Cdn Annual Review 1976

Cdn Annual Review 1976

EDITED BY JOHN SAYWELL
Copyright Date: 1977
Pages: 442
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt2ttq1j
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  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 1976
    Book Description:

    The 1976 edition of theCanadian Annual Review

    is both a concise convenient record of the year and a responsible appraisal of these important developments.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7190-4
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Canadian Calendar
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. Parliament and Politics

    • Parliament
      (pp. 4-30)

      The first session of the 30th Parliament had opened on September 30, 1974, and when it resumed after Christmas on January 26, 1976, there seemed to be no end in sight. Despite Mr Knowles’s plea that ‘the time has come for a new throne speech, a new debate, and a new testing of the confidence of the house,’ House Leader Mitchell Sharp replied that the session would last at least until the summer unless very rapid progress was made on legislation already on the order paper. But the Commons seemed in no mood to move quickly, and on January 28...

    • Ottawa and the Provinces
      (pp. 30-53)

      ‘The state of federal-provincial relations is at a very sad low right now’ said Premier Peter Lougheed of Alberta as he opened the Interprovincial Conference in August. Certainly it was not one of the most harmonious years, as Ottawa and the provinces battled over tax sharing, revenue guaranteeing, shared-cost programmes, patriation of the British North America Act, and responsibilities or lack of them in almost every area of public policy. Nevertheless, there were some solid achievements. In a far from unanimous decision the Supreme Court of Canada upheld the validity of the Anti-Inflation Act in a judgment delivered by Chief...

    • B and B
      (pp. 53-87)

      ‘Poking through the chicken entrails, one strains somewhat harder today than a year ago to spot omens of a more serene Canadian climate on language. On the surface, linguistic antagonisms abound, as does anguish real or bogus at the horrors awaiting a country trying to come to terms with its diverse reality. To hear some worthy people, bilingualism’s to blame forallCanada’s problems – from unemployment to unwed mothers, from hiccups to hurricanes.’ And yet, wrote Keith Spicer in his fifth annual report, ‘behind this counterpoint of stridency, one hears in both linguistic communities a plainsong of opinion that...

    • The election of November 15
      (pp. 87-137)

      ‘Give me one good reason why there should be an election,’ said Ben Payeur, the newly elected president of the Quebec Liberal party, on August 30. It was difficult to find a reason, and even the obvious one – that the Liberals thought they could win – was not only inappropriate but dubious. Yet six weeks later Robert Bourassa announced that he was seeking a new mandate to face the challenge of Trudeau in Ottawa and the trade unions in Quebec. No one expected the Liberals to emerge unscathed. No one anticipated the slaughter of November 15.

      Tanned and buoyant,...

    • Politics
      (pp. 137-164)

      The political waters in Canada throughout 1976 were almost as turbulent as they had been in the days of the disintegration of the Diefenbaker government. While the Conservatives themselves enjoyed a more peaceful transfer of power and the ndp survived the year without causing much of a ripple, events inside and outside Parliament kept the Liberals off balance and led some people to demand an early election or a leadership review.

      Gallup Polls on voting intentions revealed a steady fall in Liberal support from January until August and then a modest recovery in the fall and winter. The results were...

  6. The Provinces

    • Ontario
      (pp. 167-192)
      PETER OLIVER

      Ontario’s first full year of minority government appeared to work well, particularly for the Tories, who won back some of the popular support they had lost in the September 1975 election. The Liberals began the year with a gamble, selecting as their new leader an unknown young psychiatrist, Stuart Smith, whose political inexperience soon brought him a measure of humiliation in the rough and tumble of legislative politics. For their part, the New Democrats under Stephen Lewis did not press home the advantages won in the election and were unable to keep the government on the defensive. At year’s end...

    • Québec
      (pp. 192-211)
      JEAN-CHARLES BONENFANT

      Au point de vue politique, l’année 1976 au Québec a été marquée par deux sessions entre lesquelles ont été tenues des élections générates qui ont porté au pouvoir le Parti québécois, dirigé par M. René Lévesque avec comme but ultime l’indépendance du Québec.

