Cdn Annual Review 1987

Cdn Annual Review 1987

EDITED BY R.B. BYERS
Copyright Date: 1991
Pages: 402
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt2ttk08
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  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 1987
    Book Description:

    The present volume covers events in a watershed year. In constitutional matters 1987 saw the most important even since the passage of the Constitutional Act of 1982: the Meech Lake Accord.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7200-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Canadian calendar 1987
    (pp. xi-xviii)
  5. THE FEDERAL PERSPECTIVE
    • EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 3-4)

      Overshadowing all else by the end of the year was the Meech Lake Constitutional Accord and free trade negotiations with the United States. In terms of the former, the negotiations to bring Quebec into the Constitutional fold – something which had eluded the first minister since the Constitutional Agreement of 1982 – were finally concluded on 30 April.

      In terms of specifics, the accord included agreement to recognize Quebec as a ‘distinct society,’ allow the provincial governments to submit lists of names from which the federal government would fill vacancies in the Senate and in the Supreme Court, allow any...

    • Parliament and politics
      (pp. 5-64)
      JOAN PRICE BOASE

      1987 was a busy year in the House of Commons, and, under the watchful eye of British Columbia mp John Fraser, the first speaker to be elected by his peers, a sense of decorum returned to the House. Mr Fraser was praised by members of all parties for his fairness and sense of humour, and Canadians who watched the televised proceedings were grateful to see evidence of increasing respect for our most important symbol of democracy. There still were periods of unbecoming desk pounding and heckling, but overall there was much less of the immature behaviour that had become an...

    • Ottawa and the provinces
      (pp. 65-89)
      MICHAEL HOWLETT

      The year 1987 was dominated by the constitutional consensus reached between the federal and provincial governments at Meech Lake in April. Although important federal-provincial conferences were held throughout the year on such topics as aboriginal self-government, free trade, and energy, all were over-shadowed by the surprising unanimity reached at Meech Lake, which brought Quebec into the constitution and addressed the institutional concerns of Alberta, Newfoundland, and the rest of the provinces. The responses of opposition groups to the accord and the consequences it had for future intergovernmental negotiations on such issues as Senate reform, fisheries jurisdiction, and language legislation greatly...

    • The national economy
      (pp. 90-122)
      MICHAEL K. HAWES

      In many respects, 1987 was another strong year for the Canadian economy. Canada completed its fifth full year of economic growth, its gnp/gdp growth outpacing all of its oecd partners except Japan. Unemployment was manageable, interest rates continued their downward trend, and confidence in the economy remained strong. Upon closer examination, however, domestic economic indicators continued to suggest some signs of trouble. Productivity grew by a modest 1.1 per cent, up substantially from 1986 but still trailing all other oecd countries except the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Inflation, which had dropped in 1985 to levels reminiscent...

    • External affairs and defence
      (pp. 123-182)
      MARGARET ROYAL

      Canada’s international activities in 1987 once again proved to be varied in nature, substantial in number, and evidence of Canada’s commitment to engaging the global community in a constructive dialogue. Canadian officials continued to work to enhance our relationships with long-standing partners such as the United Kingdom and the United States, to expand our relationships with other partners such as the Soviet Union and the Pacific Rim region, and to reiterate our commitment to international organizations such as the United Nations and the Commonwealth.

      In general, Canada’s actions seemed to focus on three broad themes: contributing to the maintenance of...

    • Military and security issues
      (pp. 183-232)
      MARTIN SHADWICK

      After sixteen years, numerous false starts, and countless defence ministers, Canada finally secured a new defence white paper on 5 June. A notable, albeit controversial, achievement for Defence Minister Perrin Beatty, the glossy, eighty-nine-page document reaffirmed the Mulroney government’s staunch support of collective defence while seeking a better balance between alliance commitments in Europe and sovereignty and security concerns at home. Offering, by its own assessment, a ‘sober’ view of the international strategic environment, east-west relations and the prospects for meaningful arms control,Challenge and Commitmentunveiled a long-term blueprint for bridging the gap between Canada’s declared defence commitments and...

