Concise Encyclopedia Ukraine

Concise Encyclopedia Ukraine

Edited by VOLODYMYR KUBIJOVYČ
Foreword by ERNEST J. SIMMONS
Copyright Date: 1971
Pages: 1422
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt14jxwb7
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  • Book Info
    Concise Encyclopedia Ukraine
    Book Description:

    Libraries, government agencies, and all those seeking knowledge of Eastern Europe will find in the Encyclopaedia a wealth of fascinating and illuminating material not available elsewhere in the English language.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7319-9
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. ix-xii)
    Ernest J. Simmons

    Several years ago the publication of the first volume ofUkraine: a Concise Encyclopaediawas uniformly acclaimed in numerous reviews. An “outstanding reference book,” wrote one reviewer, “a monumental compendium of information about Ukraine, its land, people, history, and culture,” declared another, and a third described it as “the most complete reference book on Ukraine available in English.” Some reviewers stressed the special features and authoritativeness: the more than sixty scholars, many of them of international reputation, who had contributed articles; the carefully selected and often extensive bibliographical surveys attached to each contribution; the more than six hundred illustrations and...

  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-xxxiv)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xxxv-2)

    Like Volume I ofUkraine: AConcise Encyclopaedia, published in 1963 by the University of Toronto Press for the Ukrainian National Association, this second volume is also the result of a cooperative effort by many authors, editors, and their associates, as well as translators, reviewers, and consultants. As in the first volume, which contains eight sections (general information, physical geography and natural history, population, ethnography, language, history, culture, and literature), the information in the second volume is based on the material compiled in theEntsyklopediia ukraïinoznavstva, published in Ukrainian by the Shevchenko Scientific Society in 1949–52. The editorial work...

  5. I. THE LAW

    • 1. THE HISTORY OF JURISPRUDENCE
      (pp. 3-10)

      With the consolidation of KievanRus’ a period of marked development of customary and statutory law began. However, the idea of jurisprudence as a separate academic discipline was not as yet in existence. The first Slavic attempt to codify laws, theRuskaia Pravda Rus’ Law), resulted from the practical need for a written and ordered code. Although the authors ofRuskaia Pravdaremain unknown, it is evident from the text that a group of jurists were active in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries compiling the laws of the realm. The three editions of the Lithuanian Statute also testify...

    • 2. THE PRINCELY ERA
      (pp. 10-22)

      The Princely era [Vol. I, pp. 581ff.], which lasted for half a millennium (eighth through the thirteenth centuries) is the earliest period of Ukraine which offers historical proof of the existence of a legal order. The basic areas of law developed during this period (constitutional, civil, and criminal law and procedures) from primitive forms to highly developed systems which were acknowledged in the history of medieval Europe.

      The monuments of Ukrainian law during the Princely era are divided into the following groups as to form: symbolic, oral and manuscript. The principles of popular customary law have survived in the form...

    • 3. THE LITHUANIAN-RUTHENIAN PERIOD
      (pp. 22-33)

      Following the decline of the Princely state organization [Vol. I, pp. 610ff., pp. 618ff.], Ukrainian territories came under the rule of Lithuania in the fifteenth century, and subsequently under Poland. This caused serious political, social, and legal changes in these territories. However, old Ukrainian legal institutions remained in effect for a long time, and exerted a considerable influence on the systems of the occupying powers, particularly Lithuania.

      Numerous legal records have survived from the Lithuanian-Rws’ period in written form, and from the latter part even in printed form. Most were written in the officialRus’ language (a mixture of Church...

    • 4. THE HETMAN STATE (1638-1781)
      (pp. 33-44)

      The most important source in this period was customary law which had come into existence over a period of centuries. Its influence is clearly evident in the general system of the Hetman state: the election of the hetman, the election and introduction of regimental and company administration, the judicial system, and the substantive criminal and civil law.

      Treaty provisions concluded between the government of Muscovy and the Kozak officers corps on the occasion of the installation of a new hetman were an important source of law. They set forth general principles of the administrative and legal structure of the Ukrainian...

    • 5. UKRAINE UNDER POLISH DOMINATION IN THE FOURTEENTH TO EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES
      (pp. 44-49)

      Two historical events, nearly two hundred years apart in time, brought Ukrainian lands under Polish domination: Galicia (with the Kholm region) was annexed by Polish kings under their dynastic claims in 1387 [Vol. I, pp. 610ff.], and the bulk of the remaining Ukrainian territory was incorporated as a result of the Union of Lublin in 1569 [Vol. I, pp. 623ff]. The subsequent constitutional, legal, and judiciary development of these two parts of Ukraine took place separately and under different conditions and, therefore, require separate treatment.

      After the death of George II in 1340, the last Ukrainian prince of the (distaff)...

    • 6. IN THE RUSSIAN AND AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRES FROM THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TO THE OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR I
      (pp. 49-54)

      As a result of the three partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, and 1795), the Russo-Turkish War (1769–91), the Napoleonic Wars, and the Congress of Vienna (1815), the Ukrainian territories came under the domain of two vast empires—the Russian and the Austro-Hungarian.

      All Ukrainian territories which had been formerly part of Poland (with the exception of Galicia) were annexed by Russia and joined with the Ukrainian territories already in Russia’s possession [Vol. I, pp. 667ff.]. The western Ukrainian territories, that is, Galicia and Bukovina, fell under Austria. Transcarpathia had already been part of Hungary for centuries.

      This new partition...

    • 7. UKRAINIAN STATEHOOD 1917-20
      (pp. 55-70)

      The Russian Revolution and the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy after World War I gave the Ukrainians the opportunity to restore their independence in their own national state organizations. The conditions thus created, political and otherwise, were different in both parts of Ukraine, as was the process of their constitutional and legal development. These differences, and the main political developments which created them, are reflected in the presentation of the material in this chapter.

      In the short period of its independence, the Ukrainian nation was not able to create a complete body of laws which usually constitute the legal system...

    • 8. WESTERN UKRAINIAN TERRITORIES BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS
      (pp. 70-77)

      In the aftermath of World War I, Western Ukraine was partitioned among Poland, Rumania, and Czechoslovakia. As a result of the Ukrainian-Polish (1918–19) and the Soviet-Polish (1919–21) wars, the territories of western and northwestern Ukraine (western Volhynia, western Polisia, Kholm, and Podlachia) came under Polish domination [Vol. I, p. 833].

