Ur III Period (2112-2004 BC)

Ur III Period (2112-2004 BC)

DOUGLAS FRAYNE
Copyright Date: 1997
Pages: 644
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt13x1qkz
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  • Book Info
    Ur III Period (2112-2004 BC)
    Book Description:

    This volume of RIM focuses on the inscriptions of the Third Dynasty of Ur, a city made famous by archaeological excavations of its spectacular burial sites.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-5706-9
    Subjects: Language & Literature, History, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Maps
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
    D.R.F.
  5. Editorial Notes
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    R.F.G. Sweet
  6. Bibliographical Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-xxviii)
  7. Other Abbreviations
    (pp. xxix-xxx)
  8. Object Signatures
    (pp. xxxi-xxxii)
  9. Table I: List of Deities Appearing in the Inscriptions
    (pp. xxxiii-xxxvi)
  10. Table II: List of Members of the Ur III Royal Family
    (pp. xxxvii-xl)
  11. Table III: List of Ur III Period Governors
    (pp. xli-xliv)
  12. Introduction
    (pp. 3-4)

    The time period covered by the inscriptions in this volume extends from the accession of the first king of the Ur III dynasty, Ur-Nammu, to the end of the reign of the fifth and last king of the dynasty, Ibbi-Sîn. According to J.A. Brinkman’s chronology (found in the appendix: “Mesopotamian Chronology of the Historical Period,” in A.L. Oppenheim’s Ancient Mesopotamia), this corresponds to 2112 to 2004 BC. This dating follows the so-called “Middle Chronology.” More recently, P. Huber, in a volume edited by P. Åström entitled High, Middle or Low, has argued (pp. 16–17) that the “Long Chronology” is...

  13. UR E3/2.1
    (pp. 5-8)

    An important preliminary consideration in any discussion of the dynasty founded by Ur-Nammu is the relative chronology of the Ur III and Lagaš II dynasties. The conventional view on this subject was put forward by E. Sollberger in an article entitled “Sur la chronologic des rois d’Ur et quelques problemès connexes” (AfO 17 [1954–57] p. 35); he set the defeat of the Lagaŝite ruler Namḫani, an event that seemed to be alluded to in a broken passage of the prologue of the “Ur-Nammu Law Code,” as year two of Ur-Nammu (Nammahni 3 = Ur-Nammu 2). Civil now interprets the...

  14. Ur-Nammu E3/2.1.1
    (pp. 9-90)

    The Sumerian King List credits Ur-Nammu, the founder of the Ur III dynasty, with a reign of eighteen years. This is the same figure given in the Ur-Isin king lists published by E. Sollberger (JCS 8 [1954] pp. 135–36; cf. A.K. Grayson, RLA 6/2 p. 90 §3.2).

    The origins of Ur-Nammu and his dynasty are not clear. According to C. Wilcke (CRRA 19 [1974] pp. 192–93 n. 67), Ur-Nammu was possibly the brother of Utu-ḫegal of Uruk. Indeed, offerings connected with (the deceased) Utu-ḫegal (as family ancestor?) are noted in an Ur III archival text dated to the...

  15. Ŝulgi E3/2.1.2
    (pp. 91-234)

    The Weld-Blundell exemplar of the Sumerian King List assigns Šulgi a reign of forty-six years; source Su3+4(sigla are those used by Jacobsen in SKL) gives forty-eight years, and source P⁵ fifty-eight years. In the Ur-Isin king lists published by E. Sollberger (JCS 8 [1954] pp. 135–36) Šulgi is credited with a reign of forty-eight years, and this figure is generally accepted by scholars to be correct. Two year lists are available for the king. The first, Ni 394, of likely Old Babylonian or later date, was published by H. Hilprecht as BE 1/2 no. 125. It contains the...

  16. Amar-Suena E3/2.1.3
    (pp. 235-284)

    Conflicting numbers are found in the various manuscripts of the Sumerian King List for the length of Amar-Suena’s reign. The Weld-Blundell prism’s figure of nine years is proven to be correct by the evidence of two date lists: (a) CBS 10799: Hilprecht, BE 1/2 no. 127 + small unpublished fragment (AS 1–9); and (b) IB 542a+ b+ obv. col. ii’ (AS 3–9); for the latter list, see C. Wilcke, Orientalia NS 54 (1985) pp. 299–303, where a general discussion of the tablet is given. In a recent article (RA 88 [1994] pp. 97–119) Lafont has assembled...