  6. THE PROVINCIAL PERSPECTIVES
    • EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION
      (pp. 235-236)

      For most provinces the free trade negotiations and constitutional questions loomed especially large during 1987. Provincial governments, political parties, and politicians gladly shared their views – pro or con – on issues related to free trade and the Meech Lake agreement. Two provinces quickly came to dominate both debates – namely, Ontario and Quebec. In terms of the constitutional accord Ontario played a key role in the process of national constitutional reconciliation while simultaneously opposing free trade. Quebec’s support for free trade was almost as strong, if not as vocal as its support for Meech Lake. The successful conclusion of...

    • Ontario
      (pp. 237-279)
      GRAHAM WHITE

      For Ontario, 1987 was a year of continuing prosperity, a prosperity underlined by the economic difficulties experienced elsewhere in Canada. The rising demand for social services and the political primacy of social policy issues indicated clearly, however, that not all Ontarians were sharing the benefits of prosperity. Federal-provincial relations loomed especially large in Ontario during 1987, with the province playing a key role in the process culminating in the Meech Lake constitutional agreement even as it spearheaded the opposition to the federal government’s proposed free trade agreement with the United States.

      The summer election marked a sharp political transition for...

    • Quebec
      (pp. 279-292)
      ALAIN G. GAGNON

      The year 1987 in Quebec may very well stand as a landmark for the province and the Canadian federation. The year was marked by the apparent attainment of a long-sought-after constitutional agreement which came to be known as the Meech Lake Accord. This accord was the culmination of efforts by Premier Robert Bourassa and his governing Liberal party fully to reintegrate the province within the Canadian federation. Respectable economic progress facilitated government initiatives to lessen its role in the business affairs of the province and reorient the direction of the economy. As such, a new dynamism was observed in a...

    • Nova Scotia
      (pp. 292-298)
      MUNROE EAGLES

      1987 was an eventful year for Nova Scotians. The province attracted national attention when Sydney played host to the 1987 Canada Winter Games in February. In March Canada’s lieutenant-governors and governor-general assembled in Halifax for two days of meetings. In June the province cheered home sailor John Hughes after he completed a ten-month, 28,000–mile, solo yacht race around the world. In August a copy of the ‘Alexander Charter,’ signed in 1621 by King James 1 of England and considered to be the ‘birth certificate’ of the province, was put on display in Fort Anne, Annapolis Royal. At year end...

    • New Brunswick
      (pp. 298-304)
      RICHARD WILBUR

      Politics has long been a favourite game among New Brunswickers. This was especially true in 1987, when Canada’s longest-serving premier, Richard Hatfield, opted to remain in office the full five years. As a keen student of history, he knew the likely consequences: no political leader has ever won re-election under such circumstances. But even the astute Tory premier could never have predicted the total defeat his forces suffered in October. It came despite months of campaigning that dominated public events up to that fateful day.

      Hatfield’s last hurrah – The new year found the premier trying to shed excess weight...

    • Manitoba
      (pp. 304-314)
      GEOFFREY LAMBERT

      The provincial economy continued to thrive in 1987, though there were some signs that it was beginning to slow down. The ndp government once again ran into difficulties with crown corporations, while the Tories took to fighting over leadership. The provincial government was an arch-opponent of the Free Trade Agreement negotiated with the United States and encountered difficulties within its own ranks over Meech Lake. A resignation from the cabinet late in 1987 left the New Democrats heading into 1988 with an extremely vulnerable one-seat majority.

      The throne speech on 26 February reflected the government’s tight fiscal situation, since few...

