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Cdn Annual Review 1965

Cdn Annual Review 1965

Assistant Editor: DONALD FORSTER
Copyright Date: 1966
Pages: 500
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  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 1965
    Book Description:

    Convenient, authoritative, exceptionally readable and useful, its contents provide a dependable shortcut to the current history of Canada for a period hat cannot be dealt with fully by other references for many years.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7179-9
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Canadian Calendar
    (pp. xiii-xvi)

    • Parliament and Politics
      (pp. 3-119)

      The surface of Canadian public life in 1965 was sordid and unedifying, a spectacle at home and abroad. Not only was the public treated to a succession of scandals or alleged scandals, but the tone of parliamentary and public debate seemed often poisoned or diseased. Parliament itself sometimes seemed barely able to function under the weight of political rivalries that knew or accepted no bounds. An election that few wanted had a result that few could applaud, for it seemed to reveal that Canadians possessed an organized incapacity to govern themselves or that they had reached the limit of their...


      • ONTARIO
        (pp. 120-132)
        F. F. SCHINDELER

        During the record-breaking ninety-eight-day session of the Ontario Legislature, 176 acts covering almost every aspect of the province’s jurisdiction were passed and a budget of almost $1.5 billion was approved.

        The Medical Services Insurance Act drew the most attention as the opposition parties fought it at every stage of the legislative process. The government announced in the speech from the throne that it would introduce legislation based on the recommendations of the Medical Services Insurance Committee (under the chairmanship of Dr. J. Gerald Hagey), and the common rumour was that the committee would recommend essentially the same scheme that the...

      • QUÉBEC
        (pp. 133-148)

        La quatrième session de la vingt-septième législature s’est ouverte le 21 janvier 1965 et elle s’est terminée le 6 août. On y a adopté quatre-vingt-sept lois publiques, sept lois de subsides et cinquante-quatre lois privées.

        A la suite des recommandations d’un comité que présidait M. François Drouin, président général des élections, la Loi de la division territoriale a été modifiée (c. 10) pour porter de quatre-vingt quinze à cent huit le nombre des circonscriptions électorales. Avec vingt-neuf circonscriptions, on en a formé quarante-deux, l’augmentation se réalisant presque entièrement dans la région de Montréal qui était jusqu’ici sous-représentée. Les divisions nouvelles...

        (pp. 148-153)

        For Nova Scotia 1965 was marked principally by the continuation of the economic growth which had characterized the province’s development since 1956, and which had seen an increase of the provincial manufacturing capacity by 49 per cent since 1960. Politically, the year was significant for the selection of a new leader for the provincial Liberal party; and for the recession of Liberal strength in the federal general election of November 8.

        The forty-three-member Legislative Assembly met from February 10 to March 30. The routine legislative programme, combined with the fact that the four-man Liberal opposition was unable to provide any...

        (pp. 154-159)

        Nineteen sixty-five will be remembered as the year that the Liberal government of Premier Louis Robichaud “took the plunge.” In November it introduced sweeping legislative changes to implement the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Finance and Municipal Taxation, better known as the Byrne report. All other events, even the economic developments which had hitherto dominated the provincial scene, were completely overshadowed.

        The centre of economic activity in 1965 continued to be the Bathurst area of Gloucester County where a multi-million dollar base-metals complex was in production. On March 17 H. J. Robichaud, federal minister of fisheries, announced that the...

      • MANITOBA
        (pp. 159-164)
        M. S. DONNELLY

        The provincial economy was buoyant throughout 1965, and new productive records were set in manufacturing, resource development, and agriculture. The gross provincial income for the year was nearly $2.5 billion, an increase of almost 9 per cent over the previous year. In manufacturing, new industries were added at the rate of one a week, the most significant addition being the chemical complex near Brandon which, when it came into production in 1966, would employ 350 people. Investment to expand existing firms increased tenfold over 1964. The total value of factory shipments very nearly reached the billion dollar mark which, for...

        (pp. 164-172)

        On February 16 Premier W. A. C. Bennett had been in office longer than any premier in the history of British Columbia, and for a few minutes politics were put aside while he received congratulations from both sides of the Assembly. He was subsequently honoured at testimonial dinners throughout the province. In May he flew to Japan and was received as a head of state, and in September he had an audience with the Pope in Rome. In December he was being sued for slander by George Jones, former provincial purchasing commissioner, but the Premier did not attend the trial,...

        (pp. 172-176)

        Lively election activity, a dull legislative session, and energetic economic and cultural enterprise were the features of 1965 in Prince Edward Island.

        As the year opened, a new mayor and city council took over Charlottetown’s municipal responsibilities in a quiet and predictable election. On the other hand, when by-elections were announced for February 9 in two vacant provincial constituencies, a spirited contest resulted in the return of two Liberals, Alexander Campbell in Summerside and William Acorn in Souris, thus raising to thirteen the Liberal membership in the thirty-seat Legislature. Later, at a party convention on December 18, Mr. Campbell won...

