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Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595 B.C.)

Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595 B.C.): Early Periods, Volume 4

Copyright Date: 1990
Pages: 853
  • Book Info
    Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595 B.C.)
    Book Description:

    A short introduction for each inscription gives its general contents, place of origin, and relative dating. Also included are a detailed catalogue of exemplars, a brief commentary, bibliography, and text in transliteration facing an English translation.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7803-3
    Subjects: Archaeology, History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xii)
    R.F.G. SWEET

    The ancient kings of Mesopotamia ruled one of the two great literate civilizations that set the course of the earliest history of the ancient Near East. Their temples and tombs do not waken vivid images in the minds of the modern reader or television viewer, as do those of the other great centre of early Near Eastern civilization, Egypt. But their cities, some with such familiar names as Babylon, Nineveh, and Ur, have been excavated over the past century and a half, according to the standards of the time, and have yielded an abundance of records of the boasted accomplishments...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Editorial Notes
    (pp. xv-xvi)
    R.F.G. SWEET
  6. Bibliographical Abbreviations
    (pp. xvii-xxvi)
  7. Other Abbreviations
    (pp. xxvii-xxvii)
  8. Object Signatures
    (pp. xxviii-xxix)
  9. Comparative Chart of the Major Dynasties
    (pp. xxx-2)
    (pp. 3-4)

    The time period covered by the inscriptions edited in this volume extends from the accession of Išbi-Erra, first king of the First Dynasty of Isin, to the death of Samsu-ditāna, last king of the First Dynasty of Babylon, in all a period of about 422 years.

    At the beginning of this period Isin (E4.1) controlled a major part of the domains which had once been part of the Ur III empire including the dynastic capital Isin, the religious capital Nippur, and the former Ur III capital, Ur. Inscriptions of the first four Isin rulers are known from those cities. However,...

  11. ISIN E4.1
    (pp. 5-106)

    After assuming independence from the Ur III king Ibbi-Sîn under the energetic governor Išbi-Erra, Isin remained an independent city-state for about 225 years until its defeat at the hands of Rīm-Sîn of Larsa. Originally controlling most of the cities of the Sumerian south such as Uruk and Ur, as well as territory as far north as Apiak, Isin’s domains greatly diminished during this period. This was due to the rise of small independent states such as Uruk and Kisurra, as well as the expansionist policies of its arch-rival Larsa. After the reign of Lipit-Eštar almost all our inscriptions dealing with...

  12. LARSA E4.2
    (pp. 107-322)

    The city of Larsa appears to have gained its independence at a relatively early date after the fall of Ur. Unfortunately, the history of Larsa at this early period is very obscure.

    An important source for the history of Larsa is the Larsa King List, YBC 2142, published as YOS 1 no. 32. This list gives a total of 16 rulers of the city down to the time of Samsu-iluna. The city itself was independent until its defeat in year 30 of Ḫammu-rāpi....

  13. BABYLON E4.3
    (pp. 323-438)

    About the beginning of the reign of Sūmû-El of Larsa, the Amorite chief Sūmû-abum installed himself as ruler of Babylon, a hitherto inconsequential town on the Araḫtum canal north of Dilbat. He founded a dynasty which was to rule from Babylon for 300 years. During the reigns of Sîn-muballiṭ and Ḫammu-rāpi, there was a great expansion in the realms of Babylon, culminating with Ḫammu-rāpi’s defeat of Rīm-Sîn of Larsa as commemorated in the name of his 31st year. Babylon’s hegemony over Sumer and Akkad was short-lived, however, and by the time of the end of the reign of Ḫammu-rāpi’s successor,...

  14. URUK E4.4
    (pp. 439-483)

    The city of Uruk played an important role in the complex politics of the Isin-Larsa period, having a very checkered history during this period. It would appear that Isin gained control over the city part way through the reign of Ibbi-Sîn of Ur. Year x + 7 of Išbi-Erra commemorates the designation of the en of Inanna, which Renger has suggested refers to the priest of that goddess in Uruk. Allusions to Inanna and the city are found sporadically in year names and hymns of the early Isin kings. The last king of Isin who appears to have controlled the...

