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The Form of Cities in Central lCanada

The Form of Cities in Central lCanada

L. S. Bourne
R. D. MacKinnon
J. W. Simmons
Series: Heritage
Copyright Date: 2014
Pages: 246
  • Book Info
    The Form of Cities in Central lCanada
    Book Description:

    This book is an anthology of research papers and reports building around a common theme: urban development in Central Canada.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-3234-9
    Subjects: Sociology, Population Studies

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Acknowledgments
    (pp. v-v)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vi-x)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-2)

    • Editors’ comments
      (pp. 4-5)

      The point of departure in a set of papers concerned with the city is inevitably one of definition. This is not an easy matter to solve. In an often-used expression “.. .the city means different things to different people.” It may be represented as a social community, an economic system, a set of institutions, a political creation, a spatial entity or some complex merging of these and other measures. Whatever the criteria, it is clear that no single definition of the modern metropolis will suffice for all purposes. Instead what is needed is a set of definitions composed of interlocking...

    • 1 The area of interest: Urban definitions in Canada
      (pp. 5-16)
      L. S. Bourne and J. W. Simmons

      Recently, the Minister of State responsible for Housing and Urban Affairs predicted that the population of Canadian cities would double by the year 2000.¹ Toronto and Montreal are projected to have nearly 6,000,000 inhabitants each, Vancouver over 2,000,000, and several others—Ottawa, Hamilton, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg will approach 1,000, 000. What is meant by “Toronto” or “Montreal” or “Edmonton?” How are these cities defined, and what meaning do these definitions have?

      This volume’s concern with research on the form and structure of Canadian cities also raises the question of what the city is and how it should be defined...

    • 2 Methodological problems in measuring urban expansion
      (pp. 16-33)
      G. Gad

      Rapid expansion of urban areas, and the associated phenomena of “urban sprawl” and “suburbanization” have been the cause of growing concern. Figure 2.1 displays the scale of growth in Toronto over the last half century. Researchers, government agencies, and planners have all made investigations into different aspects of the problem. Their primary concerns have been the physical, economic, and aesthetic impact of the spreading cities on agriculture and areas of natural beauty; and on the detailed problems of the urban fringe. However, there is little data which measure the areal magnitude of urban expansion and changing rates of physical growth....


    • Editors’ comments
      (pp. 35-36)

      Once the urban area of interest has been established and boundaries defined, attention can then shift to descriptions of the organization of space within this area. The papers in this section introduce examples of empirical research on the spatial structure of cities, again using Ontario and Toronto data as the basis for analysis.

      The term spatial structure is not new yet its meaning is often confused. In fact it has no common definitional basis or conceptual framework. A review of the literature suggests that the term refers most frequently to “the change in, arrangement and extension of, urban land uses”...

    • 3 Urban Form and City Size: An Ontario Example
      (pp. 37-46)
      C. A. Maher

      Comparative analyses of the relations between urban form and city size are relatively rare (Manvel 1968; Alonso 1970). As Gad pointed out in Paper 2 land use data for example tend to be incomplete and incompatible between surveys and among individual cities. Although aggregate indices of form such as land consumption were shown to vary with city size groups, the nature of these relationships has not been clearly established.

      This brief paper explores the association between a set of attributes of Ontario cities and city size. These attributes include population and land use densities, size of developed area, and land...

    • 4 Descriptive patterns of urban land use: A summary
      (pp. 46-62)
      L. S. Bourne

      In an earlier paper, Simmons (1964) argues for an elaboration of the traditional models of urban spatial structure. These models: concentric zone, sector and multiple nuclei, describe aspects of the variation in the internal pattern of cities. Although held to be in conflict at one time they have been shown, particularly through the methods of social area analysis and more recently by research described as factorial ecology (Economic Geography 1971) to be cumulative and additive explanations of urban social structure. Nevertheless, these models do not encompass the totality of urban land use. As the literature on factorial ecology suggests, such...