      La quatrième session de la trentieme legislature s’est ouverte le 16 mars, pour s’ajourner le 2 juillet, reprendre pendant deux jours, le 23 juillet, et être automatiquement prorogée le 8 octobre par la dissolution de l’Assemblée lors de l’emission des brefs pour des élections générates. Au cours de cette session, plus de 200 projets de loi ont...

    • Nova Scotia
      (pp. 211-219)
      DUNCAN FRASER

      One looked in vain for political, social, or economic high drama in Nova Scotia during 1976. What did become clear to the observer was that Nova Scotia was sliding economically and becoming increasingly dependent upon direct government intervention in the economic and social affairs of the province. While signs of conspicuous consumption in both private and public areas were not lacking, for the bulk of Nova Scotians life was becoming more difficult. While recreation programmes were expanding at a remarkable rate – with government-financed swimming pools and other facilities springing up all over the province and with a $14 million...

    • New Brunswick
      (pp. 219-231)
      RICHARD WILBUR

      Ten years ago, New Brunswickers were debating the issue of the century: Louis Robichaud’s Programme of Equal Opportunity. In 1976 Tory Premier Richard Hatfield strove manfully and quietly (sometimes in absentia) to stem the tide of recession that continually thwarted his government’s efforts to maintain the economy. On several occasions in the Legislature he had to deny Liberal charges that he was undermining the Equal Opportunity programme by cutting back on school and hospital budgets and by reinstating a form of rural self-government. More positively, the year produced no evidence of the English-French polarization that marked the turbulent Robichaud decade....

    • Manitoba
      (pp. 231-239)
      MURRAY DONNELLY

      Manitoba had a quiet year in 1976, with few events that would have warranted inclusion in a year-end national news summary. Once again its performance was like its geographical position – the quiet centre – and nowhere was this more clearly reflected than in the economy. Consumer expenditure showed a moderate real increase during the year, as did labour income. Farm income, however, dropped significantly, primarily because of lower prices, but confidence seemed high, judging by the strong increase in the sale of farm machinery. Unemployment was at 4.7 per cent, or 2.4 points below the national average as it...

    • British Columbia
      (pp. 239-253)
      PATRICIA ROY

      The first year of the Social Credit government of William Bennett saw many changes. The government described its programme as restraint and recovery; opposition critics called it revenge. As the government began fulfilling election promises to reduce government size and spending, to eliminate mismanagement in government agencies and enterprises, and to introduce ‘tough but fair taxation,’ British Columbians tightened their belts. To balance the budget the government increased the sales tax, automobile insurance premiums, hospitalper diemcharges, and ferry rates. At the same time the economy continued to be sluggish. Premier Bennett boasted the unemployment rate of 7.3 per...

    • Prince Edward Island
      (pp. 253-260)
      FRANK MACKINNON

      An urgent need to cut public expenditure and to increase the supply of electric power dominated political and economic affairs in Prince Edward Island in 1976.

      The legislature met on March 4. A four-minute throne speech, one of the shortest on record, promised a review of the energy situation and restraints on public spending, and warned that both public and private sectors must curb rising expenditure. Transportation problems were emphasized at the beginning of the session. On March 11 Highway Minister Bruce Stewart informed the House that in the last five years twenty-two of the province’s twenty-seven railway stations had...

    • Saskatchewan
      (pp. 260-271)
      JOHN C. COURTNEY

      Federal-provincial relations and provincial resource policies dominated Saskatchewan public affairs throughout 1976. The early forecasts of a buoyant economy, reflecting the prosperous agricultural developments of the past few years, were largely fulfilled, but by late autumn it became increasingly apparent that the economy would almost certainly take a downturn in 1977. The ndp government’s relations with organized labour were tense, a situation likely to remain so long as the premier continued his support for some form of wage and price controls. Shortly before the year end the Liberals, the official opposition party, chose a new leader who immediately set about...