        (pp. 177-183)

        Shortly before the start of 1965 Saskatchewan produced its 500 millionth barrel of oil. In 1964 the industry had produced over 81 million barrels from 5,000 wells, as compared with 331 barrels of low-grade crude from a single well in 1944, and was the third largest source of revenue for the provincial government. In 1965 government spokesmen were beginning to speak of potash as a rival to oil, although as recently as 1947, when a minister in Hon. T. C. Douglas’ CCF cabinet had made an announcement about the commercial possibilities of potash, he was chided by the ReginaLeader-Post...

      • ALBERTA
        (pp. 183-188)

        A federal election campaign and an acute awareness that Social Credit has been in power in Alberta for thirty years contributed to make 1965 a year more notable for portents of future developments than for many particularly outstanding current events.

        In a television speech on October 26 (two weeks before the federal election), Premier E. C. Manning announced an extensive group of proposals to be presented to the next year’s (1966’s) legislative session. These included a programme of subsidies to homeowners, municipalities, and school districts, all designed to relieve the burdens of local taxation; greater provincial aid to help low-income...

        (pp. 188-193)
        L. HARRIS

        When Premier Smallwood emerged from the federal-provincial conference on July 23, he declared: “1965 will be the greatest year in the history of Newfoundland … oil this year, a start on the Churchill Falls, a third paper mill, … isn’t that something.” Though the Premier’s optimism was to some degree misplaced, 1965 was, none the less, a year of fair material progress.

        What Mr. Smallwood had expected from 1965 had been set forth in the speech from the throne on January 27: a third paper mill, the discovery of oil on the Grand Banks, development of the huge power potential...

        (pp. 193-202)

        As in the past, mining was the major industry in the territories, with tourism a distinct second, particularly in the Yukon. Prospectors were out in force, spending an estimated $20 million on exploration, and the shares of companies with properties at Pine Point or Ross River figured prominently on Canadian stock exchanges. The year was filled with rumours of new discoveries and announcements regarding financing that promised new mines before long. New Imperial Mines reported plans for a 2,000-ton-per-day open-pit copper mine only ten miles from Whitehorse. At Clinton Creek, forty miles from Dawson, Cassiar Asbestos was constructing plant and...


    • External Affairs and Defence
      (pp. 205-298)
      F. H. SOWARD

      In international affairs the legacy of 1964 was not a happy one. It was doubtful if at any time since the end of World War II the situation had been more fluid and uncertain. As the 1960’s reached the half-way mark, the super-powers, the United States and the USSR, were confronted by proud and self-conscious states or groups of states, more determined than ever to exercise and demonstate their rights to independent action. The new leaders of the USSR, Brezhnev and Kosygin, whose elevation to power was one of the great surprises of 1964, were attempting to restore relations with...


    • The Economy
      (pp. 301-382)

      The pace of economic activity in Canada during 1965 continued to improve and reached the highest level in eight years. At the end of the year, there were no firm indications that the prolonged cyclical upturn in the Canadian economy was about to end, although most observers predicted a slower rise in gross national product during 1966, between 5 and 6 per cent compared with approximately 9 per cent in 1965. It was a year of solid, even spectacular growth in employment, production, investment, and income, highlighted by sustained strength in consumer spending, high levels of corporate profits, record gains...

    • Labour
      (pp. 383-400)

      For labour, attention in 1965 was focused on several large-scale strikes and on the new militancy of many workers, particularly in public employment. There were also important items of unfinished business hanging over from the past. For example, the future of the Seafarers’ International Union (SIU), the Toronto printers’ strike, the United Steelworkers of America (USWA) dispute with the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union, and the relations between the Quebec-based Canadian National Trade Unions (CNTU) and the larger Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) were some of the problems facing labour, management, and public officials at the beginning of 1965. Finally,...

    • Agriculture
      (pp. 401-410)
      D. W. CARR

      The two outstanding features in agriculture were record income and a widespread effort to adapt to the new economic and technological environment. The rapid change in social and technical conditions in the previous decade or two had made many institutions and facilities inadequate or burdensome, or both. The institutions and programmes designed for the promotion of farm production were found to be inadequate for dealing with rural poverty at home or famine abroad. Also, the facilities used for the transportation, handling, storage, and marketing of farm products had been allowed to fall behind agriculture’s requirements. With the production and export...


    • Education
      (pp. 413-431)

      It is a standard joke at election time that politicians bribe the electorate with promises that will be paid for by the voters’ money. In 1965 education figured prominently in federal election promises, but there were some disturbing signs that federal and provincial governments might argue and delay so much over which authority gave the money that urgent educational needs would be made secondary to constitutional wrangles and to vested provincial interests in education. None the less, rapidly mounting costs of education were forcing governments to be more realistic about sharing these costs and about their relationship to other demands...

    • Health
      (pp. 432-437)
      F. B. ROTH

      By the beginning of 1965 the impact of the many activities related to health service organization during the previous three or four years was becoming evident. The report of the Hall Commission and the general support it received, the continuing tranquility and apparent success of the Alberta and Saskatchewan medical care schemes, and a series of other developments seemed to have conditioned the public, the health professions, and organizations to the inevitability of change. The question seemed not to be whether major and perhaps revolutionary changes would take place in the organization of payment for health care, but rather when...

