Cdn Annual Review 86

Cdn Annual Review 86

EDITED BY R.B. BYERS
Copyright Date: 1990
Pages: 401
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt2ttgth
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  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 86
    Book Description:

    TheCanadian Annual Reviewhas become an indispensable reference book for those concerned directly or indirectly with Canadian public affairs.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7199-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Canadian calendar 1986
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  5. THE FEDERAL PERSPECTIVE

    • EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 3-4)

      More so than in any year in recent memory the 1986 federal agenda was dominated by one issue: the free trade negotiations with the United States. Free trade was discussed constantly in parliament, played a central role in federal-provincial relations and was, not surprisingly, the main item on Canada’s foreign policy agenda. Despite suggestions to the contrary, other events did indeed take place and other issues were in fact dealt with at the federal level.

      In parliament the year began with a quick return to the unruly behaviour that Canadians have come to expect from their elected officials. Far too...

    • Parliament and politics

      • Introduction
        (pp. 5-6)
        JOAN PRICE BOASE

        The second full year of Tory rule in Ottawa was not quite as uproarious as the first, but it could never be called monotonous. The unruly House of Commons exhibited a rare decorum on 13 January when Japanese Prime Minister Yashuhiro Nakasone made a joint address to the Commons and the Senate, but it soon reverted to disorderly behaviour towards the end of January when it was revealed that Deputy Prime Minister Erik Nielsen had deliberately eavesdropped on Liberal caucuses twenty years earlier. Two years of mostly unsuccessful attempts to control an irascible House finally became too much for Speaker...

      • Parliament
        (pp. 6-15)

        A major cabinet shuffle occurred on 30 June, and there was much speculation about the meaning of some of the cabinet shifts, demotions, and firings. In what was called a ‘change that constitutes the end of a special Canadian era,’ Arch MacKenzie (Toronto Star, 1 July) discussed the departure from cabinet of ‘old velcro lips’ Erik Nielsen. Mr Nielsen, who had been a fiercely partisan member of parliament for the Yukon since 1957 and deputy prime minster under Brian Mulroney, was called by Carol Goar of theToronto Star‘easily the most unpopular figure in the Mulroney administration’ (1 July)....

      • Senate
        (pp. 15-16)

        The Senate had a fairly quiet year in 1986: no major confrontations with the government and no serious suggestions for reform or abolition. TheEdmonton Journalreported on 17 October that Premier Getty favoured the formation of a ‘Triple E’ Senate (elected, effective, and equal), and theWinnipeg Free Presson 6 November said that Premier Pawley would still prefer to see it abolished, but these were mild comments compared with the suggestions for the future of the Senate that were heard in 1985. The Senate adopted a major amendment of a controversial parole bill on 2 July, just before...

      • Free trade
        (pp. 17-26)

        Historically, Canada’s relationship with its powerful neighbour to the south has been an issue that has intermittently captured the attention of the nation and precipitated heated discussion. In 1986, the year that serious trade negotiations between the two countries began, the free trade issue overshadowed all others. The faces of the chief negotiators, Simon Reisman for Canada and Peter Murphy for the United States, became almost as familiar to Canadians as that of their prime minister. Although it began the year as ‘freer trade,’ ‘enhanced trade,’ or ‘broader trade,’ by year end the euphemisms were mostly discarded and the negotiations...

      • Other policy issues
        (pp. 26-38)

        National energy and oil policy are crucial areas of concern in the Canadian federation. This has been especially so since the oil crises in the 1970s and the introduction of the National Energy Program by the Liberal government in 1980. On 14 February Don Braid, a political columnist for theEdmonton Journalhad a ‘View from the west’ column in theToronto Star. He analysed the recent changes in the ndp’s policy concerning energy, especially oil issues, and commended the party for its approach, which he said could give it votes in the west–even in ‘anti-ndp Alberta.’ The ndp,...

      • Parties and politics
        (pp. 38-48)

        Prime Minister Mulroney personally did not have a good year in 1985, and the trend continued in 1986. Many of his actions were interpreted as desperate attempts to rescue his unpopular government. In an article entitled ‘Mulroney assembles old gang,’ Don McGillivray of theEdmonton Journalsaid that Mulroney’s recent appointments – Senator Lowell Murray as federal provincial relations minister, Senator Norman Atkins as Tory organizing chief, and Dalton Camp in the pco – had assembled all the members of the inner circle of the ‘Dump Dief’ movement of 1966 (27 August). Carol Goar (Toronto Star, 28 August) discussed the...