      On March 15, 1923, the Conference of Ambassadors of the Allied Powers formally assigned the territory of Galicia to Poland (which had held this territory by force of arms), in accordance with Section 87 of the Treaty of Versailles. The annexation of the northwestern Ukrainian territories by Poland...

    • 9. LAW AND GOVERNMENT OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR
      (pp. 77-119)

      The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR) is one of 15 constituent members of the Soviet federation—the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). For this reason, its political, social, and economic structure is determined by and derived from the basic principles of the political, social. and economic structure of the USSR. These formal principles, which are enumerated in the constitutions of the Ukrainian SSR and USSR and elaborated in Soviet official pronouncements and legal writings, can be summarized as follows:

      1. The Ukrainian SSR is a socialist state of workers and peasants.

      2. The socio-economic foundation of the Ukrainian SSR is...

  6. II. THE UKRAINIAN CHURCH

    • 1. UKRAINIAN CHURCH HISTORIOGRAPHY AND THEOLOGY
      (pp. 120-132)

      The beginnings of Ukrainian church historiography date back to the Princely period. The very first works of historical nature–chronicles, biographies (lives) of prominent church leaders, accounts of the construction of churches and monasteries–contain both factual material on the history of the Church inRus’-Ukraine and distinct historical conceptions, largely associated with particular events or persons. Such are the “lives” of the saints of the eleventh century (particularly Princes Borys and Hlib), and stories of the builders of the Kievan Cave Monastery. Even in this early period, the historians of the time showed an interest in specific problems of...

    • 2. THE HISTORY OF THE UKRAINIAN CHURCHES
      (pp. 132-213)

      Recent research on the early civilizations of the Black Sea littoral shows that Christianity had already penetrated the coastal regions of Ukraine in the first century a.d. It is clear that the geographical area known in Hellenistic times as Scythia included that portion of Ukraine which adjoins the Sea of Azov (the Kuban area of today) and the environs of the Straits of Kerch. And Christian tradition holds that it was in Scythia that the apostle St. Andrew Pervozvannyi (First Called) preached.

      During apostolic times the western portion of Scythia which bordered on the Black Sea belonged to the Roman...

    • 3. CONSTITUTION OF THE UKRAINIAN CHURCHES
      (pp. 213-231)

      Believers in the Ukrainian SSR do not officially possess their own national churches since these churches have been formally abolished. Over 35 million Christian Ukrainians who belonged mainly to the Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches are now officially considered either atheists or members of the Russian Orthodox Church. A certain number of them practice illegally the religious rites of the abolished churches (mostly Catholic). At present Ukrainian national churches exist openly only outside the USSR.

      The majority of Ukrainian people belong to the Orthodox Church; the Greek term “Orthodox” dates from the earliest period of the Christian Church when it...

  7. III. SCHOLARSHIP

    • 1. SCHOLARSHIP IN UKRAINIAN LANDS TO 1850
      (pp. 232-242)
      B. Krawciw and O. Ohloblyn

      The first manifestations of scientific thought—speculative reflection and research—began emerging with the spread of literacy in Rws’-Ukraine in the Princely era. The search for truth, for basic principles and laws of existence and communal order, is recorded in the oldest written sources of this era. At first, the predominant influence upon them was that of speculative thought imitating the various spheres of Byzantine intellectual life.

      Theology, often with a philosophical tenor, dominated the scholarship of the time. The main source of theological and philosophical knowledge was translations of literature, especially the works of the eighth-century Byzantine writer John...

    • 2. SCHOLARSHIP IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN UKRAINIAN LANDS FROM 1850 TO 1917
      (pp. 242-247)
      B. Krawciw and O. Ohloblyn

      The development of scholarship in Ukraine, as in other countries, was marked in this period by a progressive departure from Romanticism and an increased emphasis on emerging Positivism. Comparative, historical, and, later sociological methods were employed in the conduct of scholarly research in the humanities. Theological and philosophical studies receded into the background; statistical economic studies came to the fore. Developments in the natural sciences and medicine were particularly pronounced and technical studies came to be emphasized. Universities, technical institutes, and other specialized institutions and societies became the centers of learning in Ukraine.

      During the latter half of the nineteenth...

    • 3. SCHOLARSHIP IN WESTERN UKRAINIAN LANDS AND ABROAD (1850–1918)
      (pp. 248-252)
      V. Doroshenko and B. Krawciw

      During the period 1850–1918, schools of higher learning, particularly the Universities of Lviv and Chernivtsi and the Lviv Polytechnic Institute (see p. 333), were the main centers of scholarly study and research in these areas. The research institutes and professors of these universities contributed greatly to the advancement of the humanities, Ukrainian studies, and the natural sciences, particularly the study of the history, ethnography, economy, and natural history of Galicia and Bukovina. The development of some aspects of Ukrainian studies, and especially the increase in the number of scholars and researchers, can be attributed in large measure to the...

    • 4. CENTRAL AND EASTERN LANDS AFTER 1917
      (pp. 252-266)
      B. Krawciw and A. Ohloblyn

      Following severe repressions by the tsarist government at the outbreak of World War I, including a series of bans, prohibitions, and personal attacks (e.g., imprisonment and deportation of Michael Hrushevsky), Ukrainian scholarship did not experience a revival until the revolution of March 1917 and the rebirth of Ukrainian statehood. The Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kiev became the hub of Ukrainian scholarly activities. Its scope broadened with the reorganization of the section of mathematics and natural sciences into three separate sections: natural sciences, technology, and medicine. The Society renewed the publication of itsZapysky(Memoirs),Zbirnyky(Collections), and the scholarly quarterly...

    • 5. THE UKRAINIAN SSR, 1945–66
      (pp. 266-277)
      I. Bakalo

      The immediate postwar years witnessed the imposition of the official policy on all institutions of higher learning, particularly those dealing with history and the social sciences. The CPSU enunciated its nationality policy as being based on the “unbreakable friendship among the nations of the USSR” and the i“great role” of the Russian people in the development of the cultures of all non-Russian peoples incorporated in the Russian empire. Scholarly works on the history of Ukraine, literature, art, economics, etc., published in the period of a relative thaw during the war, were withdrawn from circulation or rewritten. The scholars of the...