    • Alberta
      (pp. 271-281)
      DAVID ELTON

      The multifaceted and changing nature of natural resource production and management, and the utilization of revenue generated therefrom, dominated Alberta’s political life during 1976.

      Although the governments of Alberta, Ontario, and Canada entered into an agreement concerning Syncrude Canada Ltd in early 1975, it was not until April 30, 1976, that the three governments and the oil companies involved in the oil sands project officially signed an agreement concerning the financing of the project. The signing culminated fourteen months of detailed and difficult negotiations concerning the rate of return the Alberta Energy Company was to receive from its investment in...

    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      (pp. 281-290)
      LESLIE HARRIS

      ‘And now abideth,’ St Paul wrote to the Corinthians, ‘Faith, Hope and Charity, these three; but the greatest of these is Charity.’ Nevertheless, to any but the incorrigible optimist, it would appear that Newfoundlanders in 1976 stood more in need of faith and hope. For, indeed, the year was one, not, it is true, of unmitigated gloom, but of seeming stagnation, of hopes deferred, of bright prospects receding to a distant background. If we were seeking a single adjective that might be aptly descriptive, we could use the word ‘grey.’

      Once again, as in so much of the recent past,...

    • The Yukon and Northwest Territories
      (pp. 290-298)
      NORA T. CORLEY

      On November 19 Mr Justice Berger wound up his lengthy hearing with the warning that Canada would have to make ‘some hard and painful choices’ about northern development. After travelling more than 43,000 miles and listening to more than twelve hundred witnesses he observed that ‘the positions of the participants are still much the same as at the start.’ Much of the evidence was inconsequential and repetitive; much of it was polemical. Probably the shortest testimony was given by Veronique Pascal, the oldest resident of Colville Lake, who hobbled to the microphone leaning on a broomhandle and said simply ‘I...

  7. External Affairs and Defence

    • Canadian-American Relations
      (pp. 301-310)

      On both sides of the border there was ready acceptance of the fact that the Canadian-American relationship was changing in a far more significant manner than was implied by the cosmetic terminological transformation of a ‘special’ relationship into a ‘unique’ one. There was general agreement that Americans were becoming increasingly attentive to Canadian actions in a way that previously characterized Canadian responses to the United States. However, spokesmen for the two governments appeared to differ on the consequences of these changes and the implications of the emerging relationship.

      In his first official speech in Canada, Thomas Enders, the new American...

    • Diplomatic Issues
      (pp. 310-334)

      With its enunciation of the Third Option in 1972 the Canadian government embarked upon a policy of lessening its vulnerability to the United States and seeking an equilibrium in its external relations through expanding its political and economic ties with its major partners. In its search for diversification in 1976 the government made Canada’s presence more keenly felt in previously underemphasized areas, encouraged the development of economic relationships with potentially important trading partners, and achieved its long-sought ‘contractual link’ with the European Community.

      Canada’s desire for a formal relationship with the European Community was the most prominent element in its...

    • United Nations
      (pp. 334-343)

      The thirty-first session of the General Assembly of the United Nations convened in New York on September 21. Canada was elected to serve on the Security Council from January 1, 1977, to the end of 1978 and thus became the first western nation other than permanent members to serve a fourth term on the Council. Mr Jamieson gave his first speech as secretary of state for external affairs to the General Assembly on September 29 and outlined Canada’s position on many of the issues to be debated in the session.

      In an excellent summary of developments at the thirty-first Session...

    • Economic Issues
      (pp. 344-349)

      The ministerial meeting of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd) June 21–2 in Paris reached agreement on a declaration on multinational enterprises, including a set of guidelines for conduct and three ‘decisions’ dealing with intergovernmental consultation procedures on the guidelines, national treatment, and international investment incentives and disincentives. In a statement to the ministerial meeting on June 21 Mr MacEachen welcomed the agreement on multinational enterprises but stated that ‘the promulgation of these guidelines in no way infringes on the right of governments to prescribe in the interests of achieving national economic and social goals the conditions...