    • Ottawa and the provinces

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 49-50)
        DONALD C. WALLACE

        As of 1986 the verdict on Prime Minister Brian Mulroney’s stewardship of federal-provincial relations remained unwritten. In fact, the year saw many issues move inexorably towards some form of resolution. The two most important federal government initiatives – securing Quebec’s place in the constitution and achieving a free trade deal with the United States – remained to be dealt with in 1987. There was also a considerable difference of opinion about the prime minister’s performance. While Premier David Peterson of Ontario, a Liberal, was praising him for establishing a new mood of national reconciliation, Premier Don Getty of Alberta, a...

      • Economic issues
        (pp. 50-60)

        The early Mulroney strategy of conciliation towards the provinces, particularly in economic matters, spelled trouble for the prime minister on the free trade issue. Because the provinces had begun to enjoy greater involvement in national economic issues, where once the federal government had exclusive domain, it was no wonder that they would seek a large part in the negotiations over freer trade arrangements with the United States. Moreover, a comprehensive free trade agreement with the United States would necessarily require provincial cooperation. Many important areas, including significant non-tariff barriers, fell under exclusive provincial jurisdiction. The first half of 1986 was...

      • Fiscal issues
        (pp. 60-62)

        Federal-provincial fiscal relations in 1986 continued to be characterized by provincial complaints that the federal government was seeking to reduce its deficit on the backs of the provinces by reducing transfer payments. The changes introduced in the May 1985 federal budget reduced the rate of increase in federal transfer payments for health care, post-secondary education, and equalization. The federal government anticipated that this measure would save $6 billion by 1990-1. Since increases in transfer payments were to be limited to 5 per cent, the provinces stood to receive considerably less than the average 7 per cent annual increases they had...

      • Energy
        (pp. 63-65)

        Given the ferocity of the federal-provincial energy debates of the late 1970s and early 1980s, it was hard for some analysts to get used to the relative quiet in this sector. During 1986 the oil and gas industry in Alberta was being ravaged by international market forces which continued to drive the price of oil down to its lowest level in six years. Only a year earlier the western energy-producing provinces had signed the Western Accord with the federal government, effectively terminating the hated National Energy Program of the Trudeau years. Yet, in April the federal energy minister, Pat Carney,...

      • Regionalism
        (pp. 65-72)

        Although all prime ministers are susceptible to charges of regional bias at one time or another, Prime Minister Mulroney was on the receiving end of a large number of such allegations. Some observers chalked this up to his propensity to use federal initiatives for political benefit. Even his allies, notably Premiers Don Getty and Brian Peckford, felt obliged to criticize the regional effects of federal policies. In December, for example, Peckford said that from the perspective of his province the Mulroney government had failed to adopt regionally sensitive policies. He singled out the Forget report on unemployment insurance and plans...

      • Quebec and the federation
        (pp. 72-80)

        An unmistakable process designed to bring Quebec back into the constitutional fold began in 1986. Quebec had been the only province not to sign the 1981 accord that led to the patriation of the constitution in 1982. The election of the Bourassa Liberals in late 1985 set the stage for what promised to be a prolonged series of negotiations. The prime minister opened the door early in the year by offering to start constitutional talks with his old friend Robert Bourassa. In an interview withLe Devoir, Mulroney identified the constitutional question as a major priority of his government: ‘Une...

      • Other constitutional questions
        (pp. 80-83)

        The introduction of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms as part of the 1982 constitutional reform package continued to be felt throughout the political system even though the stance of the Supreme Court remained to be determined. A study released late in the year indicated that the Supreme Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, and the provincial courts of appeal had used the charter to invalidate all or part of fourteen federal and twelve provincial laws, with the greatest impact in the area of the Criminal Code and related criminal statutes (Toronto Star, 31 December). There seemed to be considerable...

      • Medicare
        (pp. 83-84)

        1986 marked the final implementation stage of the 1984 Canada Health Act, a process for which the provinces bore the heaviest responsibility. Indeed, the legislation was cleverly designed to pass the burden of putting the legislation into effect and to decentralize any political repercussions. Some provinces quietly accepted the legislation, which directed the federal government to withhold contributions to provincial governments that continued to allow extra-billing by doctors and user fees in hospitals. Provinces were eligible to receive refunds of their penalties as long as they banned the designated practices by mid-1987. In April Ottawa closed a deal with the...

