a topic of interest among countless generations of scholars and other writers. The very concept of Slavs is based on linguistic criteria; that is, it refers to several distinct peoples speaking cognate languages. At present linguists speak of fourteen written or literary Slavic languages that are traditionally divided into three groups: East Slavic (Russian, Belarusan, Ukrainian, and Rusyn), West Slavic (Polish, Kashubian, Sorbian, Czech,...

  11. 6 Trade Routes in Eastern Europe in the Eighth to Tenth Centuries
    (pp. 27-31)

    The ninth century witnessed profound changes throughout Europe. In the heart of the continent, the empire of the Frankish ruler Charlemagne had disintegrated after his death in 814, and in the far southeast the Khazar Kaganate was weakened severely as a result of nomadic invasions and internal strife. The situation was only made worse by aggressive attacks carried out by Vikings from the north and by Islamic Arabs from the south. Arab control of much of the Mediterranean Sea disrupted trade and cut off the Byzantine Empire from its traditional economic relations with the ports of Southern Europe.

    Of particular...

  12. 7 Kievan Rus’: Its Formation and Consolidation
    (pp. 33-39)

    As with all great and long-lasting political entities, the origins of Kievan Rus’ are shrouded in uncertainty and controversy. The debates about its origins have taken on an often shrill tone, especially since Kievan Rus’ has been claimed as the predecessor to three modern East Slavic states, Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. In fact, the territory of Kievan Rus’ did not coincide with any one of these states; therefore, its political and cultural heritage can legitimately be claimed by all three. It is certainly true that Kiev, present-day Ukraine’s capital, was the political, cultural, and for a long time the economic...

  13. 8 Kievan Rus’: Its Disintegration
    (pp. 41-43)

    During the century following the reign of Volodymyr II Monomakh’s first son and successor, Mstyslav I (r. 1125-1132), Kievan Rus’ entered a period marked by two contradictory tendencies. On the one hand, Rus’ society witnessed greater integration as a result of the increasing spread of Christianity, the greater use of a common law code based on additional versions of Iaroslav’sRus’ Law, and the institutionalization of a social structure that was basically similar throughout the realm. On the other hand, and even more characteristic of this century, was a marked decrease in the authority of Kiev with its grand prince...

  14. 9 The Mongol Invasions
    (pp. 45-46)

    Ever since the first millennium before the Common Era and the beginnings, however scanty, of a historical record, the steppe lands of eastern Europe and Ukraine witnessed a repetitive cycle of invasions by pastoral and nomadic warrior peoples from the east—Scythians, Sarmatians, Huns, Avars, Khazars, Magyars, Pechenegs, and Polovtsians, to name only the most important groups. In the first half of the thirteenth century yet another group arrived, the Mongols.

    Originally from Mongolia located on the borders between China and Siberia, the Mongols and several neighboring Turkic tribes were united in 1206 under a local chief named Temujin. This...

  15. 10 The Golden Horde and Italian Merchants
    (pp. 47-50)

    Like the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Khazars before them, the Mongols began their presence in southeastern Europe in an aggressive military manner, but before long they, too, revealed their true intentions. This was to create a stable political environment, a Pax Mongolica or Mongol Order, which would control the valuable trade routes that began in China, passed through the heart of their empire in Central Asia, and converged along the Black Sea. From there there was easy access to the Byzantine Empire and the markets of the Mediterranean world.

    Eastern Europe formed most western part of the Mongol Empire, which was...

  16. 11 Galicia-Volhynia and the End of Kievan Rus’
    (pp. 51-56)

    The last stage in the history of Kievan Rus’, its era of political transformation (1240-1349), coincides with the rise to prominence of the principality, and later Kingdom, of Galicia-Volhynia. In fact, Galicia and Volhynia started off as separate Rus’ principalities that eventually were united. Galicia-Volhynia’s development may, therefore, be viewed in two phases.

    The initial pre-unification phase began in the 980s, when Galicia and Volhynia were brought into the sphere of Kievan Rus’ by Volodymyr I “the Great.” Volodymyr’s interest in these western Rus’ lands, dominated at the time by the Dulibian and White Croat tribal unions (see Map 6),...

  17. 12 The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus’, and Samogitia to 1569
    (pp. 57-60)

    At the same time during the 1340s that Poland was consolidating its rule over Galicia, the other half of that Rus’ Kingdom, Volhynia, was conquered by Lithuania. Within the next two decades the Lithuanians went even further. They successfully challenged the Golden Horde and incorporated most Ukrainian lands into their rapidly expanding grand duchy, not only the former principalities of Kievan Rus’ but also the steppelands beyond the Ros’ River, and reaching eventually to the shores of the Black Sea.

