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Cdn Annual Review 1964

Cdn Annual Review 1964

Assistant Editor: DONALD FORSTER
Copyright Date: 1965
Pages: 500
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  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 1964
    Book Description:

    Convenient, authoritative, exceptionally readable and useful, its contents provide a dependable shortcut to the current history of Canada for a period hat cannot be dealt with fully by other references for many years.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7178-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Canadian Calendar
    (pp. xiii-xviii)

      (pp. 4-13)

      In the six weeks before the session the Liberals attempted to retouch their public image after a disappointing beginning, while the Conservatives worked to quell a growing revolt over the party leadership. A Gallup Poll released on January 22 revealed that the Liberals had held steady at 42 per cent of the popular vote since the April 8 election. The Conservatives had risen from 33 to 35 per cent, the NDP had held at 13 per cent, and the Socreds had fallen from 12 to 10 per cent. As for the Liberal record, 35 per cent of the poll marked...

      (pp. 13-44)

      The February 18 speech from the throne confirmed most pre-session predictions of a brief business-like statement forecasting a hard-working and safe session which might restore the Liberal image of capable managerial capacity. “This is a time when it is possible, despite our many problems, to deliberate on Canadian and world affairs in a spirit of reasoned hopefulness,” the speech began optimistically. Not only would Canada continue to work for peace and disarmament abroad, but, aided by the “heartening expansion of the economy,” the government would increase employment and raise the standard of living at home. The Columbia Treaty, railway legislation,...

      (pp. 44-61)

      The flag debate and the year-end political scandals helped to keep attention focused on the province of Quebec, as did the strenuous efforts made during the year to solve the problems of Canadian federalism. Close students of the French-Canadian scene saw that Quebeckers continued to speak to each other and to the rest of Canada with many voices. Carefully considered opinion ranged from the eloquent advocacy of separatism to passionate expressions of belief in the magic of co-operative federalism, the nature of which many tried to explain. Unquestionably the tone of moderation became increasingly pronounced; but the activities of the...

      (pp. 61-82)

      Success in resolving the concrete problems in the contentious and difficult area of federal-provincial relations was more likely to satisfy French-Canadian nationalistic aspirations than any volume of speeches. None the less, federal ministers turned down few speaking invitations, so anxious were they to argue the case for a system of co-operative federalism based on a realistic assessment of provincial and national needs and the recognition that there remained few areas of exclusive concern. The federal government also continued to insist that the long-term solution to the cultural problem would emerge from the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and...

      (pp. 82-102)

      Canada lived under the shadow of a general election throughout 1964, although few but John Diefenbaker and some Liberal brass seemed to want one. First it was an early spring election; after the March-April settlement in federal-provincial relations it was to be in June; the outcome of the June 22 by-elections was supposed to determine whether the Liberals would go to the country; and early in November the deadlock on the flag and the paralysis in Parliament brought a fresh spate of speculation. But, as one reporter dryly commented, most of the talk ended where it began—in the press...


      (pp. 103-116)

      By typical post-election-year standards 1964 was an exciting year in Ontario. Two events stood out, the “Police Act Incident” taking the spotlight in the regular session of the Legislature and the Liberal party leadership contest dominating extra-parliamentary political activity.

      The second session of the twenty-seventh legislature sat from January 15 to May 8. The seventy-day session was the third longest in the history of the province. By the time the House prorogued, 133 public bills and 26 private bills had received the royal assent and two new departments had been established.

      Probably the most significant acts passed in the session...

    • QUEBEC
      (pp. 116-129)

      La troisième session de la vingt-septième législature s’est ouverte le 14 janvier 1964 pour se terminer le 31 juillet et elle a été, par le nombre et la durée des séances, la plus longue qui se soit tenue depuis les débuts de la Confédération. Pour couronner définitivement les tentatives des années précédentes, les débats ont été pour la première fois rapportés et imprimés sous le titre deDébats de l’Assemblée législative du Québecauxquels on peut s’abonner auprès du comptable de l’Assemblée législative. Au cours de la session, on a adopté soixante-cinq lois publiques, sept lois de subsides et quatre-vingt-trois...