      • Language policy
        (pp. 84-93)

        In many ways the judgment of theToronto Starwas incontrovertible; bilingualism had become ‘a forgotten issue’ by 1986 (16 April). Yet the issue was splashed across front pages by a series of important language rulings of the Supreme Court of Canada rejecting claims based on constitutional language rights handed down on 1 May. The conservative decisions could hardly be called victories for the cause of official bilingualism, since the court held that legal summonses in Quebec and Manitoba did not have to be bilingual to be valid. In the Quebec case, MacDonald v. City of Montreal, Mr Justice Jean...

    • The national economy

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 94-95)
        MICHAEL K. HAWES

        On the surface 1986 was another banner year for the Canadian economy. The economic recovery that had begun in 1983 continued at a brisk pace – with Canada’s gnp/gdp growth outpacing all its oecd partners. However, domestic economic indicators began to show some signs of a slow-down. Productivity grew by only 0.3 per cent, trailing all other oecd countries except the United States. Inflation, which had reached a fifteen-year low in 1985, crept up slightly in 1986 to 4.2 per cent. Once again, much of the growth in the Canadian economy could be attributed to the strength of the export...

      • International economic developments
        (pp. 95-101)

        The post-recession economic expansion in the world economy completed its fourth year in 1986. By historical standards this is a long period of sustained economic growth. However, the recovery has been uneven and precarious, showing significant variations between and across countries, regions, and industrial sectors. Not surprisingly, 1986 was a year of very substantial activity on the global economic policy front. The most critical developments include two new initiatives and two follow-up situations. The new initiatives were the Western Economic Summit in Tokyo (where it was made clear that the momentum for international economic co-ordination was not lost) and the...

      • Economic developments in Canada
        (pp. 101-119)

        Canada experienced another year of dramatic economic growth in 1986 – outperforming the other major oecd countries in many areas. In particular, Canada’s real economic growth and the growth in total employment have been unmatched in the oecd area since the 1981–2 recession. At the same time inflation continued to abate, resulting in an average annual rate of just over 4 per cent. While the rate of decline slowed in 1986, the rate of inflation is particularly impressive when measured against a 12.5 per cent inflation rate in 1981. Moreover, lower inflation rates are taking place within the context...

      • The national budget
        (pp. 119-123)

        Finance Minister Michael Wilson released his second full-fledged budget on 26 February, taking aim at the massive Canadian budget deficit through the imposition of substantially higher income taxes on virtually all groups except the lowest income earners. As in 1985, the budget was well received by business and broadly rejected by labour, social, and consumer groups. It added significant taxes on traditional targets such as cigarettes and alcohol and new federal sales taxes on a whole range of items not previously affected by federal levies. The government also added a 3 per cent surtax on federal income tax – adding...

      • Foreign trade
        (pp. 123-126)

        As theCanadian Annual Review, 1985indicated, the global trade regime has increasingly become characterized by managed trade, separate bilateral arrangements and policy uncertainty. The global economic and trading environment has been undergoing a period of tremendous change and adjustment. These adjustments, as outlined in theCanadian Annual Review, 1985, were translated directly into a more modest rate of growth in world trade in 1986. After a record growth of 9 per cent in 1984, world trade grew by only 3 per cent in 1985 and 4.9 per cent in 1986. Declining inflation, productivity increases, exchange rate developments, and a...

    • External affairs and defence

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 127-128)
        MARGARET ROYAL

        Canada’s external relations during 1986 continued to be multiple in number and varied in content and tone. The issues addressed ranged from responding to debt and development concerns in Africa and South America, to trying to articulate a common front in the Commonwealth, particularly on South Africa’s policy of apartheid. Other issues too were important as was evidenced by Prime Minister Mulroney’s participation in the Tokyo summit in May where he met with the leaders of the United States, Japan, Britain, West Germany, France, Italy, and the European Community. Among other things, the leaders discussed terrorism, naming Libya as a...

      • Canadian-American relations
        (pp. 128-141)

        Throughout 1986 Canada’s economic relations with the United States revolved around the two primary issues of negotiating a bilateral trade agreement and trying to respond to the variety of trade irritants on the bilateral agenda. To the first issue, by early 1986 commencement of trade talks with the United States had not yet been approved by the U.S. Congress. While Prime Minister Mulroney had formally requested the opening of negotiations in September 1985, and while President Reagan had sent a formal request to Congress in December 1985, no decision had yet been issued and none was expected until the spring....