    • 5 Application of the Lowry model of urban structure to Toronto
      (pp. 63-79)
      P. D. Harper

      During the past decade urban research and planning has been transformed by the design and development of comprehensive activity allocation models. The allocation of different activities to subareas is an important aspect of urban modelling as it provides major inputs to land use and transportation planning, and in addition, it offers a means through which changes in the urban system can be better monitored and understood (Batty 1971).

      Apart from using these models for evaluating change in spatial systems, it is important to recognize that any urban model is a translation of a hyopthesis about the organization of the urban...


    • Editors’ comments
      (pp. 81-82)

      Perhaps the most interesting topics in present-day urban research are associated with changes in the urban environment. Not only are past trends of interest, but the possibility exists of using these trends to describe the future shape of our urban areas. To date, relatively little research has been carried out on time series data, particularly relating to Canadian cities. The papers in this section take selected examples of outcomes of physical and social change, in order to illustrate ongoing processes determining urban form.

      Obviously there are many expressions of change. People move, new buildings are built and old ones demolished,...

    • 6 Components of urban land use change and physical growth
      (pp. 83-103)
      L. S. Bourne and M. J. Doucet

      Most researchers have assumed that land use change, and more generally physical growth of the city, takes the form of two processes: expansion of the periphery and renewal of the core. The thesis of this paper is that these concepts mask an underlying complexity of complementary and additive components of growth. A single aspect of the complex mosaic of urban change is examined: namely, shifts in aggregate land use structure and the intraurban components of land use change.

      Specifically, the paper provides a descriptive summary of the scale and diversity of land use change in Metropolitan Toronto between 1963 and...

    • 7 Spatio – temporal trends in urban population density: A trend surface analysis
      (pp. 103-119)
      F. I. Hill

      The contemporary city poses a number of problems to which partial solutions may be found through measurement and analysis of urban population densities. One such problem, facing researchers and managers alike, is the forecasting of trends in the location and intensity of development within large cities. Population density serves as a workable and sensitive indicator of these trends.

      The first part of this paper surveys traditional analyses of urban population density patterns and changes within the city. The second part reports a series of trend surface analyses of density patterns observed within Toronto from 1932 through 1966.

      Following significant earlier...

    • 8 Measuring accessibility change
      (pp. 120-137)
      R. D. MacKinnon and R. Lau

      Urban theory and experience strongly suggest that transportation systems can have striking consequences on the spatial layout of the city and even urban growth rates. Historically, the introduction of such transportation innovations as the commuter train, the electric street railway, the automobile and the truck together with the concomitant route location decisions and technological improvements to existing modes over the years have played a key role in influencing the form of the present-day city. Relationships between transportation (or accessibility) and urban land use are studied in such works as Hansen (1959), Wingo (1961), Alonso (1964), Moses and Williamson (1967), Schneider...

    • 9 Net migration patterns
      (pp. 138-148)
      J. W. Simmons

      As the city grows and the land use patterns evolve, the distribution of the population adjusts as well. As we have seen in Paper 7, the population density pattern changes regularly over time, but more subtle changes in household characteristics are taking place, as well. Murdie (1969) has described the main resultant trends in the social changes of a decade in Metropolitan Toronto, and in Section IV, the actual household relocation process is described. This paper attempts to link these two approaches by giving some idea of the ways by which the constant turnover of aggregates of households is translated...


    • Editors’ comments
      (pp. 150-151)

      Throughout the last decade, it has become apparent that the study and analysis of urban form and structure—the land use maps, the designation of urban neighbourhoods, the vast literature of factorial ecology—must be complemented by research on linkages among urban locations, communities and activites. Spatial propinquity does not necessarily lead to frequent contact or interaction. Measurements and evaluation of urban linkages must be obtained in addition to maps of spatial structure. Studies of intra-urban contacts and linkages yield a variety of insights. In addition to their intrinsic interest as types of urban process and indications of functional and...