    • 6. IN WESTERN UKRAINE AND IN THE EMIGRATION, 1919–45
      (pp. 278-284)
      B. Krawciw and V. Kubijovyč

      In the period between the two world wars, the University of Lviv remained the main center of scholarly research in Galicia. All Ukrainian chairs at the University were abolished (see p. 377), except that of Ukrainian language which was held by a Polish scholar. The principal centers of scholarly research work continued to be the Lviv polytechnic and other institutions of higher learning, as well as a number of Polish scientific institutions and societies in Lviv, which for the most part were already in existence before 1914 (see p. 251). The Podilian Regional Studies Society (established 1925) worked in the...

    • 7. ABROAD, 1945–67
      (pp. 284-290)

      At the end of World War II, West Germany (Bavaria) and, to a lesser extent, Austria became the main areas of Ukrainian scholarly activity. Nearly three hundred Ukrainian scholars from all parts of Ukraine settled in these countries, mainly in displaced persons camps. They included scholars from former seats of learning in Prague, Warsaw, and Berlin which had been disbanded after the war. Late in 1945, the Ukrainian Free University resumed its activities in Regensburg (subsequently transferred to Munich), as did the Ukrainian Technical and Husbandry Institute (see Education, p. 388). The Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences was founded in...

  8. IV. EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS

    • 1. HISTORY OF PEDAGOGICAL THOUGHT AND PRESENT STATE OF RESEARCH
      (pp. 291-300)

      Definite pedagogical concepts, i.e. ideas on raising and educating children are known to have existed in KievanRus’ as early as the tenth century. These opinions found subsequent expression inPouchenie Volodymyra Monomakha ditiam(Instruction) of Prince Volodymyr Monomakh to his children in 1096 and in later collections of moral and religious teachings, particularly translated works such as St. John Chrysostom’sO Voskromlcnii detii(On Educating Children).

      After a long gap caused by the Tatar invasion, centers of education shifted to the religious brotherhood schools in Lviv, Lutsk, Ostrih, and later Kiev (see pp. 304‒5). An important role in the...

    • 2. TO THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
      (pp. 300-313)

      It is probable that several systems of writing existed in Ukraine-Rus’ even before the adoption of Christianity (988). Old-Ukrainian, Byzantine, and Arabic sources mentionCherty y rezy(dashes and slashes) with the help of which the Slavs counted and notated, a bible and psalter found in Khersones (Korsun) in the Crimea writtenrus’skimy pis’meny(inRus’ characters), and a written language of theRus’ people. The existence of a written language is further indicated by various, as yet undeciphered, inscriptions on archaeological finds.

      The adoption of Christianity at the end of the tenth century heralded the beginning of literature, both...

    • 3. IN UKRAINIAN LANDS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES
      (pp. 313-326)

      Education in central and eastern Ukraine was directly dependent on the internal conditions prevailing in the Russian empire. Reforms instituted in Russia in the 1860’s brought many changes. Thus this survey of the history of schools and education in that part of Ukraine occupied by Russia is divided into two periods, before and after 1860.

      The abolition of the hetmanate, introduction of serfdom and increasing Russification contributed to the decline of schools and education in Ukraine under the Russians. The Russian government implemented a special policy towards higher education in Ukraine, which had shown marked progress in the eighteenth century:...

    • 4. UKRAINIAN LANDS UNDER AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
      (pp. 327-340)

      The annexation of Ukrainian lands by Austria produced more favorable conditions for the development of Ukrainian schools and education. This was mainly a result of the spirit of enlightenment prevailing in Austria, its closer ties with Western culture, and the establishment of democratic institutions in Austria in the second half of the nineteenth century.

      The history of Ukrainian schools and education in Ukrainian lands under Austria and Hungary, like the general history of the Ukrainian people inhabiting these territories, was one of continuous struggle against Germanization, and particularly Polonization, Magyarization, and Rumanization. Internally, it was a struggle of two opposing...

    • 5. THE PERIOD OF UKRAINIAN STATEHOOD
      (pp. 341-343)

      Immediately after the outbreak of the revolution in March 1917, Ukrainians set out to develop their own schools and a system of education. To a large degree, the groundwork had already been prepared by Ukrainian educators and cultural leaders of the earlier period. The Galician Ukrainians also played an important part in the educational development of central and eastern Ukraine. They found themselves in these areas as prisoners of war, hostages, or deportees arrested by the Russian authorities. Many of them were employed as teachers, editors, and journalists. It was the General Secretariat of Education, headed by Ivan Steshenko, which...

    • 6. THE UKRAINIAN SSR
      (pp. 343-370)

      National renaissance in the central and eastern parts of Ukraine, which had begun after the revolution of March 1917, was interrupted by the war imposed upon the Ukrainian National Republic by Soviet Russia [Vol. I, pp. 756b]. The draft project of a system of general education known as the “unified labor school” could not be realized under these circumstances. While the war lasted, prerevolutionary educational methods and goals remained essentially unchanged. The financial support of Ukrainian schools—inasmuch as it could not be obtained from regular government sources—came from the citizens, particularly from consumer cooperatives, which established at their...

    • 7. EDUCATION IN WESTERN UKRAINE IN 1919–44 AND ABROAD
      (pp. 371-384)

      In Ukrainian lands occupied by Poland in 1919, school and educational conditions varied from area to area: in Galicia [Vol. I, p. 835, ff.], Ukrainian schools were relatively well organized and the Ukrainian community exerted considerable influence on the form and content of education. In the northwestern lands (Volhynia, the Kholm region, Podlachia, and Polisia), which were formerly under Russian occupation, the level of education, especially the elementary, was quite low, Ukrainian schools were non-existent, and the Ukrainian community had no voice in educational matters.

      Conditions in the northwestern lands changed during World War I. Some Ukrainian schools were opened...

    • 8. ABROAD FROM 1919 TO THE 1950’s
      (pp. 384-388)

      During World War I, in the years 1915‒18, the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine [Vol. I, p. 714] organized cultural and educational activities among Ukrainian prisoners of war interned in Austria (Freistadt) and Germany (Rastatt, Salzwedel, and Wetzlar). This work, as well as formal instruction, was conducted by teachers from among the prisoners of war or by Ukrainians living in Austria who were members of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine. Hundreds of active, nationally conscious Ukrainians were produced by these schools.

      Cultural and educational life among Ukrainian political refugees after World War I was well developed [Vol....