  15. EŠNUNNA E4.5
    (pp. 484-592)

    Year 3 of Ibbi-Sîn marks the last year name of the Ur king used in Ešnunna (see R. Whiting, AfO 34 [1987] p. 33), after which the city was independent. The first attested independent ruler of the city, Šūilīia, adopted the title ‘king’, and used his own year names. His reign is contemporary with Ibbi-Sîn’s and his inscriptions will be edited in RIME 3.

    After the reign of Šū-ilīia, kingship of Ešnunna passed to the god Tišpak. While employing their own year names, succeeding rulers of the city down to the reign of Ipiq-Adad II served simply as governor (ÉNSI)...

  16. MARI E4.6
    (pp. 593-649)

    Before the advent of the dynasty of Iaḫdun-Līm, Mari was ruled by a long series of viceroys (šakkanakkū). The relative dating of these figures has been uncertain for a long time. The recent discovery and publication by Durand of two lists of šakkanakkus (see MARI 4 pp. 152–59) has shed much light on this question.

    Assuming the identity of the Puzur-Eštar who appears in one of the lists with a šakkanakkum by that name attested in various Ur III texts studied by Goetze, a relative chronology of the Mari rulers with the Ur III kings can be determined. The...

  17. KISURRA E4.7
    (pp. 650-652)

    The city of Kisurra (modern Abū Ḥaṭab), just north of ancient Šuruppak (Fara), had a checkered history in Old Babylonian times. The city was independent for a time and then fell under the control of such cities as Uruk, Marad, Isin, and the Mananā kings. It was finally conquered by Rīm-Sîn of Larsa, as commemorated in the name of the 20th year of the king. Inscriptions of one of its independent rulers, Itur-Šamaš, are known....

  18. KIŠ E4.8
    (pp. 653-657)

    The once important city of Kiš had a very checkered history in Isin-Larsa/Old Babylonian times. With the accession of Išbi-Erra, the city became a dependency of Isin under the local governor Šū-Enlil (see F. Ali, Sumer 26 [1970] p. 162 line 38). Later the city gained its independence under a local ruler, Ašdūni-iarīm. Following this the city came under the control of the king of Marad, Sūmû-ditān. It regained its independence once again under lawiʾum only to be dominated by the kings of the Mananā and Babylon dynasties....

  19. MUTALÛ E4.9
    (pp. 658-659)

    The ancient town of Mutalû was a small settlement located at modern Išan Dhaḥāk, 18 miles north-east of Kiš. Bricks with an inscription of its local ruler, GA/BI-NI/IR-ma-bi-de-e, were found there....

  20. MANANĀ E4.10
    (pp. 660-667)

    A number of rulers are known for a dynasty whose capital city has not yet been definitely determined but which may have been the city of Ilip. The most important of these rulers was Mananā, whose name is used here to designate the dynasty as a whole.

    Contemporary with the Manana dynasty was the Marad-Kazallu kingdom, whose Amorite rulers controlled cities along the combined courses of the Araḫtum and Kazallu canals. In archival texts mentioning the rulers of this kingdom, oaths are sworn by either the god Lugal-marada, ciy god of Marad, apperently the southern capial of the kingdom, or...

  21. MALGIUM E4.11
    (pp. 668-674)

    The important city of Malgium, as yet unlocated, has provided inscriptions of two of its rulers for the Old Babylonian period, Ipiq-Eštar and Takil-ilissu.

    The relative dating of the reigns of Ipiq-Eštar and Takil-ilissu is not certain. Edzard suggested that the Ipiq-Eštar inscription is to be dated after the Takil-ilissu inscription. C. Wilcke and R. Kutscher, however, have argued for a date before this, a scheme followed here....

  22. DĒR E4.12
    (pp. 675-681)

    The important ancient city of Dēr, modern Tell al-ʿAqar near Badra, became independent following the Ur III period. Inscriptions of three of its rulers are known....

  23. DINIKTUM E4.13
    (pp. 682-685)

    The city of Diniktum was located somewhere in the Diyala region, possibly at or near Tell Muḥammad, in the south-east section of modern Baghdad. Inscriptions of two of its rulers are known....

