The Conflict of European and Eastern Algonkian Cultures, 1505-1700

The Conflict of European and Eastern Algonkian Cultures, 1505-1700: 2nd Edition

ALFRED GOLDSWORTHY BAILEY
Series: Heritage
Copyright Date: 1969
Pages: 218
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt15jjfq3
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  • Book Info
    The Conflict of European and Eastern Algonkian Cultures, 1505-1700
    Book Description:

    This study examines the conflict between the Europeans and the Indians precipitated by the arrival of the French in the New World.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-5647-5
    Subjects: History, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface to the First Edition
    (pp. ix-x)
    A.G.B.
  4. Reappraisals
    (pp. xi-xxvi)

    The original edition of this work in 1937 was a publication of my doctoral dissertation three years after it had been presented. It was published by the New Brunswick Museum at the suggestion of Dr. Clarence Webster and Dr. W. F. Ganong and with the assistance of the former for which I renew my expression of gratitude made at the time. Because of the limitation of funds in those depression years, three chapters of the work as originally written were omitted from the published version: a chapter dealing with the relations of the English and the Indians in New England;...

  5. CHAPTER 1 THE ABORIGINAL POPULATION
    (pp. 1-3)

    With the melting of the glaciers and the gradual retreat of the ice which marked the close of the Pleistocene, scattered bands of nomads pushed their way into northeastern Asia in search of food. To what extent the lure of unknown lands contributed to the migration is impossible to say. The vanguards were doubtless forced onward by the pressure of kindred peoples in the rear whose increase responded to the milder conditions of the time. It is possible that they followed in the wake of the vast herds of bison, reindeer and other animals that found their way from Asia...

  6. CHAPTER 2 OCCASIONAL CONTACT ON THE GULF COAST
    (pp. 4-7)

    Independent of Trans-Atlantic enterprise was the cultural drift by way of India, China, Korea, Japan and Siberia, into northwestern America which gradually rendered the culture of the American Indian more complex and which brought it more into line with that of Asiatic peoples.¹ It was, however, a gradual process which worked no havoc in its passage which was in any way comparable to that resulting from the impact of European culture on the eastern seaboard.

    The earliest voyages from Europe to America may never be unravelled from the skein of medieval legend, but the Norse Sagas bear the marks of...

  7. CHAPTER 3 ACADIA AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
    (pp. 8-25)

    In the sixteenth century fishing was the preeminent industry of the Terre Neuve. Due to primitive agricultural methods and the scarcity of meat in Europe, codfish found a ready market and was available in large quantities.¹ At some time during the third quarter of the century it was found that dry-fishing was more economical than the green-fishing which had hitherto been altogether practised. The new method of fishing reduced the outlay on such commodities as salt and economized shipping.² Moreover, it led to a search for harbours which were suitable for drying and which afforded ample supplies of bait. With...

  8. CHAPTER 4 THE EASTERN ALGONKIANS AND THE BALANCE OF POWER
    (pp. 26-45)

    In the preceding chapter we traced the development of French enterprise in Acadia from its inception to the destruction of Port Royal in 1613 by the English pirate, Argall Meanwhile in 1608 Champlain had selected Quebec for the site of his headquarters in the New World both on account of its protected position and its central location with respect to the northern fur-bearing areas. The French were at this time concerned with the task of gaining control of the trade routes to the interior by forming alliances with the tribes situated along these routes and by eradicating inter-tribal jealousies which...

  9. CHAPTER 5 THE DISPLACEMENT OF MATERIALS
    (pp. 46-65)

    The supply of European materials doubtless seldom exceeded the demand which was made by the Indians, even by those whose favourable position as middlemen in the fur-trade gave them ready access to the wares of the Old World. Superiority of their material culture secured to the French the durable friendship of the first tribes whom they encountered, with the exception of the Laurentian Iroquois, and enabled them to establish settlements on the continent under the most favourable auspices. This superiority offset the limited supply as a factor in the rapid displacement of native materials, since “. . . . the...

  10. CHAPTER 6 DRUNKENNESS AND REGULATION
    (pp. 66-74)

    It has been suggested that, in the Pacific Islands, the use of European alcohol has not only not been a cause of depopulation, but has borne no coordinated relationship with the phenomenal decrease in native populations.¹ But in New France, in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, one would hesitate to make a similar assertion, even when one treats the Jesuit Relations with reserve as being missionary propaganda, since the Jesuit testimony is corroborated from other sources, notably the records of the official failure to control the liquor situation, and the fact of the decline and of the...

