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Cdn Annual Review 1985

Cdn Annual Review 1985

Copyright Date: 1988
Pages: 350
  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 1985
    Book Description:

    Among the events of 1985 analysed in this volume are the activation of the free trade talks with the United States, adding a note of tension to the relationship that in March was serenaded at the Shamrock Summit.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7198-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Canadian calendar 1985
    (pp. xi-xviii)

      (pp. 3-4)

      It was an eventful, at times a difficult year for the new Conservative government. Almost from the start the Conservatives were plagued by problems. In February the minister of defence was forced to resign over alleged improprieties while in Europe. Allegations of nepotism plagued the government through most of the spring, and the backlash, from almost all sectors of the public, to the spring budget was fierce. One policy in particular, namely a proposal to de-index pensions, created such a stir that Prime Minister Brian Mulroney personally made the decision to retreat from this unpopular measure.

      The second half of...

    • Parliament and politics
      (pp. 5-53)

      1985 was the first full year of Conservative government in Canada since John Diefenbaker lost the federal election in 1963. From the beginning of January, when the Senate refused to pass a borrowing bill, to the end of December when the fourth cabinet minister resigned, it was an eventful year for the Tories. In the polls, their popularity steadily declined, and their lost support appeared to be going to the Liberals, while the ndp maintained its usual 20 per cent. There was a reversal as well in the fortunes of the leaders, as the prime minister’s personal popularity waned, and...

    • Ottawa and the provinces
      (pp. 54-102)

      Harmony, more or less, reigned in federal-provincial relations during 1985. At the beginning of the year, Bill Davis, Peter Lougheed, and René Lévesque still occupied the premier’s offices in their provinces. By year end, the same offices were occupied by David Peterson, Don Getty, and Robert Bourassa. It was possible to say that a distinct era in intergovernmental affairs had ended with the passing of a generation of leaders, led of course by Pierre Trudeau in 1984. With the new generation came a fresh approach to the national political agenda, partly because Prime Minister Brian Mulroney made national reconciliation and...

    • The national economy
      (pp. 103-153)

      In many respects 1985 was another banner year for the Canadian economy. Following strong recoveries in 1983 and 1984, the economy grew at a very strong rate – outpacing all Canada’s oecd partners except Japan. Productivity, output, and profits increased substantially, while the inflation rate continued to moderate. The rate of price inflation, which had reached a ten-year low in 1983, edged down to the 4 per cent mark in 1985. Once again, much of the growth in the Canadian economy can be attributed to the strength of the export sector in general and to trade with the United States...

    • External affairs and defence
      (pp. 154-198)

      During 1985 the Canadian government addressed a variety of international issues. Among them, South Africa’s policy of apartheid and Canada’s relations with Japan and Europe received considerable attention. But matters related directly to Canada-u.s. relations continued to dominate Canada’s foreign policy activity. Amid discussions related to a number of issues such as acid rain and Arctic sovereignty, participation in the Strategic Defence Initiative and the proposed trade talks drew most of the attention. And nowhere was this more clearly demonstrated than in the foreign policy review initiated by the Mulroney government.

      In May the government released its foreign policy green...

    • Military and security issues
      (pp. 199-254)

      For a nation accustomed to perhaps one high-profile defence or defence-related issue per year, 1985 was a decided aberration. Dominated by no less than three major controversies – over the North American Air Defence Modernization (naadm) agreement, the American invitation to participate in the sdi (Strategic Defence Initiative) research program, and the voyage of the U.S. Coast Guard icebreakerPolar Seathrough the Northwest Passage – the year also evoked a strong sense of déjà vu. The naadm affair, for example, stirred memories of the very heated and very partisan air defence debates of the late 1950s and early 1960s....


      (pp. 257-258)

      1985 was a year of considerable change in provincial politics. In Ontario the Progressive Conservatives lost power, through an unprecedented Liberal-ndp accord made possible by a stunning election result which left the Liberals and Conservatives virtually tied in votes and seats. No less surprising was the resignation of René Lévesque and the election of an overwhelming majority Liberal government in Quebec.

      During 1985 a number of other significant and quite unexpected resignations were announced. In Alberta Premier Peter Lougheed on 26 June announced his retirement from politics. Mr Lougheed had served as premier for fourteen years. Political change also swept...

    • Ontario
      (pp. 259-304)

      Ontario’s political course in 1985 might well be described in the words of Sir Toby Belch inTwelfth Night:‘if this were played upon a stage now, I would condemn it as an improbable fiction.’ After forty-two years in office, the Progressive Conservatives lost power through an unprecedented Liberal-ndp ‘accord’ made possible by a stunning election result which left the Liberals and the Conservatives virtually tied in votes and seats. The Liberals, who in January had seemed destined for the ignominy of third place in the soon-expected election, formed the government in June. The Conservatives, who began the year confident...

    • Quebec
      (pp. 304-319)

      The acute political crisis afflicting the Parti québécois was finally resolved in 1985. René Lévesque at last decided to resign to save his party from disintegration. His successor, Pierre Marc Johnson, was not quite able, in the space of a few months, to turn the situation around, and he had to give way to Robert Bourassa’s Liberal party.

      The pq will need more than a few years in opposition to work through the 1980 referendum defeat and to try to redefine itself. The same goes for the ‘hard-line’ independentists, fragmented and disoriented as they are. The departure of Pierre Trudeau...

