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Canada and the Far East

Canada and the Far East: 1940-1953

Series: Heritage
Copyright Date: 1953
Pages: 129
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  • Book Info
    Canada and the Far East
    Book Description:

    This book brings together and interprets the information relating to Canada's contacts with Asiatic countries since the beginning of the Second World War. Lucidly written and freshly presented, it will be of great interest to everyone concerned with international affairs.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-5630-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    H. F. A.
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-2)
  4. 1 The Nature of Canadian Nationalism
    (pp. 3-10)

    In the following chapters an account will be given of those developments during and after the Second World War which have directly affected Canada’s relations with the countries beyond the Pacific. In some degree these developments have changed the character of Canada as one of thedramatis personaeof the Pacific area. An even greater change has occurred as the outcome of a process which began long before the Second World War but reached its culmination as a result of the part played by Canada in that war. Canada has become a highly self-conscious nation, aroused to the desirability of...

  5. 2 The War Years
    (pp. 11-20)

    The war to resist German aggression, in which Canada joined by her declaration of September 10, 1939, was primarily a European war. Its immediate effect was to concentrate Canadian attention on western Europe and, by June 1940, on the defence of Britain. The dangers of an extension of the war to the Far East could not be disregarded, but it seemed the path of reason to divert as little of the national effort as possible to a region in which the United States, in spite of its deep-seated isolationism, could be expected to do whatever might be necessary. Such precautionary...

  6. 3 Adjustment after the War
    (pp. 21-31)

    War in the Pacific ended on V-J Day, August 14, 1945. For a short time Japan had enjoyed the unfruitful honour of standing up alone to an aggregation of power such as no other nation has ever faced¹—enemies possessed of novel methods of ruthless destruction and provoked by Japanese behaviour to a point at which they had no strong inhibitions against using them. There could have been only one end. To have prolonged resistance would only have postponed the day on which the victorious powers would quarrel with one another.

    Indeed, that day might not have come, for the...

  7. 4 Canadian Policy in the Far East
    (pp. 32-42)

    Canada’s interest in the war in Korea involves three aspects of her international policy which are not easy to harmonize with one another. The first concerns the fulfilment of Canada’s obligations as a member of the United Nations; the second Canada’s interest in the establishment of collective security; the third Canada’s interest in checking the spread of communist power. It would be easy to construct hypothetical cases in which one or other of these policies would have to be sacrificed; it is the task of statesmanship to avoid being forced to face such issues. A conscientious writer is confronted with...

  8. 5 The Record at the United Nations
    (pp. 43-55)

    “When the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China gained control of the Chinese mainland in 1949, it claimed the right to take the Chinese seat in the General Assembly as well as in other United Nations bodies. The National Government of the Republic of China, which had moved to Formosa, would not, however, surrender its right to represent China in the United Nations.”¹

    The situation was involved. Some members of the United Nations had recognized the Central People’s Government, while others continued to recognize the National Government in their own relations with China. Within the United Nations,...

  9. 6 The Peace Settlement and Security
    (pp. 56-66)

    No final territorial settlement has been reached in the Far East and it seems unlikely that permanent boundaries acceptable to all parties will be established there for a long time to come. It was the refusal of the United States, set out in the Stimson doctrine, to recognize the acquisition of territory by aggressive action which made any compromise settlement with Japan impossible during the course of the lengthy negotiations preceding the war; for Japan was obviously unwilling to withdraw from the mainland of Asia. In the course of the war the territory occupied by Japanese forces was very extensive...

  10. 7 Trade Policy and Access to Resources
    (pp. 67-76)

    Trade, and in particular a search for markets, has been traditionally at the heart of Canadian interests in the Far East and the principal determinant of Canadian policy there. Yet Canada’s main commercial interests have always been in other quarters and trade with the Orient, which has never been a large proportion of Canada’s total trade, fell to a very low level during and immediately after the war. Indeed, it was Japan itself which had formed the largest Far Eastern market for Canadian products.

    In the post-war period, Canada’s trading policies have been framed on very broad lines and with...

  11. 8 Economic Assistance in General
    (pp. 77-81)

    Trade alone may not suffice to maintain sound economic relations between developed and under-developed countries. The need for active, unilateral assistance has been widely recognized and several channels have been devised for extending it. In discussions of this matter the term “under-developed” may be misleading. It suggests a country physically capable of extensive development but unable to progress through its own unaided efforts because of deficiencies in capital or in trained personnel. It may also, however, describe a country incapable, because of a deficiency in natural resources, of development adequate to support its population. Both types of country need assistance...

  12. 9 Forms of Economic Assistance
    (pp. 82-93)

    Of the specialized agencies by which members of the United Nations have provided international assistance first place in point of time must be given to the Food and Agriculture Organization (F.A.O.). Plans were drawn up by a conference convened by President Roosevelt in May 1945 at Hot Springs, Virginia, and attended by representatives of 44 nations. By 1951 the membership numbered 68.¹ The aims of the organization are “to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living of the peoples of all countries; to secure improvements in the efficiency of production and distribution of food and agricultural products; to better...

  13. 10 Cultural Intercourse, Human Rights, and Immigration
    (pp. 94-100)

    Traditionally, missionary efforts have constituted one of the most important channels for cultural intercourse between East and West, In this respect the importance of the missionaries has diminished. It is hardly their fault. Their zeal for the spiritual welfare of their fellow men remains unabated and so, too, does their endeavour to promote the material welfare of the people among whom they work. But circumstances have changed. It is less usual to find Western countries able and willing to sponsor religious propaganda or proselytization, and requests for technical assistance from underdeveloped countries do not extend to the sphere of religion....

  14. 11 Canadian Opinion about the Far East
    (pp. 101-114)

    There is very little Canadian opinion about the Far East. The primary interests of Canadians, even when they are extra-territorial in character, lie elsewhere. Only very small groups, largely regional in composition, are immediately concerned with oriental immigration, trade with the Orient, or cultural contacts with Asiatic countries. Even those groups have other and more important interests. Attitudes and opinions about events in the Far East are largely derivative from those concerning the world at large. It is paradoxical that Canada should be waging active war in an area of tertiary interest. But it is none the less true. The...

  15. 12 Postscript, 1953
    (pp. 115-122)

    The year 1953 may mark a new period in the relations of the great power groups, for new personalities dominate the scene at a time when important issues must be faced and, if possible, basic decisions reached. In the space of a few weeks new administrations have taken office in both the United States and the U.S.S.R. In both countries it seems probable that new tendencies may emerge. But, again in both cases, it is something of a mystery what these tendencies will be. There are grounds for hope and grounds for anxiety.

    To Canadians, as to many other interested...

  16. Index
    (pp. 123-129)