  11. CHAPTER 7 DISEASE AND TREATMENT
    (pp. 75-83)

    “When the French reached Canada they found that the Indians were possessed of a knowledge of medicine and surgery that was in some ways the equal of their own. In their application of the medicinal properties of the vegetable kingdom the Indians were probably superior to the French physicians. They had remedies for each and every occasion, expectorants, emetics, purgatives, astringents, even emenagogues and abortificients. … Their system of medicine was an unwritten one that was handed down from generation to generation and, in spite of the manifold defects of such a system, was surprisingly complete. In the hands of...

  12. CHAPTER 8 POLITICAL MODIFICATION
    (pp. 84-95)

    When Lewis H. Morgan, working in the influence of the evolutionary thought of the nineteenth century, made his famous enunciation that human society evolved from “savagery, through barbarism, to civilization”, the communist economists, under the leadership of Frederick Engels, seized upon it to support their contention that a period of communal ownership of property, concomitant with a state of sexual promiscuity, had preceded individual ownership and the individualistic family.¹ Although Morgan’s schematic method is now generally rejected by anthropologists, particularly those of the extreme wing of the diffusionist school, there is some reason to believe that individual ownership of real...

  13. CHAPTER 9 SOCIAL DISINTEGRATION
    (pp. 96-116)

    Issuing as a secondary set of characteristics from the Canadian furtrade, closely interlocked with the economic disruption which followed the displacement of native materials by European, intimately related to the disintegrating factors consequent to the spread of drunkenness and disease, and interacting with the elements of political modification which were outlined in the preceding chapter, was the social disorder that existed in eastern Algonkian life which was especially conspicuous in the customs and manners appertaining to love and war. These apparently superficial changes in customs and manners testify to an internal psychological turmoil which resulted from divergent sets of social...

  14. CHAPTER 10 THE EFFECT OF CONTACT ON THE FRENCH
    (pp. 117-125)

    The influence of the Indians on the French in the sixteenth century was briefly summarized at the end of the chapter on the clash in Acadia at the turn of the century. In the preceding chapters on the seventeenth, much of incidental import has been dealt with. It is proposed herein to gather together the strands, and to estimate the nature and the extent of the modifications in French culture both in the old and the new worlds. Since the immigrants from the old world left much of their culture behind them they were naturally dependent to some extent upon...

  15. CHAPTER 11 RELIGION
    (pp. 126-147)

    The assertion that the Indians were without religion occurs with startling frequency throughout the earlier accounts of exploration and travel relating to North America. Where there were no priests, temples, images, or other visible signs of worship, it was blandly assumed that the cult of the supernatural was lacking. It was with the feeling that the minds of the Indians were almost completely blank tablets that the Jesuits hopefully began to impart Christian doctrine with a view to speedy and widespread proselytization. We have already seen them at their work in Acadia at the turn of the century. After Biard...

  16. CHAPTER 12 ART, PICTOGRAPHY AND MUSIC
    (pp. 148-156)

    In 1914 the results of Dr. Speck’s preliminary researches into the art of the northeast were published under the title of “The Double-curve Motive in Northeastern Algonkian Art”. According to his view the motive consists of two opposed incurves as a foundation element, with embellishments modifying the enclosed space, and with variations in the shape and proportions of the whole.¹ Subordinate are the realistic floral patterns and the geometric designs; the former consisting of the three lobed figure, the blossom, bud, leaf, and tendril;the latter including the cross-hatched diamond, circle, zigzag, rectangle, and serrated border. From the Nascopi, where the...

  17. CHAPTER 13 MYTHOLOGY
    (pp. 157-191)

    It is not generally admitted today that contact with the Norse colonies in Vinland has left any perceptible imprint upon aboriginal American culture.¹ Apart from claims made for the Norse influence on certain Eskimo traits, such as the igloo dome, and upon certain Indian bannerstones, gouges, and astronomical concepts,² the only attempt worthy of note here was made by Charles G. Leland to prove that the mythology of the Micmac and Wabanaki was in part or wholly derived from that of the Norse colonists. In default of concomitant characteristics in the spheres of material culture and social organization he was...

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 192-206)
  19. Index
    (pp. 207-215)
  20. Back Matter
    (pp. 216-216)