    • 9. THE PERIOD OF WORLD WAR II
      (pp. 388-391)
      P. Isaïw

      Fundamental changes in the field of education occurred in western Ukrainian lands as a result of World War II.

      Initial changes were precipitated by the Soviet occupation of almost all these lands in 1939 and 1940 (Bukovina and Bessarabia). The Soviet system of education was introduced in the occsupied lands, and schools of all levels were thoroughly Ukrainianized. Schools with Polish as the language of instruction were retained for the Polish population. Established institutions of higher learning in Lviv were partially Ukrainianized and several new ones were opened. The University of Lviv was renamed Ivan Franko University. Only in the...

  9. V. LIBRARIES, ARCHIVES, MUSEUMS

    • 1. LIBRARIES
      (pp. 392-401)

      The existence of libraries in Ukraine was noted in chronicles as early as the eleventh century. The first library of which historical note was taken was founded by Prince Yaroslav the Wise as part of Saint Sophia’s Cathedral built in Kiev in 1037. Prince Sviatoslav, son of Yaroslav (1027–76), was renowned to have “filled his chambers with books”; manuscript books were also collected by other Princes—Nicholas Sviatosha in Chernihiv, Volodymyr Vasylkovych in Volyn, and the boyars. Their collections, bequeathed or donated to churches and monasteries, became the nuclei of church and monastery libraries. The oldest was the library...

    • 2. ARCHIVES AND ARCHAEOGRAPHY
      (pp. 401-407)

      Written sources from the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries indicate that important historical documents, chronicles, and similar materials were preserved in church vestment closets and in treasury-rooms of monasteries and princely courts. From the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries archives were to be found in the castles of independent princes, in the residences of Lithuanian and Polish provincial governors (voievody), and later in town courts, magistrates’ offices, and on the estates of magnates and nobles.

      The archive of the Kozak Host, established in Terekhtemyriv in the first half of the seventeenth century, and the Ukrainian state archive of Bohdan Khmelnytsky...

    • 3. MUSEUMS, CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL LANDMARKS
      (pp. 408-424)

      Ukrainian museums began simply as collections and preservations of cultural monuments and natural landmarks at the time of the emerging statehood ofRus’-Ukraine and the adoption of Christianity. Vestment closets and libraries of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev (eleventh century), the Kievan Cave Monastery, the Mykhailivsky Monastery, the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of Chernihiv, as well as the treasuries of the great Kievan, Galician-Volhynian, and independent princes, were the first depositories of valuable historical material and art pieces. Attacks on Kiev by princes from the northern lands (particularly the sacking of Kiev by Andrew Boholiubsky, Prince of Rostov-Suzdal, in 1169), and...

    • 4. RESERVATIONS AND CONSERVATION
      (pp. 424-427)

      Conservation efforts in the Ukrainian lands before 1920 were sporadic (for example, measures to preserve forests and protect wildlife in the Hetman state). Legal means of forest conservation were introduced only in the second half of the nineteenth century, but these were inadequate, particularly in those Ukrainian lands which were part of the Russian empire (see Forestry, p. 896). The first reservations were established through private efforts: the Askaniia Nova reservation was founded in the Kherson steppe by its owner, E. Falzfein (1883), a German colonist. Strict conservation of forests and wildlife was enforced in tsarist forests in the mountains...

  10. VI. BOOK PUBLISHING AND THE PRESS

    • 1. SURVEY OF BIBLIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
      (pp. 428-431)

      Bibliology, as a separate scientific discipline dealing with the theory and history of book publishing and periodicals, did not develop in Ukraine until the late nineteenth century. However, early in that century a number of Ukrainians (scholars of St. Petersburg and Moscow who were natives of Ukraine and graduates of Ukrainian schools of higher learning) played an important role in the development of Russian bibliology. The first theoretician of bibliology in Russia was Basil Anastasevych (1775‒1845), born in Kiev, graduate of the Kievan Mohyla Academy, author of many bibliographical guides,—articles in which he stressed the need for the compilation...

    • 2. BIBLIOGRAPHY
      (pp. 431-440)

      The pattern of development of Ukrainian bibliography was similar to that of western Europe, at times based on the lists of books approved by church and library catalogues. The first such “index of legitimate and apocryphal books” could be found in theIzbornyk(Chronicle) of 1073, titled “Books Which Should Be Bead and Apocryphal Books Which Should Not Be Read.” Actually this was a translation adapted to the prevailing conditions of the Slavic world. Brief bibliographical notes appear in the chronicles as early as the Princely period. The most interesting among them is the reference to the libraries of St....

    • 3. THE BEGINNINGS OF PRINTING
      (pp. 441-444)

      The history of early Ukrainian printing begins with the publication of the first books printed inkyrylytsia, the Cyrillic alphabet, in Cracow. These earliest printed books are connected with the name of a Cracow artisan and inventor, Szwajpolt (Schweitpold) Fiol (or Viol, Veyl, Feyl), (ca. 1460‒1525), a German from Neustadt in Franconia, but a citizen of Cracow since 1479. Probably on the order of Ukrainian Orthodox hierarchs, possibly the Lviv Brotherhood of the Assumption, Szwajpolt established a printing shop in Cracow in the early 1480i’s and printed five books in the “Ruthenian language” (ruthenae literae libri). These books wereOsmohlasnyk...

    • 4. BOOK PRINTING IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES
      (pp. 444-450)

      At the time when book printing was introduced into Ukraine and its neighboring lands–Poland, Belorussia, and Muscovy–the printers were also the publishers of the books released by their shops. The founders, owners, and managers of printing shops did not merely supervise the technical format of the books printed by them, but also searched for appropriate texts, edited them, and added their own foreword or postscript to the edition.

      The first Ukrainian publishing house, communal in character, was that operated by the Brotherhood of the Assumption‒later the Stavropygia Brotherhood‒in Lviv. Its publishing activity began in 1591 and lasted almost...

    • 5. NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES
      (pp. 450-458)

      After the publication ofEneida[Vol. I, p.1003] literary works in Ukrainian could be published without difficulty, but towards the middle of the nineteenth century the Russian administration put a stop to the further development of Ukrainian publishing. From 1798, the year Kotliarevsky’sEneidaappeared, until 1840, 44 Ukrainian books were published in the Russian empire, 7 of them in Ukraine. From 1841 to the 1905 revolution, 1,250 Ukrainian books were published in Russia (919 in Ukraine), and from 1905 to 1917, 1,920 books (1,595 in Ukraine). In the 118-year (1790‒1916) history of modern Ukrainian publishing within the territory of...