    The rise of Lithuania to the status of the dominant state in eastern Europe by the end of the fourteenth...

  18. 13 The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after 1569
    (pp. 61-65)

    After 1569 all Ukrainian lands that had been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania found themselves within the Kingdom of Poland. That year marks the culmination of a process that had lasted nearly two centuries, during which Lithuania was being drawn into the political, social, and cultural orbit of Poland. Lithuania’s integration with the rest of Poland was part of a gradual process that unfolded in two stages, each of which was characterized by a combination of internal political instability and external threats to the grand duchy.

    The first stage began in the 1380s as a result of civil...

  19. 14 Socioeconomic Relations in Ukrainian Lands, 1569-1648
    (pp. 67-72)

    Poland reached the apogee of its strength and influence in the course of the sixteenth century, at which time the largely Ukrainian-inhabited palatinates in the east decisively enhanced the economic status of the kingdom. For centuries Ukraine’s economy and trade patterns had been directed southward toward the Crimea, Black Sea, and Mediterranean worlds. By the sixteenth century, however, Ukrainian lands were becoming part of a new western European-oriented economic order.

    In this new order the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth functioned as a supplier of raw materials to western European countries, from which it received finished products in return. Among the raw materials...

  20. 15 Religion and Culture in Ukrainian Lands in the 16th and 17th Centuries
    (pp. 73-80)

    Ever since Kievan times, religion and elite culture had been inseparable. Moreover, in keeping with Byzantine tradition, the Orthodox Church of the Rus’ peoples was closely associated with the secular states under whose rule they found themselves. This situation remained basically unchanged during the Lithuanian-Polish era, which lasted from the fourteenth to mid-seventeenth century in much of what is today Ukraine and Belarus. What was new, however, was that Lithuania and Poland were officially Roman Catholic states, and this reality was eventually to threaten the very survival of Orthodoxy among the Rus’ inhabitants of Poland-Lithuania.

    As a result of Lithuanian...

  21. 16 Tatars and Cossacks
    (pp. 81-88)

    During the fourteenth century, while Lithuanian and Polish rule was being established in central and western Ukrainian lands, the southern steppe region and the Crimea were undergoing political change. The Mongolo-Tatar Golden Horde was weakened after 1357 by two decades of internal strife and then, in the 1390s, by the efforts of Tamerlane to rule the entire Mongol Empire. As a result, during the first half of the fifteenth century, two new Tatar khanates were carved out of the Golden Horde’s territory: the Crimean Khanate in the west and the Kazan’ Khanate in the north. Finally, in 1502 the Golden...

  22. 17 Zaporozhia
    (pp. 89-92)

    The center of the Zaporozhian Cossacks was called thesich.This was a fortress protected in part by high walls of wood and by lowland swamps that were tucked in between the many tributaries just south of the rapids in the Dnieper River. Actually there was not one but severalsiches,which existed at different times and at different places along the river. The displacement of thesichgenerally reflected the need for the Zaporozhian Cossacks to adapt to threats from the powers that hoped to control them.

    Initially, the Zaporozhians recognized the hetmans appointed by the Polish king to...

  23. 18 The Khmel’nyts’Kyi Uprising of 1648
    (pp. 93-96)

    The year 1648 witnessed yet another, although much larger-scale, Cossack revolt against Poland. In retrospect, however, the events of that year turned out to be a major turning point in the history of eastern Europe and, in particular, of Ukraine’s relationship to Poland-Lithuania. The developments of 1648 and the subsequent decade are intimately linked to the career of one man, Bohdan Khmel’nyts’kyi.

    Bohdan Khmel’nyts’kyi was, like his father, a registered Cossack who fought along side the Polish military and who served loyally in the commonwealth’s frontier administration throughout much of the first half of the seventeenth century. Following Poland-Lithuania’s defeat...

  24. 19 The Cossack State
    (pp. 97-100)

    The Cossack state that came into being as a result of the Peace of Zboriv in August 1649 was recognized in subsequent agreements with Poland-Lithuania (Zhvanets’, December 1653) and Muscovy (Pereiaslav, 1654). It initially comprised 120,000 square miles (312,000 square kilometers) that encompassed the Polish palatinates of Kiev, Bratslav, and Chernihiv. At the height of its territorial extent, which lasted until the death of Bohdan Khmel’nyts’kyi in 1657, the Cossack state also included some Belarusan-inhabited lands in the southern part of Lithuania as well as Zaporozhia, which recognized the hetman as its ruler (see Map 18).