      (pp. 129-134)

      During 1964 Nova Scotia continued to follow the general line of development laid down when Hon. R. L. Stanfield and his Progressive Conservative administration took over the direction of public affairs in 1956. Despite the lack of resources and of readily and cheaply accessible markets the province none the less showed a steady economic expansion. Although this growth was less dramatic than that taking place in other parts of Canada, developments in Nova Scotia significantly broadened the industrial base of the province, and compelled at least one Minister of a neighbouring province to ascribe to Nova Scotia unique merits and...

      (pp. 134-139)

      Throughout 1964 the winds of change blew constantly against the old face of New Brunswick. Well-timed government and private company announcements left the impression that industrial development was finally reaching the province. But although the private sector of the economy was definitely advancing on a broad front, the public sector, particularly education and hospital facilities, continued a starved existence. This basic contrast was the recurring theme throughout the year.

      The single most important event occurred February 5 when the New Brunswick Royal Commission on Finance and Municipal Taxation, the Byrne Commission, submitted a unanimous report after its two-year study. Its...

      (pp. 139-145)

      Commissions and committees came and went in Manitoba in 1964. But beneath the transient interest occasioned by each new inquiry, doubt arose whether diagnosis in itself was meeting the province’s needs.

      Active resolution seemed particularly overdue in the controversy over separate schools. Dating from 1890, when provincial aid to separate schools was withdrawn, the issue revived in 1959 when the MacFarlane Commission unexpectedly recommended that aid should be restored. It approached a crisis in November 1963, when several Catholic parents led by Mrs. Yolande Schick, a great-niece of Louis Kiel, withdrew twenty-one children from St. Emile parochial school in the...

      (pp. 145-153)

      Premier W. A. C. Bennett was not a man to ignore the raucous art of public relations. Despite his convincing victory in the provincial election in September 1963 there was no slackening of pace or relinquishing of headlines. In 1964 it was the three opposition parties that slumped. For Premier Bennett’s part he burned a bargeful of redeemed provincial bonds in English Bay to commemorate twelve years of Social Credit prosperity, offered to let the Yukon become part of British Columbia (see “The Yukon and the Northwest Territories”), proposed the establishment of a Bank of British Columbia, and lent the...

      (pp. 153-157)

      The Confederation Conference Centennial made 1964 a unique year in Prince Edward Island, and, because the celebration boasted national participation, it had a positive and substantial effect on the Canadian scene. As the place where the first conference of the Fathers of Confederation met in 1864, the island devoted twelve months to numerous events honouring “Canada and the men who founded her.” Because this was the first such celebration as the nation’s hundredth birthday approached, it was shared by the whole country by means of financial grants from Parliament and from all provincial legislatures towards the erection of the new...

      (pp. 157-166)

      When the year began, Saskatchewan was enjoying a boom of unprecedented proportions. Every device by which economic expansion could be measured showed that in January 1964 the province was at the highest point in its development, and theSaskatoon Star-Phoenix, no friend of the incumbent CCF government, early in the year reported ecstatically on the “Cinderella province.” “Retail sales,” the Saskatchewan Retail Merchants Association announced in January, “… have reached an all time estimated high of $1,044,985,000 and in doing so, had the highest percentage gain of the total Canadian market of any of the Canadian provinces.” In December, by...

      (pp. 166-170)

      The legislative session opened on February 13 with the election of Calgary realtor and insurance man Arthur Dixon to the speakership, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Rev. Peter Dawson who had held the office since 1937. Provincial Treasurer Edgar Hinman introduced his ninth (and last) budget on February 28. Unaware of his impending departure from the cabinet, Hinman used the occasion to review the development of government policy during his term of office. He spoke of a strict adherence to “certain basic principles of budgeting,” accompanied by a shifting emphasis from bare essentials of government service to...