    • 6. BOOK PUBLISHING 1919–66
      (pp. 458-473)

      The establishment of Soviet rule in Ukraine was accompanied by the gradual liquidation of private Ukrainian and Russian publishing houses and the replacement of their output with Rolshevik publications, mostly in Russian, e.g.,Proletarii(The Proletarian) in Kharkiv,Golos Sotsial-Demokrata(Voice of the Social-Democrat) in Kiev, andZvezda(Star) in Katerynoslav. In May 1919, the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee issued the decree on the “Unification of all Individual Soviet Publishing Houses into the All-Ukrainian Publishing House” (abbreviated Vsevydav). All printing equipment and paper stock was turned over to this central publishing house and its eighteen branches in Ukraine. All current...

    • 7. THE SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF BOOKS
      (pp. 473-476)

      Book distribution in Ukraine began at the same time as book printing. At first, the printers themselves took care of the distribution and sale of the books they printed, e.g., Ivan Fedorovych in Lviv and Ostrih at the end of the sixteenth century and Michael Sliozka in Lviv in the seventeenth century. Later, church brotherhoods and monasteries which operated printing shops undertook the distribution of books. They were sold at fairs and markets or by itinerant salesmen who traveled from town to town and from village to village.

      The first bookstore was established by the Lviv Brotherhood of the Assumption...

    • 8. THE PRESS
      (pp. 476-519)

      The origin and development of the Ukrainian press were affected by the incorporation of Ukrainian lands in several countries, first in Russia and Austria-Hungary, then in the USSR, Poland, Rumania, and Czechoslovakia, and finally in the USSR only. Consequently, the development of the Ukrainian press shows differences not only in the regional character of the newspapers and magazines published under various conditions of political occupation but also in their content, which corresponded to the social and political order in the given country, and finally in the cultural and educational development and national consciousness of the given reader group. The Ukrainian...

    • 9. RADIO AND TELEVISION
      (pp. 519-523)
      B. Krawciw

      Throughout the Ukrainian SSR as well as the Soviet Union and other Communist countries, radio exists only to serve the state. Apart from its function as a news service, it is used for educational purposes, particularly for political indoctrination and the propagation of ideas necessary for the “building of communism.” In the selection of topics and in their technical presentation, all programs are geared to the objectives of Soviet internal and external policy. The state censorship committee Golovlit and organs of the State Security Committee (KGB) are in charge of all programming. Radio, together with the post office, the telegraph,...

  11. VII. THE ARTS

    • 1. UKRAINIAN ART RESEARCH
      (pp. 524-529)

      In Ukraine the history and theory of art and research in the various branches of art are relatively recent fields of study and came into being in the middle of the nineteenth century, although descriptions of Ukrainian monuments appeared far earlier. Because of the political situation in Ukraine, the first historians of Ukrainian art were mostly the representatives of the ruling states—Russian, Polish, and German—and even the works of Ukrainian scholars were often written in those languages. Originally, art did not appear as an independent discipline but in connection with archaeology, religion, history, and ethnography. In the indexes...

    • 2. ARCHITECTURE
      (pp. 529-551)

      The earliest wooden constructions in Ukraine, known from archaeological excavations, have already been mentioned in the chapter about the Neolithic age [Vol. I, pp. 532–6]. Wooden structures of the periods closer to our time are known to us from the descriptions of Greek, Roman, and Arabic authors; however, their architectural forms can only be surmised. We have a far clearer picture of the architecture of the Princely period, although because of the instability of the material no buildings have been preserved. However, taking into consideration the oldest preserved wooden structures–churches and belfry towers reaching as far back as...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
    • 3. SCULPTURE
      (pp. 551-557)

      Numerous examples of figural sculpture exist from the times of the Greek colonization of the northern shores of the Black Sea. To date almost all that has been discovered has been fragments not older than the fifth century B.C. These works are of both Greek and local artists. Some of the finer examples found in Olbia (heads of Aphrodite, Zeus, and Eros) and in Chersonesus date back to the Hellenistic period, in the style of Praxiteles (head of the Greek goddess of health, Hygeia, found in Olbia). Most numerous are terra-cotta figurines connected with the cult of Demeter, Aphrodite, and...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
    • 4. PAINTING
      (pp. 557-569)

      Beginning with the seventh century B.C. the Greek colonies of the northern Black Sea shores developed their own culture when the original Greek art merged with the local trends of Scythian and later Sarmatian art. This development can be easily traced through the study of Greek painted vases, thousands of which were found in southern Ukraine, some imported, some made locally. But although works of sculpture, pottery, and jewelry, being more durable, were preserved in relatively large numbers, few paintings survived. Ancient painting is known therefore only from murals in ancient tombs, such as the tomb in thekurhan(barrow)...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
    • 5. GRAPHIC ARTS
      (pp. 570-575)

      Graphic art appeared in Ukraine along with the first books in Old Slavonic in the eleventh century, and in the Era of the Princes (the eleventh to mid-fourteenth centuries) it attained a high artistic level, particularly in the field of manuscript illumination. The subject matter here was treated with greater freedom than in mosaics and mural painting. Besides religious themes there are scenes from secular and court life, as well as attempts at individual portraiture. Byzantine influence was particularly apparent in the ornamental motifs for book miniatures.

      Among the surviving illuminations the most outst anding are the Ostromyr Gospel, probably...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
  12. VIII. MUSIC AND CHOREOGRAPHY

    • 1. MUSICAL EDUCATION AND MUSICOLOGY
      (pp. 576-579)
      A. Olkhovsky

      The earliest inception of musical education and the development of musical theory in Ukraine are closely related to the cultural and educational activities of the various church brotherhoods. Outstanding among them were the schools operated by the brotherhoods in Lviv, Kiev, Peremyshl, and Ostrih. A rich tradition of church singing, along with an intensive growth of musical folklore, were responsible for the fact that in schools much attention was paid, not only to the practical aspects of church singing, but also to the study of musical theory and composition.

      In the Kievan Mohyla Academy (see pp. 308ff.) there was a...