    Within the Kiev-Bratslav-Chernihiv core,...

  25. 20 Ukrainian Lands During the Period of Ruin, 1657-1686
    (pp. 101-106)

    In his efforts to force the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to make structural changes that would accord a special place for the Cossacks, Bohdan Khmel’nyts’kyi hoped to form a grand coalition of foreign powers that would include Orthodox Muscovy and Moldavia, the Moslem Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate, and Protestant Transylvania together with certain Lithuanian Protestant princes. In the end, no effective foreign coalition came into being, and the only long lasting result of Khmel’nyts’kyi’s foreign ventures was an alliance with the Tsardom of Muscovy.

    Soon after his two victories over Poland-Lithuania’s armies in May 1648, Khmel’nyts’kyi, following the urging of Orthodox...

  26. 21 Mazepa and the Cossack Hetmanate
    (pp. 107-113)

    Within a year of the signing of the 1686 Eternal Peace between Muscovy and Poland, Cossack Ukraine entered a period of relative stability that was to last at least until the outset of the eighteenth century. The changes associated with this period were in large measure the result of policies adopted by the new hetman of Left Bank Ukraine, Ivan Mazepa (r. 1687-1708), whose success was dependent on the very favorable relations he maintained with the Cossack state’s ultimate sovereign, Tsar Peter I (r. 1689-1725) of Muscovy.

    Next to Khmel’nyts’kyi, Ivan Mazepa was the most influential of all Ukraine’s Cossack...

  27. 22 Sloboda Ukraine in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
    (pp. 115-117)

    Sloboda Ukraine (Slobids ’ka Ukraïna) was the first Ukrainian territory to become an integral part of Russian Empire. Located along the upper valleys of the Vorskla, Donets’, and Don rivers, this area in Kievan times was at the very eastern edge of the principality of Pereiaslav, where it bordered on the open steppe. These lands were always sparsely settled, largely because they were within that part of Kievan Rus’ which felt the first brunt of attacks and raids by nomadic peoples from the east. Following the Mongol invasion of the mid-thirteenth century and the resultant northward recession of the line...

  28. 23 Zaporozhia and Southern Ukrainian Lands in the Eighteenth Century
    (pp. 119-124)

    In contrast to Sloboda Ukraine, Zaporozhia and Ukrainian lands farther south (including Crimea) were significantly larger territories that experienced a much more turbulent history. Consequently, their incorporation into the Russian Empire was a complex process that did not reach completion until the last decade of the eighteenth century. First came Zaporozhia in 1775. Then, during the following decade, Russia was finally able to defeat the Ottoman Empire and to remove both it and the Crimean Khanate permanently from the northern Black Sea region. As a result southern Ukraine and the Crimean peninsula were between 1774 and 1791 incorporated into the...

  29. 24 The Right Bank and Western Ukraine in the Eighteenth Century
    (pp. 125-130)

    In the course of the eighteenth century, while the Left Bank, southern Ukraine, and Crimea were becoming fully incorporated into the Russian Empire, the other “half” of Ukraine remained under Polish rule. Poland’s largely Ukrainian-inhabited territories included the Right Bank palatinates of Kiev (only the portion west of the Dnieper River and not including the city of Kiev) and Bratslav, as well as the palatinates of Podolia, Volhynia, Belz, and Galicia (Rus’).

    The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth managed to survive the Period of Deluge (1655-1661) and the first phase of the Great Northern War (1700-1714), but it was clearly no longer the...

  30. 25 The Partitions of Poland, 1772-1795
    (pp. 131-134)

    In 1768 the Russian Empire once again came to the rescue of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but this was for the last time. By the second half of the eighteenth century, Poland-Lithuania had become an anomaly. It was a state with a weak elected king, a virtual absence of effective central authority, and a political structure in which real power was diffused throughout the countryside among an independent-minded nobility. In contrast, Poland’s neighbors, whether Prussia to the west, Austria to the south, or Russia to the east, were creating strongly centralized political and military structures. Moreover, these neighboring states were headed...