    • Nova Scotia
      (pp. 319-324)

      The year 1985 witnessed various social and political milestones, as well as continuing problems associated with the provincial economy – especially in Cape Breton. The first woman in the province’s history was appointed to the cabinet. As well, politically, the controversial seat-belt legislation became law on 1 January. The city of Sydney celebrated its two hundredth anniversary, while the Canadian navy observed its seventyfifth birthday. At year end, the Nova Scotia Royal Commission on Post-Secondary Education issued its long-awaited report. The province also sawTrue North Onelaunched in July at Bridgewater, thereby involving Nova Scotia directly in the Canadian...

    • New Brunswick
      (pp. 324-331)

      This was another year when New Brunswick and its veteran Progressive Conservative Premier, Richard Bennett Hatfield, assumed a place in the national scene much larger than is normally given the affairs of this small province. January was dominated by the premier’s marijuana trial, and his acquittal prompted an editorial in theToronto Star. In September the cbc’sFifth Estatelaunched its fall season with the so-called ‘tainted tuna affair’ involving the Star-Kist plant near St Andrews, the federal minister of fisheries and oceans, and to a lesser extent, Premier Hatfield. By the year end, the minister had returned to the...

    • Manitoba
      (pp. 331-339)

      Two issues dominated the Manitoba political agenda in 1985. They were the French-language issue and the government’s decision to proceed with construction of a hydroelectricity-generating facility at Limestone. Economic indicators were encouraging, which resulted in a revival of popular support for the New Democrats. Nevertheless, Howard Pawley cautiously decided to defer the expected general election to 1986, the final year of the government’s mandate.

      The legislature reconvened on 7 March when the throne speech was read. Since the province’s revenue situation was so gloomy, the list of proposals consisted of modest initiatives which would not result in a substantial increase...

    • British Columbia
      (pp. 339-352)

      British Columbia seemed to be on hold during 1985. The restraint program in the public sector introduced in 1982 was reinforced by innumerable dreary pronouncements; the economy seemed to show only slow growth; the government asked the legislature for little in the way of innovative legislation and instead, spent the year tidying up existing statutes and policies. No election was held (despite the ever persistent rumours) and everyone seemed to be waiting for 1986 with either hopes of a renewed prosperity fuelled by the much heralded Expo ’86 or with hopes of a provincial election that would bring a political...

    • Prince Edward Island
      (pp. 352-359)

      The year 1985 was deceptively quiet for politics and public affairs on Prince Edward Island. On the one hand, the much-anticipated provincial election did not occur, despite speculation and a flurry of nominating meetings by the political parties; the only electoral outlet granted to Islanders over the year turned out to be two by-elections to fill vacancies in 2nd Queens and 4th Prince. On the other hand, despite the Lee government’s ongoing program of restraint and its preoccupations with policy problems inherited from earlier years, by year end, when Litton Industries announced its plan to select the province for a...

    • Saskatchewan
      (pp. 359-370)
      J.R. MILLER

      A dismal year in agriculture set the tone. In politics, the governing Conservatives attributed their declining popularity to farm problems. The opposition New Democrats rose in the polls, thanks to an urban upsurge that appeared to lack a rural counterpart. The Liberals showed signs of life in by-elections, but lost their only sitting member. All in all, it was not a happy year.

      Expectations of a pre-election budget in the spring session were heightened by the finance minister’s taking more public soundings, including ‘an interactive computer program called “The Budget Challenge,” ’ than usual (Finance release, 17 January). But the...

    • Alberta
      (pp. 371-379)

      In Alberta, 1985 was a year of economic fits and starts, neatly bracketed by two provincial by-elections of unusual significance for the politics of the province.

      The third session of the 20th Legislature was called into session on Thursday, 14 March, and the speech from the throne was read by the new lieutenant-governor, the Honourable Helen Hunley. In the speech, the government identified six priority areas: economic recovery and employment stability; agriculture; basic education reforms; industrial and science strategy; fiscal policy; and legislative proposals. While acknowledging the problems caused by ‘fragile’ international prices and by the drought in southern Alberta,...

    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      (pp. 379-387)

      For Newfoundland and Labrador, 1985 proved to be a year of preoccupation with a succession of highs. The most exciting of these was the high public expectation following the signing on 11 February of the Atlantic Accord. Adding to the general sense of excitement surrounding this long-awaited event was the announcement of an accompanying $300 million Offshore Development Fund which would be expended over a period of five years to provide infrastructure for offshore activity.

      The rosy anticipation of what the federal-provincial agreement might mean for the province, however, could not block out the reality of two other, less welcomed,...

    • The Yukon
      (pp. 387-392)

      1985 changed the political face of the Yukon. In March the ruling Progressive Conservatives chose a new leader. Two months later in a surprise upset they lost power as Yukoners elected their first ndp government since party politics were formally introduced in the territorial legislature in 1978. With only half the legislative seats the New Democrats were, however, forced to make a deal with a rejuvenated Liberal party to secure a working majority. The year also brought a change in the leadership of the major Indian organization in the territory, but little progress towards a settlement of the Yukon Indian...

    • The Northwest Territories
      (pp. 392-400)

      The most significant factor affecting the Northwest Territories in 1985 was the transformation of federal policy under Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Federal policy changes were particularly visible in decisions with respect to economic development, specifically non-renewable resource development, where a pro-development attitude prevailed; and in intergovernmental relations, where increasing territorial authority was sanctioned.

      In the Legislative Assembly, political development of the Northwest Territories again dominated discussion as division and the creation of Nunavut remained a key concern for Inuit, and the federal government entered into discussions with the Legislative Assembly on the devolution of various programs.

      On the national...

  7. Obituaries 1985
    (pp. 401-403)
  8. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 404-404)
  9. Index of names
    (pp. 405-413)
  10. Index of subjects
    (pp. 414-428)