      • Western Europe
        (pp. 141-144)

        In early January Canada’s relations with Britain took an interesting turn when Canada’s high commissioner to Britain, Roy McMurtry, refused to become the chairman of the dinners of the 175-year old Canada Club – an honour always bestowed on the Canadian high commissioner. The Canada Club is open to Canadians residing in Britain, Britons who have lived in Canada, or people associated with companies operating in Canada. But the club does not accept women as members, and for that reason Mr McMurtry rejected the invitation to be the chair of the dinners held four times yearly. When Jean Wadds was...

      • The Soviet Union and eastern Europe
        (pp. 144-147)

        In January Secretary of State for External Affairs Joe Clark welcomed Soviet leader Mr Gorbachev’s new arms control proposals, including a fifteen-year timetable to rid the earth of nuclear weapons. Mr Gorbachev had made the proposal at the fourth round of Geneva arms talks which had taken place earlier in January. He had also extended a Soviet freeze on nuclear testing for three months. But Mr Gorbachev made it clear that these proposals rested on American abandonment of the Strategic Defence Initiative, a condition not likely to be acceptable to the United States. Nevertheless, Mr Clark urged the Soviet leader...

      • Japan and the Pacific
        (pp. 147-154)

        Canada’s relations with the Pacific region focused predominantly on trade relations and the new government in the Philippines.

        In early January Japanese Prime Minister Yashuhiro Nakasone visited Canada and met with Prime Minister Mulroney. Mr Mulroney tried to allay Japanese concerns that Canada’s efforts to secure a trade deal with the United States might hurt Canada-Japanese trade. In their talks, Mr Mulroney made it clear to Mr Nakasone that any deal Canada might strike with the United States would meet three criteria: ‘A prospective agreement would remain consistent with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; The agreement would not...

      • Africa
        (pp. 154-158)

        Canada’s relations with Africa in 1986 continued to focus predominantly on two recurring themes: how to help the continent develop economically and how to pressure South Africa to abandon its policy of apartheid. On the first issue Stephen Lewis, Canada’s ambassador to the United Nations, stated at a national conference on Africa held in Ottawa in February: ‘Unless western nations agree to long-term proposals to help Africa at a special un conference on aid and development in May, the chance to act could be lost for many years’ (Ottawa Citizen, 17 February). He also ‘called on Canada to lead the...

      • The Commonwealth
        (pp. 158-160)

        The number one issue at the Commonwealth meetings continued to be sanctions, and South Africa and Canada continued to play key roles. In early January the Pretoria government of Mr Botha agreed to allow the Eminent Persons Group (epg), established in October 1985 by the Commonwealth members, to visit South Africa. The specific mandate of the epg was to report back to Commonwealth members by June as to how the Commonwealth could best press Pretoria to abandon apartheid. epg members included Ted Scott, primate of the Anglican Church in Canada; Malcolm Fraser, former prime minister of Australia; Dame Nita Barrow...

      • Central and South America
        (pp. 160-163)

        Canada’s relations with Central and South American countries during this period continued to revolve primarily around trade matters and the peace process in the Central American region. In late January, for example, the Canadian government announced that Brazil had signed a three-year agreement to buy $4.5 million tonnes of Canadian wheat. In March External Affairs Minister Joe Clark visited Mexico to discuss oil prices, Mexico’s foreign debt, and the impact of Canada U.S. free trade talks on Central America. The Mexican government had made it clear it wanted closer relations with Canada, and while the Mexico visit also was originally...

      • The Caribbean
        (pp. 163-164)

        In February the Canadian government indicated it would recognize the new government of Haiti which replaced Jean-Claude Duvalier, who had fled to France earlier in the week. Joe Clark, Canada’s external affairs minister, stated: ‘We think that the regime is in control of the country, and our practices are to accord recognition to regimes that are in control of a country … I’m pleased that there is a situation in Haiti that appears to promise greater stability in that country’ (Halifax Chronicle-Herald, 8 February). Mr Clark also noted that Canada would seriously consider any request for emergency aid from the...