      (pp. 170-175)
      W. M. DOBELL

      A five-day federal-provincial Fisheries Development Conference was held in St. John“s on January 20–24. At its close, federal Fisheries Minister Robichaud claimed that there had been general support for a salt cod marketing board in the Atlantic area, and for the proposed twelve-mile fishing limit. Harvey Cole, president of the Progressive Conservative Association, stated that the Newfoundland delegation at the national PC convention in Ottawa would propose the exclusion of Canadian as well as foreign draggers from the inshore fisheries of Newfoundland. Premier Smallwood, however, was ecstatic about the fisheries conference; the intention of offering fishermen the same benefits...

      (pp. 175-184)

      In terms of the economic record of mining, tourism, and transportation, 1964 was a year of fair material progress for Canada’s northern territories. Foremost among achievements was the entry of the Great Slave Lake Railway into the Northwest Territories. The arrival of this first railway at the border was marked on August 29 by a ceremony attended by journalists, business leaders, diplomats from six countries, and a party of high-ranking government officials headed by Arthur Laing, the minister of northern affairs and national resources. By the end of October the steel had reached the terminals of Hay River and Pine...


    • [Introduction]
      (pp. 187-188)

      Nineteen sixty-four was a year of marking time in thepartial détentebetween the two super-powers. Little initiative was expected from the new man in the White House (Lyndon Johnson), especially in an election year, and little came; although less well advertised, a struggle for the leadership of the Soviet Union inhibited that nation’s activity in world affairs. Both Washington and Moscow, moreover, were hard pressed to maintain authority within their respective alliances: French policies raised doubts about the future of NATO, the Kennedy-round of tariff talks in GATT, and even the European Economic Community (EEC); Russia, appearing to move...

      (pp. 188-212)

      Prime Minister Pearson’s fence-mending itinerary for 1963 had one glaring omission—Canada’s “other motherland.” Although he did visit Paris in January 1964, dealings with Paris remained throughout the year as delicate as they were domestically important. Most French-speaking Canadians had no more sympathy than their English-speaking compatriots with the outdated chauvinism of President de Gaulle, but they longed to see relations between Ottawa and Paris as intimate as those existing between Ottawa and London and Washington. The cause of Canadian unity, moreover, could have been dealt a heavy blow if M. de Gaulle had chosen to encourage Quebec separatism.


      (pp. 212-218)

      The first nuclear warheads for Canada’s armed forces arrived on the last day of 1963 and were soon installed in the Bomarc missiles located at North Bay and La Macaza. Their arrival, which marked the closing of the stormiest debate about defence hardware in Canadian history, occasioned no popular demonstration, although later in 1964 pacifist groups staged protest vigils at La Macaza, and a non-violent blockade of the base over Labour Day weekend was given rough treatment by military police. A few editorialists also maintained their opposition. Gérard Pelletier, for example, noted two minor American concessions to Canada’s commerce and...

      (pp. 218-244)

      Mr. Pearson’s address to the United Nations in September 1963 had indicated that UN peace-keeping might loom large in Canadian foreign policy in 1964. The idea was popular, appealing not only to the idealism of Canadians but to their desire for a role in world affairs which justified their existence as an independent nation. And in 1964 Canada did indeed play a substantial part in UN peace-keeping. She took the lead in launching the immensely difficult Cyprus mission, and also—perhaps of even greater long-run significance—in promoting means to lessen the dependence of the UN upon hasty improvisation each...

      (pp. 244-246)

      Disarmament played a minor role in Canadian foreign policy but the fault was hardly that of the government. As Mr. Martin informed the committee on external affairs on July 9, the talks in Geneva reflected the general state of relations with the Soviet Union; there was “some prospect of useful progress on a number of tension-easing proposals but there is a tendency to mark time on major outstanding issues.” The only progress recorded in 1964 was reductions by the two super-powers in the production of fissionable materials and in over-all defence spending. Neither step was negotiated in Geneva, but that...


    • [Introduction]
      (pp. 249-250)

      The pace of economic activity in Canada during 1964, with a brief pause in mid-year, reached its highest level in seven years. It was a year of solid and substantial growth in employment, production, and income, highlighted by another strong advance in the secondary manufacturing sector of the economy. Buoyant economic conditions in major markets and record wheat sales to Russia, China, and eastern Europe, were responsible for a remarkable increase in Canada’s exports, and a prosperous domestic economy absorbed an increasing volume of imports. Despite evidence of a larger favourable balance on merchandise transactions, concern about the over-all deficit...