  17. Šū-Sîn E3/2.1.4
    (pp. 285-360)

    Conflicting numbers are found for the length of Šū-Sîn’s reign in the various manuscripts of the Sumerian King List. The Weld-Blundell prism’s figure of nine years is proven to be correct by the evidence of various date lists; see Ungnad, RLA 2 pp. 135 and 144–45. The names of years ŠS 1–9 are registered here according to their fullest form as found in Schneider, Zeitbestimmungen pp. 30–36.

    (1) mudšii-dEN. ZU lugal-am “The year Šū-Sîn (became) king.”

    While the Sumerian King List explicitly names Šū-Sîn as the son of Amar-Suena, some scholars have argued (erroneously) that the...

  18. Ibbi-Sîn E3/2.1.5
    (pp. 361-392)

    According to the Weld-Blundell exemplar of the Sumerian King List, Ibbi-Sîn reigned twenty-four years. This is the same figure given in the Ur-Isin King List published by Sollberger (JCS 8 [1954] pp. 135–36). The year names of Ibbi-Sîn are listed here according to the scheme given by Sollberger in RLA 5 [1980] pp. 4–7.

    (1) mudi-bi-dEN.ZU lugal “The year Ibbi-Sîn (became) king.” U 3637: L. Legrain, UET 3 no. 950.

    Archival texts dating to x ŠS 9, the month after Šū-Sîn died, enable us to follow in some detail the events of the coronation of...

  19. Unattributed Ur III E3/2.1.6
    (pp. 393-426)
  20. GIRSU E3/2.2
    (pp. 427-427)

    Inscriptions of two apparently independent rulers of Girsu of late Ur III times, Ur-Ningirsu and Ur-Nanše, are known from a handful of inscriptions. Their relative order has not yet been established....

  21. Ur-Ningirsu E3/2.2.1
    (pp. 427-429)

    A certain Ur-Ningirsu appears asšennuandenpriest of the god Nanše in a statue inscription dedicated to the goddess Ninmarki, for Šulgi (E3/2.1.2.2032), and in a statuette inscription dedicated to the god NinDAR, for Ibbi-Sîn (E3/2.1.5.2005). Further, in an inscription incised on a model wig dedicated to the goddess Lamma for the life of Sulgi (E3/2.1.2.2030), a cup-bearer(?) of Ur-Ningirsu is named.

    Now, in a brick building inscription from Girsu, Ur-Ningirsu appears once again, but this time, in contrast to all previous occurrences, without any reference to an Ur III overlord. Since building inscriptions were normally the prerogative...

  22. Ur-Nanše E3/2.2.2
    (pp. 429-430)
  23. Unnamed Ruler Probably of Girsu E3/2.2.3
    (pp. 430-432)
  24. EŠNUNNA E3/2.3
    (pp. 433-433)

    According to R. Whiting (AfO 34 [1987] p. 33), tablets from Ešnunna using Ibbi-Sîn year names cease with IS 3. Evidence from various seal inscriptions indicates that Šū-ilīa, who is attested as a son of the Ur III governor Itūrīia in the seal inscription E3/2.1.5.2002, governed as an independent ruler at Ešnunna in late Ur III times....

  25. Šū-ilīia E3/2.3.1
    (pp. 433-437)

    I. Year Names and Events of the Reign

    For the year names of Šū-ilīia, see Jacobsen, Gimilsin Temple pp. 170 and 173–74 Date formulas nos. 40–41 and 46–48, and R. Whiting, JAOS 97 (1977) p. 174 n. 10.

    (a) [mudšū-ilīialugal “The year Šū-ilīia (became) king.”]

    The year formula dealing with the accession of Šū-ilīia is not extant; its reconstruction is based on various Ur III parallels.

    (b) mu dumu-munus-lugal máš-e ì-pà “The year the daughter of the king was chosen by omens (to be priestess).” Jacobsen, Gimilsin Temple p. 170 Date formula 40.

    (c)...

  26. Nūr-aḫum E3/2.3.2
    (pp. 438-438)

    As noted, Šū-ilīia was succeeded by Nūr-aḫum as ruler of Ešnunna sometime in the period IŠ 18–21. Nūr-aḫum appears in his inscriptions with the title “governor” (ÉNSI) rather than “king” (LUGAL); in all likelihood he was an appointee of Isbi-Erra of Isin. His inscriptions have been edited under the rubric E4.5.1 in the volume RIME 4....

