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Urban Systems Development in Central Canada

Urban Systems Development in Central Canada

L. S. Bourne
R. D. MacKinnon
Series: Heritage
Copyright Date: 2014
Pages: 244
  • Book Info
    Urban Systems Development in Central Canada
    Book Description:

    An excellent general reference on urbanization in Canada

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-3232-5
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Preface
    (pp. v-xii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    L. S. Bourne and R. D. MacKinnon
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xv-2)

    • 1 Editors’ comments
      (pp. 4-7)

      Systems are definitional rather than naively given constructs.¹ In analyzing an urban system two definitional questions in particular are immediately apparent: first, whether the cities under discussion constitute what might be termed a system; and second, whether the spatial delimitations and member cities of that system are appropriately specified. As the introductory section of this volume, this chapter examines the recent path of development and current state of urbanization in Ontario and Quebec in an attempt to isolate the aggregate properties which define an urban system, such as their distribution by size, and which illustrate the evolution of the form...

    • 2 Urbanization and urban growth in Ontario and Quebec: An overview
      (pp. 7-35)
      L. S. Bourne and G. Gad

      The rapid urbanization in Canada during the last century, and particularly in the post-war years, has created an integrated and identifiable system of cities. Increasingly economic development is articulated through the urban system. Regional growth has become synonymous with the growth of cities in this system.¹ The core of the national system of cities is in Central Canada, the Ontario and Quebec subsystem (Figure 2.1). This subsystem, stretching in a linear form from Windsor to Quebec City, is relatively simply identified by its physical isolation from the Maritimes and West and by the international border. This paper provides a descriptive...

    • 3 Behaviour of the Ontario-Quebec urban system by size distribution
      (pp. 35-49)
      J. B. Davies

      In any political or economic region urban centres tend to behave in differing degrees as an integrated system. Thé extent of this integration, the form in which it is expressed, and the way in which it has changed over time provides useful insights into the nature of urban growth and its regularities. The most obvious point of departure is the distribution of cities by population size over time for a given region with a view to establishing a consistent structure in the urban hierarchy.

      One means of examining regularities in the distribution of urban growth, and subsequently of the application...


    • 4 Editors’ comments
      (pp. 51-53)

      A study of a system of cities is often initiated by an examination of the characteristics of that system at a single point in time when data are most readily available. This cross-sectional structure, however, is logically viewed as the cumulative outcome of a series of development processes up to that time. That is, structure is the cumulative inheritance of past periods, a horizontal slice or snapshot through a vertical or time dimension of urban growth and system evolution. Each period of growth superimposes a new structure on and selectively alters that provided by previous periods. The papers in this...

    • 5 Dimensions and groupings in the Ontario-Quebec urban system, 1951 and 1961
      (pp. 53-82)
      T. Bunting

      The present study proposes to achieve a succinct yet realistic overview of cities in Ontario and Quebec in 1951 and 1961. Factorial analysis is used to reduce a wide array of descriptive measures of individual cities to a series of representative dimensions that elucidate the underlying structure of the urban system of the two provinces. In addition, a classification of different city types is produced by grouping urban places on the basis of their relative dimensionality. Overriding both aspects of the analysis is the question of change in the ten-year period under study. Recent systems modelling has facilitated our ability...

    • 6 Economic structure of Ontario-Quebec Cities: An occupational analysis
      (pp. 83-102)
      J. N. H. Britton

      The objective of the investigation reported in this paper is to describe in a succinct fashion the economic structure of the cities in Ontario and Quebec. Groupings of these cities, based on similarities of economic functions are the means used here to achieve that description. The city groups and the account of their economic basis, complement patterns of interaction and their economic rationale; together these are the prime elements of the structure of the urban system.

      Classifications of cities may be arbitrarily divided according to whether or not the variables used for the classification are directly related only to economic...


    • 7 Editors’ comments
      (pp. 104-107)

      Growth is inevitably the most difficult aspect of system behaviour to analyze. An appropriate research strategy is to mar-shall as much information as possible on historical occurrences, cross-sectional characteristics, and activity interrelationships, before initiating an intensive study of growth, its distributions and mechanisms and raison-d’être. The papers in this section represent an introductory foray into some of the interrelationships between the structure of the cities in Ontario and Quebec and their recent growth characteristics. Initially, this section provides a comparative context of the relationships between economic and population structure and rates of urban growth, among Canadian and U.S. cities.


    • 8 Regional and structural components of urban growth
      (pp. 108-116)
      G. Hodge

      In this paper growth rates in two aspects of urban structure—population and employment—are examined for a number of Canadian and U.S. metropolitan areas and the reasons for differences in growth rates are probed. These probes are made through a type of shift/share analysis called Regional/Structural Analysis. The basis of the technique is a comparison of the growth rate of some element (in our case, metropolitan areas) with the growth rate of some relevant and larger aggregate (in our case, the nation) of which the element is a part, through an examination of differences in the structure of each....

    • 9 Regression models of urban growth in Ontario and Quebec
      (pp. 117-131)
      S. M. Golant

      In this paper the urban centres of Quebec and Ontario are treated as a system described by a wide range of interacting social, economic and physical variables over a twenty-five year period. In particular, this study focuses on the obvious but complex relationships between urban growth and spatial structure. At any point in time the structure of a system of cities both reflects past growth behaviour and provides the basic infrastructure for future growth. As Blaut (1961) expresses it, “. . .structures of the real world are simply slow processes of long duration, the more slowly changing elements in any...