    • Welfare
      (pp. 438-448)

      The year 1965 was, in many ways, a frustrating one for Canadians interested and engaged in the broad field of service that comes under the title of welfare. The Canada Pension Plan reached the statute book after a tortuous and stormy passage which lasted from the approval in June 1964 of the necessary amendment to the British North America Act to the final royal assent to the act to establish “a comprehensive programme of old age pensions and supplementary benefits in Canada payable to and in respect of contributors” on April 3, 1965. The essential counterpart of a contributory programme,...

    • Science
      (pp. 449-461)

      The first annual review of the Economic Council of Canada emphasized the need for a strong scientific community in Canada, stating that, “if Canada is to realize the high rate of growth needed for a very rapidly expanding labour force, and is to achieve the betterment in productivity required for continued improvement in standards of living while remaining competitive in the world, we have all the more reason to call upon the resources of science and technology.” The review emphasized further that Canada would need to draw heavily on foreign sources for technology but “this will not be enough. Canada...

    • Religion
      (pp. 462-473)

      The most significant development of the year in Canada was the progress made in the direction of organic union between the United Church of Canada and the Anglican Church of Canada. On June 1, after twenty-two years of negotiations, the Committees of Ten representing each denomination jointly issuedThe Principles of Union between the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada, a 4,000–word document proclaiming “full and unanimous agreement” on matters of faith and order and laying down the main principles of union for the two churches. “The Committees of Ten … made a very major...

    • Mass Media
      (pp. 474-494)

      Social responsibility press practices gained at the expense of libertarian press practices in Canada during 1965. The two events that advanced most clearly the Hocking thesis that government should be “the residuary legatee of responsibility for an adequate press performance” were publication of the Fowler Committee report, and changes in newspaper and magazine regulations. In the first case, legislation was merely recommended; in the second, legislation was actually passed. Both stirred up controversy in which the two press theories competed. The theories themselves were associated with political theories that were also in conflict during 1965: the social responsibility theory was...

    • Drama: English Canada
      (pp. 495-502)
      ERIC S. RUMP

      Although the centennial theatre projects in Toronto and Ottawa were delayed, it seemed probable that both would be completed during 1968. This was welcome news; less welcome was the little thought that seemed to have been given to how they would function when completed. If they were to function like many existing theatres, acting as hosts to numerous roadshows, then the time and money that had gone into building them would be largely wasted. If, however, they were to become first-rate theatres, relying on a permanent company and presenting a wide range of plays, then they would have to be...

    • Le Théâtre de langue francaise
      (pp. 503-511)

      L’histoire du théâtre de langue française a connu, au cours de 1965, plus d’un épisode heureux. Cette étude a pourtant choisi d’aborder en premier lieu le chapitre le plus austère, celui où figurent les moments difficiles et les problèmes en suspens. C’est un peu plus loin seulement que le compte-rendu des achièvements et des succès viendra compléter cette vue d’ensemble. Il contribuera peut-être à éclairer l’horizon d’un tableau où il faut le reconnaître, les tons gais l’emportent en définitive sur les teintes plus sombres.

      Il ne s’agit pas là cependant d’une tactique destinée à apitoyer le lecteur sur les déboires...

    • Music
      (pp. 512-522)

      Nineteen sixty-five was a year in which music in Canada could, and did, rather pat herself on the back for the growing eminence of her current achievements and for the exciting prospects for her future. It was a year in which the national musical pulse quickened perceptibly, and the general level rose noticeably in virtually all fields of musical activity and in all parts of the country. Not that the stars of previous years had been eclipsed by such newcomers as Teresa Stratas; rather, the names of Lois Marshall, Maureen Forrester, Jon Vickers, Leopold Simoneau, Zara Nelsova, Glenn Gould shone...

    • Art
      (pp. 523-529)

      Art in 1965 was marked by more confusion than ever before in the sixties. “Op art” was in, and then out again when dress designers adopted it for fabrics; and everyone was talking down kinetic art before most Canadian galleries even had a chance of showing it. Two events, however, stood out: the closing of Galerie Camille Hèbert in Montreal and the Cameron Gallery in Toronto; and the incredible obscenity trial of Dorothy Cameron in the fall.

      In May Miss Cameron presented “Eros ’65,” an exhibition of drawings on and about the theme of physical love and by artists from...

    • Sport
      (pp. 530-541)

      Bill Crothers, Dan Sherry, Nancy Greene, Vic Emery, and Petra Burka were among the Canadian athletes who gained or maintained prominence for themselves and Canada in international competition during 1965. Fine international performances by the Canadian skiing and swimming teams raised hopes for further successes and perhaps for some medals by 1968. However, Canada failed to impress in international hockey and lost the world’s curling championship. Montreal Canadiens ended Toronto Maple Leafs three-year reign as Stanley Cup champions. The Grey Cup came east in 1965, while all national curling championships went west, as did the Queen’s Plate.

      Canadian performance in...

  9. Obituaries
    (pp. 542-547)
  10. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 548-548)
  11. Index
    (pp. 549-569)