  27. MARI E3/2.4
    (pp. 439-439)
  28. Apil-kīn E3/2.4.1
    (pp. 440-440)
  29. Iddi(n)-Ilum E3/2.4.2
    (pp. 441-443)
  30. Ilum-išar E3/2.4.3
    (pp. 443-443)
  31. Tūra(m)-Dagān E3/2.4.4
    (pp. 444-444)
  32. Puzur-Eštar E3/2.4.5
    (pp. 445-447)
  33. Itlal-Erra E3/2.4.6
    (pp. 448-449)
  34. ʾAnun-Dagān E3/2.4.7
    (pp. 449-450)
  35. KARAḪAR E3/2.5
    (pp. 451-451)

    Three campaigns of Šulgi were directed against the important eastern stronghold of Karaḫar; the city appears in the year names for S 24, 31, and 33. As for the location of Karaḫar, we offer the following brief discussion.

    While an Ur III variant spelling ḫar-ḫar for kára-ḫar is known (see Gelb, Hurrians p. 57 n. 72; identification confirmed by R. Whiting, JCS 28 [1976] p. 181 n. 21), this ḫar-ḫar is to be kept distinct from Assyrian Ḫarḫar, which Levine (Iran 12 [1974] pp. 116–17) has indicated is to be located much farther east, namely, on the Great Khorasan...

  36. Tiš-atal E3/2.5.1
    (pp. 452-452)
  37. Zardamu E3/2.5.2
    (pp. 453-454)
  38. KIMAŠ E3/2.6
    (pp. 455-455)

    The year names for Š 46–48 commemorate an apparent ongoing campaign of Šulgi in the mountainous region of Kimas. Major targets of this war, as attested by the GNs occurring in the year names, were the cities of Kimaš, Ḫurti, and Ḫarši. Another likely conquest, to judge from the evidence of archival texts, was the defeat of the city of Zidānum. Its mention together with Ḫarši in a Drehem text dated to AS 3 (Private collection: L. Delaporte, RA 8 1911] pp. 188–89 no. 7 lines 5, 7) and with Ḫurti in a tablet dated to AS 9...

  39. Ḫunḫili E3/2.6.1
    (pp. 456-456)
  40. URKIŠ AND NAWAR E3/2.7
    (pp. 457-459)

    A handful of Ur III archival texts (see Edzard, Rép. Géogr. 2 p. 224 sub Urkiš) refer to a ruler of Urkiš named An-na-tal. Although Urkiš apparently remained outside the political control of the Ur III state during much (or all) of the Ur III period, the archival sources do attest to diplomatic relations between Ur and Urkiš.

    The location of Urkiš, a very important ancient city, has been the subject of considerable scholarly discussion. W.J. van Lière, in an article entitled “Urkiš, centre religieux hurrite retrouvé dans la haute jézireh syrienne” (AAAS 7 [1957] p. 91–94), summarized the...

  41. Talpuš-atili E3/2.7.1
    (pp. 460-460)
  42. Atal-šen E3/2.7.2
    (pp. 461-462)
  43. Tiš-atal E3/2.7.3
    (pp. 462-464)

    Three Ur III sources mention an important personage (or personages) named Tiš-atal. R. Whiting, JCS 28 (1976) pp. 174–77, notes they were:

    1)Ti-iš-a-tal en-da-an Ur-kèš.KI in an undated foundation inscription written in Hurrian (RA 42 [1948] pp. 1–20) here edited as inscription E3/2.7.3.1.

    2)dTi⁴(!)-sa-a-tal LUGAL Kar(a)-ḫar. ki in an Ur III or early Isin-Larsa style seal (de Clercq, Collection 1 no. 121) here edited as inscription E3/2.5.1.2001.

    3) Ti-iš-a-tal lú Ni-nu-a. ki in an Ur III administrative text from Eshnunna dated to Šū-Sín 3 (Tell Asmar 1931-T615).

    While it is unlikely that the king of...

  44. Index of Museum Numbers
    (pp. 465-476)
  45. Index of Excavation Numbers
    (pp. 477-480)
  46. Concordances of Selected Publications
    (pp. 481-489)
  47. Scores of Inscriptions
    (pp. 1-108)