      • Asia
        (pp. 164-169)

        Canada’s relations with Asia continued to broaden and focused on a variety of issues including trade related-matters and human rights. In early February, for example, Babcock and Wilcox Canada signed a $200 million agreement with China under which it will supply the parts of four coal-fire power plants to the Huaneng International Power Development Corporation. The latter corporation acts as purchasing agent for the Chinese government. The Canadian company indicated that the deal could result in hundreds of new jobs at its Cambridge, Ontario, plant. In other trade-related news the Canadian government announced in February that along with its nato...

      • The Middle East
        (pp. 169-173)

        Canada’s relations with the Middle East throughout 1986 were dominated by two key issues which included, early in the year, economic sanctions against Libya and, later in the year, Canada’s involvement in arms sales to Iran. Debate regarding the first issue occurred early in the year as the United States geared up to impose economic sanctions against Libya because of its alleged role in terrorist activities. Early in January it appeared uncertain whether Canada would follow the American lead by imposing a variety of sanctions. And although Mr Reagan called Prime Minister Mulroney on 7 January before he addressed the...

      • The United Nations
        (pp. 173-175)

        In early January Stephen Lewis, addressing the Canadian Association of Women Executives, noted that the un is still a very sexist organization; in the forty-year history of the un no woman has ever been appointed to the International Court of Justice, and that of the thirty-five under-secretary-generals at the un in 1985 not one was a woman, and that of the seventy-nine assistant secretary-generals in the same year, only four were women. He noted too that ‘of Canada’s 13 foreign service representatives at the un, four are women [but that while] Canada’s record is better than most countries … the...

    • Military and security issues

      • [Introduction]
        (pp. 176-188)
        MARTIN SHADWICK

        Unlike 1985, which had seen major controversies erupt over the North American Air Defence Modernization (naadm) agreement, the American invitation to participate in the sdi (Strategic Defence Initiative) research program, and the voyage of the U.S. Coast Guard icebreakerPolar Seathrough the Northwest Passage, 1986 was a relatively quiescent – and therefore more typical – year on the Canadian defence policy front. However, the year was by no means devoid of controversy. Debate swirled around the continued delays in producing a new white paper on defence, the optimum means of bridging the so-called ‘commitment-capability gap’ (i.e., the perceived gap...

      • The protection of Canada
        (pp. 188-192)

        The protection of Canada and Canadian interests, in both their military and their quasi-military dimensions, attracted renewed attention during 1986. Particularly noteworthy – since it appeared likely to portend themes in the forthcoming white paper–was a 17 October speech by Defence Minister Perrin Beatty. The minister reminded his Toronto audience that ‘membership in nato does not relieve Canada, or any other country, of the responsibility, within the alliance framework, to enhance its [own] security and defence’ and warned that Canada’s ‘airspace, the ocean areas off our east, west and Arctic coasts, and the waterways between our Arctic islands are...

      • Alliance relations
        (pp. 192-195)

        The two issues that had so dominated Canada’s alliance relations in recent years – the testing of unarmed American cruise missiles in northwestern Canada and the American invitation to participate, on a government-to-government basis, in the sdi (Strategic Defence Initiative) research program – were conspicuous only by their absence for much of 1986. Indeed, during the early part of the year the testing of American air-launched cruise missiles seemed to generate more embarrassment than controversy for the Mulroney government. Although still alive, at least to some extent, in the context of continental air defence (see ‘NORAD’ below), the sdi –...

      • NATO
        (pp. 195-203)

        The North Atlantic Council met in ministerial session in Halifax in late May and again in Brussels in mid-December. In the final statement of the Halifax meeting the nato foreign ministers stated that ‘obstacles to [east-west] agreement, however serious, should not prevent both sides from building on areas of common interest’ and stressed that they were ‘determined to pursue our efforts for progress in arms control and disarmament.’ ‘We aim,’ stated the foreign ministers, ‘at a lower and more balanced level of armaments. We support us efforts to achieve deep reductions in Soviet and us nuclear forces. We seek a...

      • NORAD
        (pp. 203-210)

        The debate over North American air defence, which had so dominated the Canadian political and defence policy agendas during the previous year, was much diminished in intensity. Although at times heated, the 1986 debate was, on balance, infinitely more restrained than its 1985 counterpart – which had degenerated into one of the ‘most confused, muddled, and contradictory debates in the history of Canadian defence policy’ (Canadian Annual Review, 1985). norad and norad-related issues also attracted much less media and public attention during 1986, in part because the Mulroney government’s 7 September 1985 decision to decline the American invitation to participate...