  31. 26 Ukrainian Lands in the Russian Empire in the Nineteenth Century
    (pp. 135-142)

    As a result of the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and the annexation of the southern steppe lands and Crimea from the Ottoman Empire (1774-1791), all Ukrainian territories came within the boundaries of two states: the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire. This situation was to remain unchanged throughout the historic or “long” nineteenth century that lasted from 1789 until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Based on present-day boundaries, 85 percent of Ukraine was within the Russian Empire. This part of Ukrainian territory has conventionally been referred to as eastern, or Dnieper Ukraine.

    Throughout the entire period...

  32. 27 Socioeconomic Developments in Dnieper Ukraine in the Nineteenth Century
    (pp. 143-151)

    Ukrainian lands traditionally functioned as a source of agricultural products and raw materials. That tradition, which went back to prehistoric times and which characterized as well the period of Kievan Rus’ and Polish-Lithuanian rule, was to be continued during the long nineteenth century under the hegemony of the Russian Empire. Dnieper Ukraine also functioned as an important internal market for manufactured goods produced in the more industrialized regions of central Russia. The goods were sold primarily at the hundreds of annual fairs, the most important being in the northern Ukrainian towns of Kharkiv (with four month-long fairs each year), Poltava,...

  33. 28 The Peoples of Dnieper Ukraine in the Nineteenth Century
    (pp. 153-169)

    Ukrainian lands had been inhabited for centuries by peoples of different ethnic and religious backgrounds. In the course of the historic nineteenth century (1789-1914), the policies of the Russian imperial government helped to increase further the ethnocultural diversity of Dnieper Ukraine. The settlement pattern of Dnieper Ukraine’s various peoples was not, however, evenly distributed, with certain groups being concentrated in different areas or regions. Based on the first comprehensive census of the Russian Empire, conducted in 1897, the national composition of the nine so-called Ukrainian provinces and the city of Odessa was as shown in Table 28.1.

    Nearly three-quarters of...

  34. 29 Ukrainian Lands under Habsburg Rule, 1772-1914
    (pp. 171-178)

    During the “long” nineteenth century, not all of what is present-day Ukraine was within the Russian Empire. About 15 percent of Ukraine’s westernmost territory was within the boundaries of the Habsburg, or Austrian Empire. In opposition to the eastern, or Russian-ruled Dnieper Ukraine, Austrian-ruled territory is often referred to as western Ukraine. It is also useful to note that western Ukraine was subdivided into three regions—Galicia, Bukovina, and Transcarpathia—whose differing status reflected the particular administrative structure of the Habsburg Empire.

    The Austrian presence throughout most of western Ukraine began in 1772, when the Habsburgs annexed from Poland the...

  35. 30 The Peoples in Ukrainian Lands under Habsburg Rule, 1772-1914
    (pp. 179-190)

    Austrian Galicia during the nineteenth century became the major center of both a Polish and a Ukrainian national movement. Poland as an independent country had ceased to exist after 1795. Napoleonic France’s subsequent gesture to recreate a Polish state was short-lived (1807-1814), and Poles were roundly defeated in two revolts against Russia (1830-1831 and 1863), as well as in an abortive noble-led peasant uprising against Austria (1846). In such circumstances, some Polish leaders led by Austrian Galicia’s viceroy, Count Agenor Gołuchowski, came to believe that cooperation with the Habsburgs might be the best way to assure the future survival of...

  36. 31 Western Ukraine during World War I
    (pp. 191-195)

    The “long” nineteenth century, characterized by its political stability and firm rule over Ukrainian territories by the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, came to an end in the summer of 1914. Europe entered into what came to be known as the Great War—eventually the First World War—which was to last from August 1914 until November 1918. The major states opposed to one another were the Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia, and later the United States) versus the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later the Ottoman Empire). Italy, which initially declared neutrality, joined the Allies in 1915. These Great Power...

  37. 32 Revolution in Dnieper Ukraine, 1917-1918
    (pp. 197-201)

    Even before World War I ended one of the major belligerents, the Russian Empire, was rocked by a series of revolutions that were to have a profound impact on Dnieper Ukraine. By 1917 the Russian Empire had sustained the greatest losses of all the combatant powers. Of the fifteen million troops the empire mobilized, more than half were casualties (dead, wounded, or imprisoned). The western territories of the empire, including parts of Dnieper Ukraine, also suffered high civilian casualties and loss of property. As a result, the economic structure was profoundly undermined, and severe food shortages were common, most especially...