    • 10 Community ties and support systems: From intimacy to support
      (pp. 152-168)
      B. Wellman, P. Craven, M. Whitaker, H. Stevens, A. Shorter, S. Du Toit and H. Bakker

      Old myths die hard, but they do sometimes die. Extensive research in the past two decades has conclusively demonstrated the general inaccuracy of portrayals of urbanites as lonely (Stein 1960; Nisbet 1962). Most city-dwellers have important informal interpersonal ties that are often utilized as channels of informal support in times of everyday and emergency stress. The ties with intimates are often important components of urbanites¹ “personal communities” of support and sociability.¹ These personal communities go beyond the neighbourhood because contemporary communication and transportation facilities can maintain ties at great distances (Wellman 1972). Indeed there is a wide geographic dispersion of...

    • 11 Ethnic differences in the residential search process
      (pp. 168-180)
      G. Gad, R. Peddle and J. Punter

      Research on intraurban migration is now well developed and investigators have already looked at a number of questions (Simmons 1968), but it is only recently that more complex heuristic frameworks have been proposed. One of these, summarized by Brown and Moore (1970), relies on notions which have their origins in economics (the concept of the utility function) and psychology (migration as a process of adaptation) which have been integrated by Wolpert (1965). Wolpert emphasizes that migration is a process of adaptation which can be studied by identifying the nature and sequence of stimuli received and decisions taken by the household,...

    • 12 Discretionary and nondiscretionary aspects of activity and social contact in residential selection
      (pp. 180-198)
      W. Michelson

      In many parts of North America, one must understand more than land values, rental costs, location of work place, size of family, and administrative procedures in order to know why families change residence, what they demand, and why certain developmental patterns are popular while others are not. Some recent writers suggest that people rationally assess their own characteristics and preferred activities; they then choose a place to live which is consistent with satisfaction of these perceptions (Bell 1968; Gans 1967). They call this phenomenon self-select ion because people in effect select themselves for their future residential settings. It is a...

    • 13 Household relocation patterns
      (pp. 199-217)
      J. W. Simmons and A. Baker

      The greatest proportion of social change and population growth or decline within the city occurs by means of the migration of individuals and families. Although the magnitude of this process has long been recognized, and the motives for moving have been intensively studied (Simmons 1968), the spatial distribution of movement is not well known. The existence of an unusual data set permits an examination of relocation patterns in Metropolitan Toronto between 1958 and 1964.

      As part of the Metropolitan and Region Transportation Study (MTARTS) home interview survey in 1964, a series of questions were asked about the timing and location...


    • Editors’ comments
      (pp. 219-221)

      Growth inevitably alters the form of the city and its region. Any increase in size changes the relationships between parts of a system. Sometimes these changes are subtle, others are more obvious and dramatic. In any case the impact on the system is irreversible.

      There are many spatial expressions of the impact of growth. Table 1 attempts to summarize the Toronto experience at different levels of spatial aggregation. Major highway improvements increase the directional bias of the transportation network toward the metropolis. The attraction of opportunities present in the metropolis reaches out and captures the population of outlying towns and...

    • 14 Subdivision activity in the periphery of the Toronto urban field
      (pp. 221-229)
      G. Hodge

      Paralleling what is know popularly as “people flocking to the big cities” is the dispersion outward from the centre of cities of people and activities over large distances. Once the purview of the well-to-do and mobile “exurbanite,” the modest subdivision is now appearing as much as forty miles from downtown. This paper reports on a probe of the relatively new phenomenon of subdivisions for modest housing in the periphery of the Toronto urban field.

      Despite the amount of regulation and control over the subdivision of land for urban purposes in Ontario, there is no inventory of the amount and location...

    • 15 Migration in the Toronto-centred region
      (pp. 229-246)
      F. I. Hill

      Studies of population redistribution have not kept pace with the recognition that the traditional concept of the city or metropolis is an inadequate unit for the analysis of the ecology of our postindustrial society. At a scale between studies of inter-regional or inter-metropolitan migration on the one hand, and studies of intra-urban migration on the other, few investigations of migration within units which more closely approximate the life-space of the metropolitan population have been carried out (Berry, Goheen and Goldstein 1968). One such unit, the “urban field” as defined by Friedmann and Miller (1965), is an area extending perhaps 100...