    • 10 Variability in the growth of small urban areas
      (pp. 132-146)
      M. J. Hodgson

      The tendency for Canada to become increasingly urbanized has been widely documented. In the provinces of Ontario and Quebec nearly two-thirds of the population live in large metropolitan centres or major urban areas. Yet what of the growth of smaller cities in this system? Serious difficulties face those communities which have not been caught up in this rapid growth process. As there is a relative increase in the metropolitan sector, there must of course be a relative decline in the non-metropolitan sector. The latter we may think of as comprising two groups: rural population, and the population living in small...

    • 11 Growth determinants in the Central Canada urban system
      (pp. 147-161)
      G. Barber

      One of the most perplexing problems in urban research is to account for the differential growth rates of cities and towns within one urban system or between several regional subsystems. One approach to this problem has been the construction of elaborate general models tracing growth and development of an urban system over space and through time. On the other hand, specific empirical investigation into the relationship between the growth of a city and its locational, demographic, and economic characteristics provides a viable alternative. This study represents one part of a continuing inquiry into the second problem, namely the identification of...


    • 12 Editors’ comments
      (pp. 163-165)

      Transportation and communication services are extremely important both in facilitating the operation and shaping the form of a system of cities. The spatial networks of transportation and communication are the channels through which the urban centres interact with one another, thereby giving order and cohesiveness to the system. Indeed without intercity transportation and communication networks, it is doubtful whether any set of cities could be called with any justification an urban system.

      The southern Ontario and Quebec region contains a multtnodal complex of transportation facilities and services similar to that in other highly urbanized and industrial areas of the world....

    • 13 Transportation network models for the southern Ontario and Quebec system of cities
      (pp. 165-185)
      R. D. MacKinnon, M. J. Hodgson and G. E. Bushell

      Transportation services both condition and are conditioned by the spatial pattern of population and activities within a region. In recent years various methods of analyzing and synthesizing transportation networks have been developed. In this paper, some optimizing methods are applied within the context of the system of cities of Central Canada.

      All of these models may be interpreted from two points of view. First they may be viewed as planning models, that is, models which generate normative transportation networks insofar as they maximize the attainment of a set of objectives subject to certain constraints.

      These models may also be used...

    • 14 A note on the changing spatial pattern of traffic flow on Highway 401, Ontario
      (pp. 185-198)
      R. D. MacKinnon

      Geographical studies are frequently concerned with the description or explanation of two dimensional spatial patterns. Often, however, a one dimensional traverse of a region is studied, sometimes because it is believed that the variable in question varies more significantly along this traverse than within the region as a whole. More often however, traverses are studied because one dimensional spatial processes are far more easy to analyze quantitatively than those in two dimensions.

      In this study, the major component of the Ontario highway system is chosen as the traverse.² Vehicular traffic flow is analyzed as a one dimensional spatial process using...

    • 15 Interaction among the cities of Ontario and Quebec
      (pp. 198-219)
      J. W. Simmons

      The urban “system” is defined in large part by the relationships and interactions among its components, the cities. This paper describes various aspects of the pattern of intercity contacts within Central Canada, a view to identifying the degree to which

      the cities of this region do indeed operate as a system, and of specifying the role of the various media of interaction.

      Data of this type are difficult to obtain, particularly in a form suitable for comparison among different media. The most complete data by far, and the main object of analysis herein, are records of long distance calls among...


    • 16 Editors’ comments
      (pp. 221-222)

      The trends and relationships in the growth of the urban system of Ontario and Quebec documented in previous chapters hold wide ramifications for urban and rural environments generally. Among these are such obvious issues as the apparent increase in urban and regional disparities resulting from the continued concentration of economic and social growth; the limited impact of past and present policies in effectuating change in the basic pattern of urban growth; and the influence of increased metropolitanization on the quality of urban life, on the environment in aesthetic terms, on pollution levels, on agricultural production, on rural and recreational landscapes....

    • 17 Ontario agriculture in an urbanizing economy 1951-1966
      (pp. 222-233)
      G. T. McDonald

      Changes in the nature of rural Ontario since 1951 may be summarized as “urbanization.” However, not all the impetus derives from the urban centres; some of it originates within the agricultural sector as it takes its place in a rapidly expanding economy. These propositions are discussed with respect to the kinds of forces operating, structural and production responses, and the status of farm incomes. Over the period 1951-1966 Ontario has experienced large scale economic change. The total population of the province has increased by 51 per cent to seven million while the population living on farms decreased by 34 per...

    • 18 The emergence of the urban field
      (pp. 234-243)
      G. Hodge

      The city we have before us now is a different kind of city from those we have known. Most important, it is different from those we tend to associate with our ideals of urban life. Therefore, to try and solve the problems of the city that was is bound to be frustrating. We shall need to be tuned in to the city that is in order to plan new urban development effectively. And this will require us to acquire new modes of thought about the implications of urbanization and accept new concepts of urban form.

      This paper is, essentially, a...