  38. 33 War, Social Upheaval, and Anarchy in Dnieper Ukraine, 1919-1920
    (pp. 203-209)

    With the departure of the German Army and the collapse of the Hetmanate, Dnieper Ukraine entered the third phase of its revolutionary era, which lasted from January 1919 to October 1920. Throughout this entire period the Ukrainian national Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Republic continued to compete for control of the country. Their struggle was further complicated, however, by foreign intervention—by White Russian armies, the Entente, and Poland—as well as by a virtually uninterrupted series of spontaneous and organized peasant revolts which created chaotic conditions throughout the rural countryside. For these reasons, this third phase of the Ukrainian...

  39. 34 Western Ukrainian Lands, 1918-1919
    (pp. 211-215)

    The fate of Dnieper Ukraine was determined by the 1917 revolutions and their aftermath in the Russian Empire. Western Ukrainian lands, by contrast, were dependent on the outcome of World War I and the future of the Austro-Hungarian Empire of which they were a part. Although Galician Ukrainian deputies in the Austrian parliament were displeased with the government’s reluctance to create a separate province of East Galicia, Ukrainians in general remained loyal to the Habsburg monarchy until its very end. Even after the empire’s collapse, some Ukrainians still hoped it might be possible to create an independent Galician kingdom ruled...

  40. 35 Ukrainian Lands after World War I
    (pp. 217-222)

    World War I drew to a close in late 1918, as one by one the Central Powers capitulated and accepted armistices to end the hostilities—Bulgaria (September 29), Ottoman Turkey (October 30), Austria-Hungary (November 5), and finally Germany (November 11). With the collapse of the Central Powers, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which had been guaranteed by Germany and Austria-Hungary and which recognized the independent Ukrainian National Republic, ceased to have any international validity.

    The victorious Allied and Associated Powers—Great Britain, France, the United States, Italy, and Japan—convened in January 1919 at several palaces outside Paris, to draw up...

  41. 36 Soviet Ukraine in the Interwar Years
    (pp. 223-228)

    The administrative structure of Soviet Ukraine changed several times during the interwar years. Initially, the nine tsarist provinces (gubernii) remained in place. Then, between 1923 and 1925, the old provinces were abolished and the whole territory of Soviet Ukraine was divided into fifty-three regions (okruhy), which in turn were subdivided into districts (raiony,which replaced thevolostiof the tsarist era). Also within the boundaries of Soviet Ukraine was the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic located just east of the Dniester River which formed an international border with Romania.

    The Soviet Union refused to recognize Romania’s acquisition of the former...

  42. 37 Soviet Ukraine’s Other Peoples
    (pp. 229-238)

    Like ethnic Ukrainians, other peoples (officially designated as national minorities) living in Soviet Ukraine were profoundly affected by the outbreak of revolution throughout the Russian Empire in 1917, by the subsequent efforts to create a Ukrainian state, and by the wars, peasant revolts, and widespread social upheaval that ultimately ended with the establishment of Soviet rule in 1920. In general most of the other (nonethnic Ukrainian) peoples initially did not welcome the fledging Ukrainian state. Whereas the idea of a Ukraine as part of a Russian federation may have been acceptable to some of Ukraine’s peoples, Ukrainian independence was looked...

  43. 38 Soviet Ukraine: Economic Transformation and the Great Famine
    (pp. 239-248)

    The new Soviet society derived its legitimization from the Communist ideology formulated by the nineteenth-century German socialist philosopher, Karl Marx, and adopted for implementation in the former Russian Empire by the early twentieth-century Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin. It was through economic transformation that Marxist-Leninist ideologists promised to create a classless and egalitarian Communist society, first in Soviet Russia and its allied republics within the former tsarist empire, and then throughout the rest of the world.

    Wherever the Bolsheviks extended their rule, they tried to create immediately a classless, Communist state. The Bolshevik-led government nationalized (appropriated without compensation) all industries, transportation...

  44. 39 Ukrainian Lands in Interwar Poland
    (pp. 249-255)

    Ukrainian lands within interwar Poland consisted of two separate territories that differed depending on which country they had belonged to before World War I as well as on when and under what conditions they were annexed to the restored state of Poland. The first Ukrainian lands to be formally annexed were so-called northern lands awarded to Poland from the former Russian Empire by the Treaty of Riga (March 1921), which brought to a formal close the Polish-Soviet War of 1920. The northern lands included the former tsarist Russian provinces of Volhynia and Kholm/Chełm and southern Grodno and Minsk (i.e., historic...

