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Sharing the Burden?

Sharing the Burden?: NATO and its Second-Tier Powers

Copyright Date: 2015
Pages: 344
  • Book Info
    Sharing the Burden?
    Book Description:

    Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, NATO's middle powers have been pressured into shouldering an increasing share of the costs of the transatlantic alliance. InSharing the Burden?Benjamin Zyla rejects the claim that countries like Canada have shirked their responsibilities within NATO.

    Using a range of measures that go beyond troop numbers and defense budgets to include peacekeeping commitments, foreign economic assistance, and contributions to NATO's rapid reaction forces and infrastructure, Zyla argues that, proportionally, Canada's NATO commitments in the 1990s rivaled those of the alliance's major powers. At the same time, he demonstrates that Canadian policy was driven by strong normative principles to assist failed and failing states rather than a desire to ride the coattails of the United States, as is often presumed.

    An important challenge to realist theories,Sharing the Burden?is a significant contribution to the debate on the nature of alliances in international relations.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-6838-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-2)
  4. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-20)

    The end of the Cold War shifted the tectonic plates of global order. After 1989, geopolitics was no longer about balancing against or bandwagoning with other powers; it was about extending a helping hand to former enemies, engaging societies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) on a sociopolitical-economic level, and practising policies of enticement to lure those states into the Western community. International security institutions underwent their own transformation, changing their mandate from collective defence to international crisis management.¹

    This shift in global order, in turn, shook the hierarchy of power in international politics. It gave new meaning and roles...

  5. Part I: Frameworks

    • 2 Theoretical Framework
      (pp. 23-56)

      Atlantic burden sharing has been a contentious issue since the birth of NATO in 1949¹ and has produced a wealth of scholarship across a number of disciplines. Each discipline has claimed to have the best theoretical tools to study burden sharing, and each has used insights from the others to further advance and refine its theoretical and conceptual models. The purpose of this chapter is to set out the theoretical framework for this book. Before doing so, however, it looks at the conventional thinking on Atlantic burden sharing and reviews some of the key works on this issue in the...

    • 3 The Conceptual Puzzle of the “New World Order”
      (pp. 57-86)

      This chapter provides a background analysis to contextualize some of the changes that occurred in the world order following the history-making events of November 1989 and that gave new meaning to NATO’s public goods.¹ It will, first, carve out the distinctive features of the much celebrated “new world order” that President George H.W. Bush depicted in 1990 and, second, examine how that new world order was distinct from the “old” order of the Cold War. This raises important questions of continuity and change in pan-European security politics as well as alliance politics and the practice of burden sharing generally. The...

  6. Part II: Military Burdens

    • 4 The “New” Wars in the Balkans and Iraq, Part I
      (pp. 89-115)

      As noted in the introductory chapter, this book analyses a series of burden-sharing indicators. They are clustered (typologized) into military (or hard power) and civilian (soft power) burden-sharing indexes. The benefit of clustering variables is that it allows us to make a structured and focused comparison of the data and thus a systematic and cumulative analysis. The idea of creating typologies has a long history in the social sciences¹ because it enables the researcher to address complex sets of information and draw out similarities and differences from the indexes while avoiding oversimplification from the case study.² Alexander George and Andrew...

    • 5 The Balkans, Part II
      (pp. 116-154)

      While the previous chapter discussed the share of the burden that Canada as a second-tier power shouldered in the UNPROFOR operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), and FYROM, this chapter examines this practice in the missions that followed the peace agreement concluded at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995.² These missions were carried out under the leadership of NATO and include the Implementation Force (IFOR), the Stabilization Force (SFOR), and later, during the crisis in Kosovo, Operation ALLIED FORCE and thereafter the Kosovo Force (KFOR).

      As discussed...

  7. Part III: Civilian Burdens

    • 6 The NATO of Canada’s Dreams: Practising Civilian Burden Sharing, Part I
      (pp. 157-193)

      With the enactment ofglasnostandperestroikain May 1988, Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev put his country on a path of rapprochement with the West. The alliance, taken by surprise by the sudden geopolitical revolutions in Europe, slowly recognized the extent of these new policies and responded in kind by extending a “hand of friendship.”³ This gesture of sociability and kindness was a German-Canadian initiative based on ideas put forward by the foreign ministers of those two countries, Hans Dietrich Genscher and Joe Clark,⁴ who noted that “we welcome the decision of the London Summit to propose a joint declaration...

    • 7 Sharing the Civilian Burden, Part II
      (pp. 194-233)

      While chapters 4 and 5 focused on the military share of the burden that NATO incurred in the new world order, this chapter turns to the civilian dimension of the debate. It broadens the discussion of Atlantic burden sharing by introducing what I call civilian, or soft power, indicators, which can be found at the intersection of military and civilian indicators and which address questions of distributive justice in NATO’s civilian burden-sharing regime. These are novel indexes; they have not yet been discussed in the literature.²

      Moreover, the chapter contextualizes these civilian indicators in the new security environment in Europe,...

  8. 8 Conclusion
    (pp. 234-270)

    Broadly speaking, this book has examined the practice of sharing the NATO burden in the 1990s, with a particular emphasis on Canada. Sharing is conceptualized not as a predetermined outcome of state behaviour, but as a dynamic process of national preference formations for certain state actions. Indeed, sharing the burden of an international institution can be regarded as such an action directed towards a specific set of social purposes at the national and international levels. This process necessitates contextualizing the behaviour of the individual social actions of states in the emerging new world order following the Cold War.

    The preceding...

  9. Bibliography
    (pp. 271-316)
  10. Index
    (pp. 317-328)