    • 2. HISTORY OF UKRAINIAN MUSIC
      (pp. 579-593)
      A. Olkhovsky

      During the Princely period of Ukrainian history, two parallel and related trends could be discerned: along with the delineation of the stratas of society, there emerged a differentiation in the cultural life of the people. In the field of music, as a result, two new musical types gradually made their appearance, while folk music with the inherent Slavic elements which passed from generation to generation continued to develop. The first new type was the music of the princely courts and of the nobility, that is, secular music of the highest levels of society, in which Byzantine, Varangian, and Oriental influences...

    • 3. MUSICAL PERFORMANCE
      (pp. 593-601)

      During the Princely period, the performance of music was not considered a separate art. The nobles, who sang praises of the princes’ campaigns and were a part of their entourage, were simultaneously composers and performers. At first, church music was performed by foreigners (chiefly Greeks and Bulgarians), but in time local performers joined their ranks. A unique type of professional performers of a secular character were theskomorokhy. Their activities, repertory, and social position were comparable to those of thejongleursin France orfahrende Leutein Germany. At the princely courts, theskomorokhyfulfilled the duties of musicians, acrobats,...

    • 4. THE FOLK AND ART DANCE
      (pp. 601-613)

      The first studies and articles on the Ukrainian dance, with detailed descriptions and sometimes with music, began to appear in Ukraine as early as the first half of the eighteenth century. Studies on the oldest Ukrainian ceremonial dances were rendered by Elias Kokorudz (1888) and A. Famintsyn (1889), while G. Kvitka (1841), N. Kostomarov (1861), N. Biernacki (1861), N. Lysenko (1875), and A. Zachyniaiev (1907) wrote on contemporary Ukrainian dances. Works on the dance were written by I. Vahylevych (1855), O. Kolberg (1891), V. Shukhevych (1902), J. Schnajder (1906–1907), and R. Harasymchuk (1930); on the Boikian dances, by I....

  13. IX. THEATER AND CINEMA

    • 1. THEATER
      (pp. 614-660)

      The earliest theatrical studies to appear in Ukraine, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, were limited in subject to the history of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century drama, and the development of the Ukrainianvertep(Nativity puppet plays). Volodymyr Peretts (1870–1935) was among the first to produce works on these subjects; later authors, whose articles appeared in theZapysky(Memoirs) of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lviv during the early 1900’s, were, among others, Ivan Franko and Basil Shchurat. The more important publications on the history of Ukrainian dramatic art of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were those of...

    • 2. CINEMATOGRAPHIC ART
      (pp. 661-668)

      Soviet sources state that the first apparatus capable of taking and projecting moving pictures was Constructed by Joseph Tymchenko, a mechanic at the University of Odessa, in 1893, but moving pictures first appeared in Ukraine in 1896. These first films were the “cinematograph” productions of the Lumiere brothers in Odessa, later in other cities as well. The first short films were brought to Ukraine from France, but already in that same year Kharkiv photographer Alfred Fedetsky began demonstrating films of his own production:Vidkhid poïzda vid kharkivs’koho vokzalu(Train Departure from Kharkiv Depot, 1896),Khresnyi khid z Kuriazha v Kharkiv...

  14. X. NATIONAL ECONOMY

    • 1. STATE OF RESEARCH, HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT, AND STATISTICS
      (pp. 669-693)

      The earliest descriptions of Ukraine’s economy date back to the second half of the seventeenth century unless earlier historical sources such as chronicles, memoirs, religious and polemic literature [Vol. I, pp. 560‒1], which to some extent dealt with economic problems, are taken into consideration. The textbook of Ukrainian history,Synopsis[Vol. I, p. 560], published in 1674 and reprinted many times thereafter, also contains a description of the economic and social development of Ukraine.

      Some material on economic conditions in eighteenth century Ukraine can be found in the so-called Kozak Chronicles, in memoirs (e.g., the diaries of General Nicholas Khanenko...

    • 2. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 693-710)

      The territory of Ukraine fans out to the north of the Black and Azov seas. Almost all of Ukraine’s rivers, with the exception of some in the border territories, flow concentrically into these two bodies of water which form the northeastern extension of the Mediterranean Sea. The territory of Ukraine, which belongs to this system, includes much fertile land and mineral deposits. The various regions have good communications facilities and complement each other economically. Ukraine possesses some of the best natural conditions in the world for economic development.

      One of the greatest assets to the industrial development of Ukraine is...

    • 3. THE SOVIET ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN UKRAINE
      (pp. 710-733)

      After the revolution in Russia in November 1917, the Bolsheviks proceeded to establish an entirely novel economic system which they subsequently named “war communism.” It was a mixture of pragmatic policies designed to gear the economy to the needs of the civil war and a purely doctrinaire attempt at the immediate implementation of the fullfledged Communist model, based on such ideas as the nationalization of the means of production, centralized distribution and allocation of resources, abolition and prohibition of money and commerce, barter relations among the industries and between industry and agriculture, equalitarian remuneration of labor in kind, calculation of...

    • 4. MINERAL RESOURCES
      (pp. 734-750)

      Reserves of mineral resources are classified in Soviet statistics according to several categories reflecting their availability and probability. Category A includes completely certain supplies; category B describes accurate estimates based on geophysical research. Category C consists of reserves in different degrees of probability of existence. Categories A + B +C₁ combined, used for the most part in what follows, are also called “industrial,” which means economically exploitable. This total corresponds to the U.S. definition of “measured” or “indicated” reserves. Categories C₂ and C₃ refer to “prospective” and “prognostic” reserves; if added to A + B + C₁, they make up...

    • 5. INDUSTRY
      (pp. 750-840)

      From prehistoric times, the inhabitants of Ukraine were engaged in the production of goods which could be classified as industrial. These activities were supplementary to the main occupation of the population—farming—and were intended to satisfy the increasing range of human needs. There are indications that iron was already being smelted in the seventh century b.c. and used for the production of weapons, utensils tools, and the like. In time, industrial activity became separated from agriculture and more specialized. During the peak of power of the Kievan and HalychRus’, as many as one hundred different specialized branches of...

    • 6. AGRICULTURE
      (pp. 840-894)

      At the end of the eighteenth century serfdom was deeply entrenched in all of Ukraine. Land was progressively taken away from the peasants, except for a small part of the population which was officially designated as being within the Kozak class. The unpopulated lands of southern Ukraine were settled with imported serfs. The majority of the peasants together with the land became the property of landlords. The number of serfs in the nine Ukrainianguberniyasin the early 1860’s was 5.4 million, or 40 per cent of the population of Ukraine. Another 4 million, or 30 per cent, were in...