      (pp. 250-260)

      Estimates of gross national expenditure in 1964 (prepared by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics and published quarterly) followed the pattern of all major indexes of economic activity in Canada during the year. Seasonally adjusted at an annual rate, the current dollar estimate of GNE in the first quarter rose to $45,512 million from $44,332 million in the final quarter of 1963. In the second and third quarters of the year, GNE continued to increase to $46,068 million and $46,736 million respectively. The behaviour of the principal components of GNE illustrated the main sources of strength in the Canadian economy as...

      (pp. 260-267)

      During 1964, as confidence grew that the economy could generate sufficient jobs to employ a rapidly expanding labour force, the unemployment problem in many areas of the country ceased to command as much public or government attention. Many seemed to agree with the HalfaxChronicle-Herald’scomment on April 20 that unemployment, “if not yet at a socially and economically acceptable level, is at least down to manageable proportions.” With unemployment rates at their lowest levels since 1957 and with the sonorous platitudes of President Johnson’s “war on poverty” ringing in their ears, some turned their attention to a much more...

      (pp. 267-284)

      The Porter Commission, appointed in October 1961 to examine all aspects of money, credit, and finance in Canada, completed its work early in 1964 and its monumental 350,000 word report was made public on April 24. In general, the commission “found a good financial system,” the report noted, “but some important modifications in its laws and practices are necessary to ensure that it may adapt itself to the evolving economy along safe and constructive paths.” Most important, in the commission’s judgment, was the path of increased competition among Canada’s financial institutions. The report favoured “a more open and competitive banking...

      (pp. 284-291)

      Again during 1964, some difficulty and strain appeared in Canada’s trade relations with several Asian countries. Mainland China remained an important market for Canadian wheat under the terms of the second long-term wheat agreement signed in 1963, but the Chinese government was far from satisfied with the size of their continuing trade deficit with Canada. In an interview with theGlobe and Mail, correspondent in Peking reported on December 4, a senior trade official made the usual complaints about Canadian anti-dumping procedures and expressed particular dissatisfaction that Chinese textile exports to Canada had increased too slowly, in part because the...

      (pp. 291-294)

      The rate of population growth in Canada in 1964 continued to be relatively steady, though well below rates of increase in some previous years. From October 1963 to October 1964, the population increased by 340,000, a 1.8 per cent rise, to an estimated total of 19,361,000. Between the same months of 1962 and 1963, the increase was only slightly smaller. The largest absolute increase during the year occurred in Ontario where the population grew by 143,000, approximately 2.2 per cent, to 6,637,000. Quebec’s population grew by an estimated 96,000, or 1.7 per cent, to 5,599,000. In percentage terms, the most...

      (pp. 294-297)

      Reflecting continuing buoyancy in the Canadian economy and further efforts to improve operating efficiency, 1963 was a reasonably good year for Canada’s two major railroads. Although final figures were not available, a further improvement in 1964 seemed likely as a result of large wheat movements to meet rising export commitments and indicated increases in the volume of other freight traffic.

      The CPR showed a net profit in 1963 of $40,100,000 and earnings per share rose to $2.56 compared with $2.02 in 1962. The company’s rail revenues increased by 5 per cent during the year. On October 13 R. A. Emerson...

      (pp. 297-300)

      During 1964 there were no major changes in the Combines Investigation Act. The only legislation, which was passed on December 18, extended until June 30, 1966, the exemption from proceedings under the act that had been granted to the British Columbia fishing industry in 1959. A private member’s bill which would have made mandatory a one-year jail sentence for officers and directors of companies convicted of a second offence and which would have introduced private suits for recovery of damages again died on the order paper. The idea of private damage suits in price-fixing cases was strongly supported by the...