    • British Columbia
      (pp. 314-322)
      G.L. KRISTIANSON

      1987 was a year of transition for British Columbia. At the social level, the people of British Columbia had to put behind them many of the positive expectations generated by the Expo ‘86 celebration. In the economy, signs of fragility persisted, but it was evident for the first time that the province was recovering steadily from the worst effects of the recession. Finally, in politics, it quickly became clear that the government of Premier William Vander Zalm was not going to be able to maintain the level of popularity that had propelled it into office the previous year.

      The focus...

    • Prince Edward Island
      (pp. 322-330)
      J.E. CROSSLEY

      The year 1987 was, by and large, a peaceful, prosperous, and comfortable one for Islanders. The summer was particularly splendid. Islanders and tourists basked in week after week of hot, sunny weather; downed their Olde Barrel potato chips with Red Rock beer; and attended plays at the Confederation Centre in record numbers. In late June Islanders entertained, and were entertained by, hrh Prince Edward, who joked that he could still remember his disappointment upon discovering that the island had been named foranotherPrince Edward. And for thirty-five days in the summer, everyone followed the efforts of John Barrett, who...

    • Saskatchewan
      (pp. 330-341)
      J.R. MILLER

      It was a dismal and unproductive year, in both politics and the economy.

      In order to let bad financial news fade from the public’s memory the government delayed reconvening the session that had adjourned the previous December. In January the premier announced that grants to municipalities would not be increased, and in the same month a consulting company was retained to recommend ways to increase the efficiency of the provincial government. But the really bad news was contained in the financial report that was released by Finance Minister Gary Lane on 5 March. Lane admitted that the deficit that his...

    • Alberta
      (pp. 341-354)
      PETER MCCORMICK

      1987 was a year that for both economics and politics was neither as good nor as bad as it might have been. The economy showed modest signs of recovery, and the year ended with cautious optimism, although most were aware of looming problems in agriculture. The government coasted through the early part of the year, weathered serious problems (partly self-inflicted) during the summer, and emerged in better shape than most had anticipated.

      There were a number of encouraging signs in the economy. Real estate showed a real recovery, with housing prices moving upward and increased housing sales from the start...

    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      (pp. 354-361)
      BARBARA COX

      From year’s beginning marked by violent labour protest at the site of the newly reopened Come-By-Chance oil refinery to year end, which concluded on a note of public controversy over government’s plans to move the province to Double Daylight Savings Time, 1987 proved to be a year of issues and events for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Privatization of Fishery Products International, provincial denouncement of the Canada-France Fisheries Agreement, the signing of the Meech Lake Accord, announcement of the $1.6 billion Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, and implications of the free-trade agreement, are only representations of the issues that evoked...

    • The Yukon
      (pp. 361-367)
      ARNOLD HEDSTROM

      The Yukon’s economy performed well in 1987. For the second year in a row the gross territorial product climbed above the 10 per cent level. There was also good news at the land claims negotiating table. Talks resumed with a nine-month deadline to reach an agreement in principle. In politics, the New Democratic party solidified its position in the territorial legislature. The ndp also elected a member to the House of Commons. In the legislature, the Progressive Conservatives fought hard against the government’s spending plans and a new Human Rights Act.

      The Yukon legislature sat at three different times during...

    • The Northwest Territories
      (pp. 367-374)
      FRANCES ABELE

      For the Northwest Territories (nwt), and particularly for the Inuit, Dene, and Métis, 1987 was a dramatic and difficult year. Outside Yellowknife and a few other centres of civil service employment, the economy remained depressed. Levels of unemployment were very high, while the markets for sealskin and other fur shrank. There were major set-backs for constitutional development in the nwt and nationally. Northerners failed to agree on the boundary for a divided nwt, while nationally constitutional discussions of aboriginal rights ended without progress, and the Meech Lake Accord altered for the worse the constitutional prospects of all territorial residents.

      Elections...

  7. Obituaries 1987
    (pp. 375-378)
  8. Index of names
    (pp. 379-388)
  9. Index of subjects
    (pp. 389-401)