    • 7. FORESTRY
      (pp. 895-903)

      The peculiar character of the forests of Ukraine is the result of the country’s intermediate geographical position between relatively moist western Europe and the dry steppes and semi-deserts of Asia. In the western parts of Ukraine, the forests completely maintain their west European character, with luxuriant foliage and dense growth, while in the south and southeast there are only small steppe copses with steppe grasses predominating. The changes in climatic, soil, and hydrological conditions to the east and south affect the degree of forestation and the vigor of tree growth, as well as the composition of basic forestforming strains. The...

    • 8. UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES
      (pp. 904-911)

      Water management in Ukraine is one of the most important branches of the national economy. Its purpose is the utilization of water resources, on the one hand, and prevention of damaging effects incurred by the action of water, on the other. This is now being accomplished by various bodies which deal with the study, regulation, distribution, and utilization of surface and underground waters. Although such efforts were made in the past, they were somewhat fragmentary and primitive. With the advances in technology, the development of industry, and the concentration of population in large urban centers, utilization of water assumed an...

    • 9. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
      (pp. 912-933)

      Natural conditions in Ukraine are generally favorable for transportation, thanks to the flatness of the land, which is only slightly above sea level. Mountains cover only a small part of the territory, and their borderland location minimizes difficulties with internal communication lines. To be sure, the Ukrainian territory extends beyond the Carpathian Mountains, but there are easy crossing points between Transcarpathia and the rest of the Ukrainian territory. Because of their relatively small area, the Crimean Mountains pose only local difficulties. The high and rocky Caucasus constitutes a greater obstacle to transportation, but only insofar as it affects the external...

    • 10. EXTERNAL TRADE
      (pp. 933-952)

      It is difficult to compute Ukraine’s trade balance for this or earlier periods because the country was partitioned among several states, and data were lacking. However, such compilations (Table I) do exist for 1909‒11 (by George Kryvchenko) and for 1913 (by A. Koporsky) for the nine Ukrainianguberniyaswithin the Russian empire. In the trade balance of Ukraine shown in Table I a distinction must be made between “foreign trade,” that is trade with countries outside the boundaries of the Russian empire, and “internal” trade with countries within the Russian empire, including Poland, the Baltic countries, Finland, and others. Table...

    • 11. FINANCE
      (pp. 952-978)

      Money appeared in Ukraine around the sixth century b.c.; these were coins of the Greek city colonies in the Crimea. Roman and later Byzantine silver coins are found in large treasure hoards. In the Kievan realm the principal currency was the Arabic silverdirham, although Volodymyr and several other princes minted small quantities of their own gold and silver coins. At the time of the disintegration of the Kievan realm, heavy silver bars calledhryvniwere in use, as well as skins of martens, weasels, and squirrel, calledkuny. In the fourteenth century, minting of coins in Ukraine was resumed:...

    • 12. THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT
      (pp. 978-989)

      The western European cooperative movement emerged as a result of industrial labor needs. The Ukrainian cooperative movement, however, began in the late 1860’s, growing out of the social and economic needs of the peasants, who had recently been liberated from serfdom, and of the small artisans and laborers. Very few people attached so much importance to the cooperative movement as did the Ukrainians. As a means of social and economic selfdefense against political domination by alien forces, the cooperative movement became an integral part of the Ukrainian people’s national aspirations. It gave rise to numerous self-governing economic organizations, which served...

    • 13. PEOPLE’S WELFARE
      (pp. 989-1004)

      When the Communists took power, nearly 80 per cent of Ukraine’s population was engaged in agriculture. About two-thirds of these people were selfsufficient small-scale farmers who lived on a subsistence level from harvest to harvest without any accumulation of wealth. Growing overpopulation, bad health, and heavy debts were the usual roads to impoverishment. About 20 percent of the peasants lived in abject poverty. About 12 per cent could be classified as rich, whose farms were producing for the market and whose economy was relatively commercialized. (A similar situation prevailed in Western Ukraine until World War II, except that the western...

  15. XI. HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES AND PHYSICAL CULTURE

    • 1. HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES
      (pp. 1005-1031)

      The main sources of material on the history of health and medical services in Ukraine are: (a) for the ancient period—archaeological finds, references in non-medical literature, and ethnographic material; (b) for later periods—material preserved in the archives, reports on the activities of health institutions in the states which at one time or another incorporated parts of Ukraine, and original works produced by Ukrainian medical scholars. A great deal of material can be found in chronicles and in the literary and historical works of both Ukrainian and foreign historians, ethnographers, literary scholars, and particularly Ukrainian Russian, and Polish historians...

    • 2. PHYSICAL CULTURE
      (pp. 1031-1040)

      Compelled by historical circumstances to wage a continuous struggle for their very existence, as well as for their freedom and independence, the Ukrainians fostered the art of physical culture from time immemorial, stressing the attributes of physical prowess, endurance, and dexterity. The chronicles contain descriptions of hunts (bear-hunting with spears, roping wild horses) and contests of young men in public games (e.g., Prince Mstyslav Volodymyrovych of Tmutorokan with Rededia, the Prince of Kasoh). Public contests were combined with other games (running in circles and in ranks, to the accompaniment of music, holding hands; dancing to music, high and long jumps,...

  16. XII. THE ARMED FORCES

    • 1. HISTORY AND PRESENT STATE OF RESEARCH
      (pp. 1041-1045)

      Accounts of the history of Ukrainian armed forces can be found in general works on the history of Ukraine, written by such Ukrainian scholars as Nicholas Markevych, Nicholas Kostomarov, Volodymyr Antonovych, Michael Hrushevsky, Ivan Krypiakevych, and others. Some material is also contained in specialized works of Russian, German, and Polish historians, such as Alexander Viskovatov, M. Bogdanovich, Nicholas Golitzyn, Nicholas Mikhnevich, N. Pavlenko, E. Razin, M. Kukiel, V. Meynert, B. Poten, A. Baiov, and others. A number of studies on the history of Ukrainian armed forces of various periods appear in Russian military periodical publications, collections and encyclopaedias of the...