    • Business and Industry
      (pp. 301-326)

      In spite of the depressing effects on the nation of the year-long parliamentary impasse and the unresolved tensions between English- and French-speaking Canada, Canadian business continued on the same upward climb it had been experiencing since the beginning of the decade. Canadian companies were benefiting from the self-disciplinary changes in management and in internal structure forced on them by the recession of the late 1950’s. Because Parliament did not deal with legislation, such as urgently needed taxation changes, which would aid the private sector, old-fashioned industry-government relationships either broke down during the year or were ignored for the time being....

    • Labour
      (pp. 327-348)

      A number of matters of importance to labour were carried over from 1963. Turmoil continued in the Great Lakes shipping industry. The Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) had to enact constitutional changes which would make the congress the final arbiter of disputes among its affiliates and end appeals from CLC decisions to the AFL-CIO in the United States. Collective bargaining was under way in a number of important industries including railways, electrical apparatus, Toronto daily newspapers, basic steel, mining, and broadcasting. On the legislative front important changes were expected during the year in the federal laws as well as in those...

    • Agriculture
      (pp. 349-360)
      D. W. CARR

      Agriculture in 1964 reached new levels of both prosperity and poverty. About a third of Canada’s farmers had their most prosperous year. For most of the rest, incomes were low and fell lower in 1964. Farm cash income (3.5 billion in 1964) was higher than ever before, but increases in farm expenses and decreases in inventories left farm operators as a whole with a smaller net income than in either 1962 or 1963. This lower net income largely reflected the high-cost position of the numerous small-scale low-income farm operators.

      Indications were that the readjustment in both the size of farms...


    • Education: English Canada
      (pp. 363-377)

      No more apt a summary of Canadian education for the year can be found than a statement by Edward F. Sheffield, director of research of the Canadian Universities Foundation, in the October 1964 issue ofUniversity Affairs: “The most striking trend of the year was towards provincialism in the organization of higher education.” This “provincialism” was not only evident in higher education, where one could reasonably expect that national interests in future high-level manpower supply, to cite one example, might outweigh the interests of ten provincially oriented higher education systems. It was also evident in somewhat less active lobbying for...

    • L’Education au Québec
      (pp. 378-389)

      Trois événements majeurs ont dominé la scène de l’éducation au Québec durant l’année 1964 : l’adoption de la loi créant un ministère de l’éducation, la création et les premiers pas de ce ministère; le lancement de « l’Opération 55 » ; et, surtout, la publication de la deuxième tranche du Rapport Parent. Une ligne directrice permet de relier entre eux ces trois événements et de résumer ce qu’a connu l’éducation québécoise en 1964 : l’établissement de nouvelles structures administratives (provinciales et régionales), comme étape préliminaire à la véritable réforme scolaire, celle qui atteindra en profondeur le contenu et l’esprit de...

    • Health
      (pp. 390-397)
      F. B. ROTH

      As the year 1964 progressed through the first quarter, the public and the health professions seemed restless and uncertain about the shape of things to come in the health field. The medical care programme in Saskatchewan was settling down and was not a major issue in the expected provincial election of that province; the Alberta medical care insurance programme continued to attract minimal attention outside the province, and even within the province it seemed to have neither militant supporters nor opponents; in Ontario the committee set up to study Bill 163 of the provincial Legislature had completed its hearings and...

    • Welfare
      (pp. 398-406)

      The year 1964 was one of ferment throughout the whole arena of welfare services. Dissatisfaction with the pattern of services that had grown up in the post-war years, the working yeast of political instability, the drift of power from federal to provincial governments, the sense of accelerating technological change, and continued economic affluence, all these contributed to the creation of an atmosphere that encouraged initiatives for change with the knowledge that change was not only necessary but feasible. The national scene continued to be dominated by the complexities of the Canada Pension Plan, but was illuminated by the decisive calmness...

    • Science
      (pp. 407-418)
      JOHN R Kohr and JOAN POWERS

      Scientific research in Canada advanced rapidly throughout 1964, along a broad front involving mainly the government, the universities, and industry.

      If the Canadian scientific research picture was so much brighter in 1964 than it was even a few years ago, the credit was due chiefly to the inescapable fact that Canadian industry was rapidly moving towards far greater involvement in all phases of scientific research. Industrial research and development in Canada was growing about as fast as competent staff could be found, Dr. O. M. Solandt, vice-president of DeHavilland Aircraft of Canada Limited, told the annual conference of the Canadian...