    • International Development Issues
      (pp. 349-355)

      The international attention focused upon the new international economic order and Mr MacEachen’s personal concern with development questions made this one of the priority issues in Canadian foreign policy in 1976. In an interview on August 28 Mr MacEachen said: ‘The issue of development is probably the main political issue in the world. It’s the long term political issue and if we don’t succeed in improving living standards there is going to be permanent instability, unrest and probably permanent revolution.’

      The Conference on International Economic Co-operation opened in Paris in December 1975 under the cochairmanship of Mr MacEachen and Mr...

    • Military and Security Issues
      (pp. 355-362)

      The re-emphasis on nato as a Canadian defence priority was reinforced in 1976, and major capital expenditures were approved for the replacement and modernization of military equipment. The rationalization of force structures and military tasks was systematically examined under the rubric of the Defence Structure Review. In an address to the Conference of Defence Associations on January 16 the chief of defence staff, General Jacques Dextraze, stated that ‘for the first time in a long time we are beginning to achieve stability’ (International Canada, January).

      General Dextraze said that the current authorized force level of 78,000 personnel was sufficient to...

  8. The National Economy

    • An Overview
      (pp. 365-382)

      The recovery from the 1974–5 recession received a substantial boost during the first quarter of 1976 from massive inventory accumulation, and real output expanded by 3.1 per cent during the quarter. However, the rate of inventory accumulation was not sustained, and the real growth rate of the economy slowed to 0.4 per cent during the second quarter. This slowdown in inventory accumulation during the second quarter almost balanced large increases in exports and personal expenditures. Both of these major expenditure aggregates continued to grow at relatively healthy rates during the third quarter, but a large decline in gross fixed...

    • Government Policies
      (pp. 382-396)

      The two principal economic factors behind the budget were the prospects of the international economy recovering from the 1975 recession and the need to continue efforts to reduce the rate of inflation. Finance Minister Macdonald believed that the general economic recovery in the United States and other developed countries would stimulate a growth in exports not only leading to an improvement in the trade balance during the coming years but also generating a 5 per cent real growth rate in 1976. He also expected the housing sector to be rather strong, in view of the rapid increase in the number...

    • Energy
      (pp. 396-407)

      As the year opened the two applicants before the National Energy Board were Canadian Arctic Gas and Foothills. Canadian Arctic Gas was applying to build a 2,500-mile, 48-inch pipeline to carry about 4.5 billion cubic feet per day from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and the Mackenzie Delta to supply the midwest American and eastern Canadian markets. The total cost for the system, including principal and lateral transmission lines and the expansion of established delivery facilities in Canada and the United States, was estimated at roughly $10 billion. The Foothills group proposed to construct an 817-mile, 42-inch pipeline that would deliver approximately...

    • Banks and Borrowing
      (pp. 407-413)

      Late in August the Department of Finance released a white paper entitledCanadian Banking Legislationoutlining the government’s proposals for the decennial revision of the Bank Act. Finance Minister Macdonald stated that the recommendations in the white paper would launch Canada into a new era of tough competition in a national banking system that had been too closely controlled. The proposals were designed to give Canadians a better deal from their banks through increased competition. But he did point out that even though the Act was aimed at increasing competition, Canadians could not expect a dramatic decline in interest rates,...

    • Foreign Investment Review Act
      (pp. 413-416)

      In October 1976 the annual report of the Foreign Investment Review Agency was published. The number of acquisition applications received by fira during the 1975–6 fiscal year totalled 189, a decline of 41 from 1974–5. During 1975–6 a total of 144 cases were certified by fira as being reviewable, and 58 cases under assessment at the end of 1974–5 were carried over into the latest fiscal year, for a total of 202 reviewable cases. Of these, 153 were resolved – 110 were allowed, 22 disallowed, and 21 withdrawn by the applicants before a decision had been...

  9. Obituaries
    (pp. 417-422)
  10. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 423-424)
    JTS
  11. Index
    (pp. 425-442)