    • 2. HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
      (pp. 1045-1092)

      The military organization of the Slavs revolved around clans and tribes [Vol. I, pp. 577–81]. In case of war, members of each clan formed a detachment under the leadership of the oldest member or under an elected elder (voievoda). In times of danger the population of an area sought refuge in settlements (horodyshcha) fortified with walls, moats, and stockades built in places not easily accessible (hill tops or sometimes on piles in a swamp), or on river banks along roads so as to defend trade routes. The plan of a settlement depended on the characteristics of the area. Most...

  17. XIII. UKRAINIANS ABROAD

    • 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
      (pp. 1093-1100)

      Ukrainians are a sedentary and ethnocentric people. Until the nineteenth century they lived on a compact territory, migrating in relatively large numbers to neighboring lands only and thus expanding the Ukrainian ethnic territory. The establishment of enclaves in ethnically alien environments, as in the case of Jews, Armenians, or Germans, was almost unknown for Ukrainians until the second half of the nineteenth century.

      Only dynamic social and economic processes, such as the abolition of serfdom, urbanization, agrarian overpopulation, and the development of transportation, displaced the conservative peasant population in the middle of the last century from its traditional settlements, compelling...

    • 2. IN THE UNITED STATES
      (pp. 1100-1151)

      The United States of America is the product of European colonization and migrations that started in the sixteenth century. Demographically and racially, the United States, along with Canada, has become more closely related with Europe than any other nation in the New World. Today over 80 per cent of the U.S. population traces its origin to the European continent. The most numerous among the white population are Anglo-Saxons, Germans, French, and Italians. Of the rest, the people of Slavic descent comprise about 12‒15 million, i.e., 6‒7 per cent of the entire population. Among them the Ukrainians constitute about 1,500,000 (0.7-0.8...

    • 3. IN CANADA
      (pp. 1151-1193)

      Ukrainian emigration to Canada commenced some twenty years later than Ukrainian emigration to the United States. There is evidence that as early as 1874‒5 some Ukrainian immigrants settled in the province of Manitoba (some 4,800 Mennonites from Ukraine).

      Among the first known Ukrainian immigrants to Canada were Basil Eleniak and Ivan Pylypiv, farmers from the village of Nebyliv, of Kalush county in Galicia, who came to Canada in 1891 and settled in the present province of Alberta (then known as the Northwest Territories).

      Large-scale immigration, however, did not begin until after 1895. The Prosvita (Enlightenment) Society of Lviv sent to...

    • 4. IN BRAZIL
      (pp. 1194-1204)

      The onset of Ukrainian emigration to Brazil coincided approximately with that to Canada, that is, at the end of the nineteenth century. Until that time only a few Ukrainians had gone to Brazil (no statistical data available).

      Among the first known Ukrainians in Brazil was the family of Nicholas Morozovych, who came in 1872 from the district of Zolochiv in Galicia.

      In 1876 a small group of Ukrainian immigrants hailing from Bukovina settled in the southern areas of the state of Parana, and in 1891 ten Ukrainian families arrived in Brazil from eastern Galicia and settled in the colony of...

    • 5. IN ARGENTINA
      (pp. 1204-1212)

      Origins of Ukrainian immigration to Argentina can be traced to 1897. In that year, six Ukrainian families, coming from Galicia via Brazil, arrived in the province of Misiones to the place now known as the town of the Apostoles. The province of Misiones constituted a sort of extension of the territory which was colonized by Ukrainian settlers in the state of Parana in Brazil (see p. 1194), and this first wave of Ukrainians in Argentina was closely connected with the so-called Brazilian immigration fever in Galicia.

      The entire Ukrainian immigration movement to Argentina lasted some fifty years. This period comprised...

    • 6. IN OTHER COUNTRIES OF LATIN AMERICA
      (pp. 1212-1215)

      Without taking into consideration the few Ukrainians who settled in Paraguay in the 1920’s, Ukrainians began arriving in Paraguay in sizeable groups only in 1930‒2, at which time a number of them came from neighboring Argentina, then plagued by an economic crisis. It was a few years later (1935‒9) that Ukrainians began coming to Paraguay directly from Europe: Polisia, Volhynia, Galicia, and Transcarpathia. A few hundred came in 1946‒7 from displaced persons camps in Europe and from the Philippines (refugees from China and Manchuria).

      The second half of the 1940’s saw about 10,000 Ukrainians in Paraguay. Departures to Argentina and...

    • 7. IN WESTERN EUROPE
      (pp. 1215-1232)

      With the exception of a few isolated cases, Ukrainian immigrants began arriving in Germany only at the end of the nineteenth century. Most of them were seasonal agricultural workers from Galicia who usually returned home to their families for the winter. The number of those who worked as unskilled laborers in industry and mining was small. There were small Ukrainian centers in Delmenhorst near Hamburg, Hemelingen near Bremen, in Leipzig, and other places.

      During World War I, many Ukrainian war prisoners from the Russian armies were in part segregated in special camps (Wetzlar, Salzwedel, Rastatt). Among these the Union for...

    • 8. IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
      (pp. 1233-1257)

      There were essential differences in the life of Ukrainians in Poland prior to 1914, in the interwar period, and in the years following World War II.

      Up to 1945, nearly 80,000 Ukrainians lived in the Ukrainian-Polish frontier zone beyond the Sian River and in the Kholm and Podlachia regions-areas in which Ukrainians once constituted a majority [Vol. I, pp. 19, 244]. There were between 15,000 and 20,000 Ukrainians in Poland proper. For the most part they resided in larger cities, and were seasonal workers, domestics, civil service employees, military personnel, and students.

      In that part of Polish territory which belonged...

    • 9. IN ASIA AND AUSTRALIA
      (pp. 1257-1262)

      Towards the end of the nineteenth century several thousand Ukrainians lived in China. An overwhelming majority were employed in various institutions of the Russian empire on Chinese territory (legations, consulates, postal service, merchant marine, traders, priests serving the religious mission in Peking). Their number increased considerably with the construction of the Eastern-Chinese (Manchurian) Railroad by Russia in 1898 (Manchuria then belonged to China). Several Ukrainian enclaves were formed in important railroad centers, especially Harbin, which became the central city in northern Manchuria. Other Ukrainian colonies were to be found in central and southern Manchuria (Mukden, Liao-yang, and Dairen) and in...

  18. INDEX
    (pp. 1263-1394)
  19. [Illustrations]
    (pp. None)