  45. 40 Ukrainian Lands in Interwar Romania and Czechoslovakia
    (pp. 257-262)

    Ukrainian-inhabited lands in interwar Romania were found in three distinct areas—Bessarabia, Maramureş, and Bukovina—which before World War I had belonged to three different political entities. In terms of the number of inhabitants (461,000), the largest of Romania’s Ukrainian lands was the Black Sea coastal region between the mouths of the Dniester and Danube rivers; that is, the southernmost section of the former tsarist Russian province of Bessarabia.

    Following the 1917 revolutions in the Russian Empire, Bessarabia’s majority population, the Romanians, formed an independent republic of Moldavia (January 1918), which two months later proclaimed its unity with the neighboring...

  46. 41 Carpatho-Ukraine, 1938-1939
    (pp. 263-267)

    Ukrainian territories located farthest to the west—specifically Subcarpathian Rus’ (present-day Transcarpathia) in interwar Czechoslovakia—were the first to be affected by rapidly changing political developments of late-1930s Europe that were to lead to the outbreak of World War II. Ever since the conclusion of the various treaties connected with the Paris Peace Conference (Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Sèvres), Europe had been divided among those states which wanted to maintain the political status quo (Great Britain, France, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia), and those which called for the revision of existing borders (Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria).

    The largest revisionist state...

  47. 42 World War II and Western Ukrainian Lands, 1939-1941
    (pp. 268-274)

    After annexing Austria and liquidating Czechoslovakia, Hitler turned next to Germany’s largest eastern neighbor, Poland. Particularly disconcerting for the Nazis was the fact that throughout the entire interwar period the province of East Prussia was separated from the rest of Germany by a strip of territory, the so-called Polish Corridor, that included as well the Baltic port and free city-state of Danzig (Polish: Gdańsk). In preparation for an assault on Poland, Hitler felt it was imperative first to reach an agreement with his greatest ideological enemy and the leader of the world Communist movement, Iosif Stalin. On August 23, 1939,...

  48. 43 Ukrainian Lands during World War II, 1941-1944
    (pp. 275-282)

    The era of German-Soviet “friendship” did not even last two full years. On June 22, 1941 Nazi Germany launched a full-scale attack against the Soviet Union. The invasion, called Operation Barbarossa, included forces consisting of 150 divisions of the German Army (Wehrmacht) and totaling about three million men. Among the operation’s goals was the occupation of agriculturally and mineral rich Soviet Ukraine and adjacent territory to the east and south as far as the upper Kuban’ River valley and the sub-Caucasian region. Within four months, the German forces had indeed captured all of Soviet Ukraine (November 1941) and a year...

  49. 44 World War II: The Military Struggle for Ukrainian Lands
    (pp. 283-288)

    Resistance to the invasion launched by Nazi Germany began soon after Hitler’s forces broke into the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. The resistance was to continue until the autumn of 1944, when the last German troops were driven from Ukrainian lands. In Soviet Ukraine, resistance took three basic forms: (1) spontaneous efforts at self-defense among the country’s rural inhabitants; (2) organized forces connected with the anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist movement; and (3) the Soviet partisan movement.

    Organized resistance began as early as the summer of 1941 among guerilla forces based in Volhynia and Polissia that claimed allegiance to the government-in-exile...

  50. 45 Soviet Ukraine after World War II
    (pp. 289-298)

    Although World War II did not end in Europe until the capitulation of Nazi Germany in May 1945, Soviet armed forces had by October 1944 already taken control of all ethnolinguistic Ukrainian territory, most although not all of which was to be incorporated into Soviet Ukraine. In contrast to the last years of World War I, when the Russian Empire had collapsed and the victorious Allied Powers did not even recognize Bolshevik Russia, as World War II was coming to a close the Soviet Union was a highly respected ally of the western powers and main participant in the joint...

  51. 46 From Soviet Ukraine to Independent Ukraine
    (pp. 299-308)

    The economic recovery of Soviet Ukraine during the first decade following World War II leveled off but did not end in 1955. Until the 1970s many branches of Soviet Ukraine’s industry recorded double-digit growth, with the largest relative increases occurring in the western Ukrainian oblasts acquired after the war. Soviet Ukraine also acquired greater control over its own economic affairs. Although the principle of the command economy remained in place throughout the Soviet Union, there was an increasing trend toward encouraging input from local authorities and industrial enterprises.

    For a while (1957-1965) central economic ministries were abolished and the entire...

  52. Index
    (pp. 309-331)
  53. Illustration Sources and Credits
    (pp. 332-336)