      • Equipment programs
        (pp. 210-217)

        The defence procurement agenda was dominated, as in 1985, by the Low Level Air Defence (llad) project, the Tribal-class Update and Modernization Project (trump), the New Shipborne Aircraft (nsa) project, and the Canadian Submarine Acquisition Project (casap). The llad and trump projects, together worth in excess of $2.2 billion, received final government approval and formal contract award during 1986, while the casap and nsa projects, together worth a minimum of $4 billion (and potentially much more), received approval to enter the project definition phase. A new and controversial player on the defence procurement stage during 1986 was the cf-18 Systems...

      • Arms control and disarmament
        (pp. 217-222)
        KEN BOUTIN

        During 1986 arms control and disarmament remained an important, if often overlooked, aspect of Canadian public policy. While overall the Canadian government adhered closely to established policies in these areas, Canada’s position on certain issues did begin to exhibit signs of a return to a somewhat more assertive and independent stance. This was manifest in a marked divergence of the Canadian and American positions on a number of important issues, such as the question of the abm Treaty and United States adherence to the still unratified provisions of the salt II accord.

        1986 had the distinction of having been designated...

  6. THE PROVINCIAL PERPSECTIVES

    • EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 225-226)

      More so than in recent years elections dominated the provincial political landscape during 1986. Provincial elections were held in no fewer than five provinces during the year, with one upset recorded in pei. On the economic front most provincial economies, with the exceptions of Ontario and Quebec, performed rather poorly during 1986, although most provinces remained optimistic that the economic good fortune of central Canada would soon find its way to other regions of the country.

      Provincial elections were the central event in all four western provinces during 1986. Although no upsets were recorded – all four incumbent governments were...

    • Ontario
      (pp. 227-261)
      GRAHAM WHITE

      1986 was the year for the minority Liberal government to prove its mettle. Brought to power unexpectedly following the May 1985 election through an unprecedented written ‘accord’ with the New Democrats, which guaranteed two election-free years in return for a series of policy reforms, the Liberals had begun a great many projects in 1985 but completed few of them. Tory leader Larry Grossman derided the government’s record as consisting mainly of setting up task forces and studies, but on a remarkably wide range of policy fronts substantial progress was registered. Politically, the year was notable for the consistently high standing...

    • Quebec
      (pp. 261-273)
      ALAIN G. GAGNON

      The state is no longer, and can no longer be, the prime mover in social change. (Speech from the throne, opening session of the 33rd legislature)

      The year 1986 in Quebec was marked by a perceptible shift in political orientations and priorities perhaps unequalled since the heady days of la révolution tranquille or the assumption to power of the Parti québécois. This new era as introduced by Robert Bourassa should not be seen as being discordant with Quebec history. Rather, the political resurrection of Robert Bourassa and the concomitant reorientation of the Quebec state, including the rapprochement with the English...

    • Nova Scotia
      (pp. 273-278)
      MUNROE EAGLES

      Nova Scotians endured a difficult year in 1986 as the economic slow-down which began in 1985 continued into its second year. However, not all the news was negative. North America’s largest fossil find was unearthed in January on the shores of the Bay of Fundy. In that month the historic Halifax Club broke a 124-year tradition and admitted its first female member. March saw the province appoint its third ombudsman, Dr Andrew MacKay, the former president of Dalhousie University. In May Halifax played host to a three-day meeting of nato foreign ministers. The ‘Man in Motion’ tour of Rick Hansen...

    • New Brunswick
      (pp. 278-286)
      RICHARD WILBUR

      The year resembled a twelve-month sparring match between a seasoned political veteran, Richard Hatfield, and his latest Liberal opponent, Frank McKenna, as each ducked around potentially explosive issues and prepared for the inevitable election. It would not come for another year. In the meantime, many of the events affecting the lives of New Brunswick citizens hinged on decisions made elsewhere, either in the United States or in Ottawa. Proposed American lumber duties and the future status of the cn shops in Moncton were two such issues over which the province had little control. This fact did not prevent local lobbying...

    • Manitoba
      (pp. 286-294)
      GEOFFREY LAMBERT

      The central event in Manitoba politics in 1986 was a general election in March. The ndp’s narrow victory was quickly offset by a series of scandals. However, the government’s standing improved later in the year following the controversy that had been generated by the federal government’s decision to award the maintenance contract for the cf-18 aircraft to a Montreal firm, rather than to one in Winnipeg.