    • Religion
      (pp. 419-431)

      The most significant event of the year was the third session of the Second Vatican Council. Canadian bishops spoke frequently during the debates and placed their influence increasingly behind the progressive forces in the council. Decisions were taken which would profoundly alter Canadian Roman Catholicism, and its relationship to other churches and to society in general. Other reforms of real significance for Canadian society, such as a liberal statement on religious liberty, were adumbrated.

      On the opening day of the third session (September 14) a Canadian, Most Rev. M. J. Lemieux, OP, archbishop of Ottawa, took part in offering the...

    • Mass Media
      (pp. 432-452)

      Who controls Canada’s mass media? This question, basic to the larger problems of press freedom and press responsibility, was asked repeatedly during 1964. It was at the heart of the “Pearson film” controversy. It was implicit in theOpen Gravefurore, in Roy Thomson’s elevation to the peerage, and in the developing friction between the federal Liberals and the press. It was an ingredient of the criticisms directed against the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, of demands for a probe into its affairs, and of the appointment of a special committee to investigate its organization and conduct. But perhaps no Canadian development...

    • Drama: English Canada
      (pp. 453-462)
      ERIC S. RUMP

      The determination to make 1967 a vintage year, no matter what the cost, continued as the most important influence on the organization of the arts in Canada. Ottawa unveiled plans for a huge cultural complex in the hope of bringing, in the words of Secretary of State Lamontagne, “a new awareness of our immense intellectual and spiritual resources.” In Toronto Mr. Allan Lamport failed to convince enough people that they needed better sewers before more theatres, and plans for the St. Lawrence Centre were solidified. Mr. Tom Patterson, founder of the Stratford Festival, joined the Canada Centennial Committee, whose task...

    • French Theatre in Quebec
      (pp. 463-469)

      Any assessment of the 1964 French drama scene in Quebec had to be made in the light of the accomplishments of the Department of Theatre. This practical branch of the Department of Cultural Affairs began its existence on July 1, 1963, and although it had come up with a broad variety of achievements chiefly in the area of amateur theatre, because of the complex long-term plans of professional companies it was still too soon to give a definitive evaluation of all that had taken place and what was still in the planning stage.

      Although the concept of government aid to...

    • Music
      (pp. 470-479)

      Two steps forward, one step back, would seem to summarize Canada’s development in matters musical during 1964. Perhaps the most severe setbacks occurred in Toronto, not the least of which were the deaths of three outstanding musicians, all of whom had at one time or another been cellists. The first was the greatly gifted and enormously versatile Rowland Pack, choral conductor, continuo player, organist (organ-builder indeed), player of any kind of recorder, player of the viols, and, at the time of his death at thirty-six, first cellist of the CBC Symphony Orchestra. In this latter position, he was succeeded by...

    • Art
      (pp. 480-488)

      Through the years Canadian museums had managed to remain quiescent for various reasons—limited attendance (except for large imported exhibitions), small membership, and meagre donations from both public and private sources. In 1964, however, they exploded all across the country, with a vitality that indicated the quality of events throughout the art world.

      The Art Gallery of Toronto originated the important “Picasso and Man” exhibition, which focused international attention on the gallery and created more excitement and interest than had any other exhibition in years. Major works were borrowed from the Hermitage in Russia, other museums around the world, and...

    • Sport
      (pp. 489-501)

      Canada’s 1964 Olympic performance, although weak by international standards, was the best showing the country had ever made in Olympic competition. The Toronto Maple Leafs repeated as Stanley Cup Champions after fourteen play-off games. The Lions took the Grey Cup to Vancouver for the first time. The National Advisory Council on Fitness and Amateur Sport granted more than $50,000 to the AAU to help stage national championships and establish a training plan for the development of track and field. But Canada’s sports story of the year centred around a horse. A three-year-old colt that nobody wanted for $25,000 at the...

  10. Obituaries
    (pp. 502-509)
  11. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 510-510)
  12. Index
    (pp. 511-531)