      The legislature was dissolved on 11 February, and election day was set for 18 March. The government had reached its fifth year in office in the previous November, so Premier Pawley’s choices of election...

    • British Columbia
      (pp. 294-309)
      TERENCE MORLEY

      1986 provided a feast of entertainments for the people of British Columbia. Expo ’86, the long awaited world’s fair in Vancouver was, not surprisingly, the site of the most popular theatrical extravaganzas. But the selection by the Social Credit party of a new leader to succeed to the premier’s chair, plus the drama of a provincial general election, yielded a surfeit of public spectacle for the eager crowd. After the psychologically lean years under Premier William R. Bennett the people seemed to welcome the festival atmosphere interpreted by many as the harbinger of economic prosperity (Vancouver Sun, 2 May). Gloomsayers...

    • Prince Edward Island
      (pp. 309-316)
      DAVID MILNE

      1986 was an eventful year on the Island, not only because of the provincial election and change of government, but also because of the range of issues confronting the people of the province. This was the year that Islanders wrestled with Litton and the war industry; with abortion, sexual discrimination, and pay equity; with new labour rights; and even with the return of the idea of a fixed crossing to the mainland. In short, politics was anything but petty, parochial, and dull.

      Islanders were treated to two speeches from the throne in 1986, one by the Lee government immediately prior...

    • Saskatchewan
      (pp. 316-326)
      J.R. MILLER

      Economic problems made it a dismal year, and not even the diversions of an autumn election could lighten the mood.

      The legislature was called into session on 30 January to deal with rotating strikes that the Saskatchewan Government Employees Union (sgeu) had been calling since October. The government urged the union to accept a conciliator’s report on 21 January, and the premier threatened a legislated end if it did not respond immediately. Although the sgeu announced as the legislature convened that it would end the stoppages in a few days, the government proceeded with back-to-work legislation based on the conciliator’s...

    • Alberta
      (pp. 326-337)
      PETER MCCORMICK

      In Alberta 1986 was characterized by uncertainty and frustration. It was a year of continuing distress for the two major sectors of the provincial economy (agriculture and energy); of dramatic changes in provincial politics as the new premier confronted both a large, confident opposition and a burgeoning budget deficit; and of growing tension in federal-provincial relations despite the fact that the Conservatives held power at both levels.

      1986 marked the first time since 1971 that a premier other than Peter Lougheed was in office on New Year’s Day; in several senses, it was the inauguration of a new political era....

    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      (pp. 337-344)
      BARBARA COX

      In contrast to the first half of the 1980s, 1986 offered a note of economic promise for Newfoundland and Labrador. Although Canada as a whole had begun to emerge from the world-wide recession of the early 1980s by 1984, as was to be expected with the province’s resource-based economy, this recovery did not manifest itself in Newfoundland until the latter part of 1985. In spite of the plummet of world oil prices early in the new year which dimmed the prospects for recovery of the province’s offshore oil resources, it looked as if the turn in provincial fortunes hinted at...

    • The Yukon
      (pp. 344-349)
      JANET MOODIE MICHAEL

      Human rights dominated the Yukon political scene during the first full year of ndp rule, as the government moved to bring in the territory’s first comprehensive legislation in this field. The Liberal leader’s conviction for trafficking in cocaine ended his political career. The government encountered little resistance to its first direct acquisition of a private company and generally earned high marks for its efforts to strengthen and diversify the Yukon’s economy. A return to production at the territory’s largest mine aided in a stronger economic performance. Yukoners won a long-fought battle with Ottawa over the taxation of northern employment benefits,...

    • The Northwest Territories
      (pp. 349-356)
      NANCY C. DOUBLEDAY

      The year represented one of a few major milestones which will undoubtedly set the stage for future developments, particularly with respect to economic activity and environmental conservation; but without significant progress on the long-standing concerns of land claims, division, and devolution.

      The public debate with respect to division of the Northwest Territories continued in 1986. As in 1985, the initiative rested with the Nunavut Constitutional Forum (ncf), the Western Constitutional Forum (wcf), and the individual native organizations. In February the Inuvialuit (the Inuit of the western Arctic) found themselves again at the centre of the controversy over division when their...

  7. Obituaries 1986
    (pp. 357-359)
  8. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 360-360)
    RBB
  9. Index of names
    (pp. 361-370)
  10. Index of subjects
    (pp. 371-383)