    (pp. 686-693)

    An important dynasty which ruled a number of cities in the Diyala basin area appears in documents dating to the general time period of Sūmû-la-Il of Babylon. Unfortunately we do not yet know which city served as the home of this dynasty. We do, however, know the names of at least three of its rulers, Ammī-dušur, Sîn-abūšu, and Ikūn-pî-Sîn. Inscriptions and seal impressions belonging to these kings are edited here....

  25. ŠADLAŠ E4.15
    (pp. 694-698)

    The city of Šadlaš, whose exact location is unknown, must have lain in the Diyala region. Inscriptions of two of its Old Babylonian rulers are known....

  26. MÊ-TURRAN E4.16
    (pp. 699-700)

    The important ancient city of Mê-Turran ‘Waters of the Diyala’ has been identified by Iraqi excavators at the modern sites of Tell Ḥaddād and Tell al-Sib, not far from modern Diyala north of the Jebel Ḥamrīn. A year formula of Ipiq-Adad II commemorates the capture of the city (see S. Greengus, OBTI p. 31 no. 40). The city appears to have stayed under the control of Ešnunna down to the time of ṢillīSîn. An inscription of what may be a local Amorite ruler of the city dealing with the construction of the city walls was found by an Iraqi excavation...

  27. BATIR E4.17
    (pp. 701-702)

    The city of Batir, which appears in Early Dynastic times in the form Badar or Madar, lay near or on the Diyala river near the junction with the Jebel Ḥamrīn....

  28. LULLUBUM E4.18
    (pp. 703-706)

    The land of Lullubum lay in the mountainous area east of Mesopotamia, probably in the greater vicinity of modern Suleimānīyah. An inscription of one of its rulers, Anubanini, probably dates to the early Isin-Larsa period....

  29. SIMURRUM E4.19
    (pp. 707-716)

    The important city of Simurrum, which lay in the east Transtigridian region not too far from the Jebel Ḥamrīn, was frequently the object of campaigns by both the Old Akkadian and Ur III kings. With the collapse of the Ur III empire Simurrum appears to have become an independent state. In an archival document dating to year x+19 of Išbi-Erra (BIN 9 no. 421), there is mentioned a diplomatic gift from Isin for the king of Simurrum, and an ambassador from Simurrum figures in the same tablet.

    A handful of inscriptions are extant which mention king Iddi(n)-Sîn and his son...

  30. ḪURŠĪTUM E4.20
    (pp. 717-718)

    References to the city and land of Ḫuršītum appear in a handful of Old Babylonian texts. A brick inscription of one of its rulers is known....

  31. QABARĀ E4.21
    (pp. 719-720)

    The city of Qabarā, which lay somewhere in the land around Urbilum, was a very important city in Old Babylonian times when it was attacked by the armies of Šamšī-Adad of Ekallātum (see RIMA 1A.0.39.1001) and Dāduša of Ešnunna (see E4.5.19.1). In the stele of Dāduša which describes this attack, the name of the king of Qabarā, Bunu-Eštar, is revealed....

  32. ITABALḪUM E4.22
    (pp. 721-722)

    Itabalḫum appears to have been a state in the north-east Zagros region....

  33. ḪANA E4.23
    (pp. 723-734)

    After the destruction of Mari by Ḫammu-rāpi, the state of Ḫana on the Middle Euphrates, with its capital at ancient Terqa, modern Tell ʿAsherah, emerged as an important power. A number of rulers of Ḫana are known, chiefly from their year names and seal impressions. Tablets recently excavated at Tell ʿAsherah shed new light on the rulers of this kingdom, supplementing what was already known from earlier chance finds from that site....

  34. BUZURAN E4.24
    (pp. 735-736)

    The city of Buzuran appears to have been situated a little downstream from Mari. What may be the copy of an inscription of the king of Buzuran appears on a cylinder seal in a private collection....

    (pp. 737-747)

    The British excavations at Tell al Rimah have shed considerable light on the political fortunes of an Old Babylonian city whose ancient name is not entirely certain. Arguments have been put forward for an identification of Tell al Rimah with Karanā, Qaṭṭarā, or Razamā.Here we have opted for the identification with Qaṭṭarā following D.Charpin and J.-M. Durand. Most recently Kh. Nashef has suggested an identification of ancient Karanā with modern Tell Ḫamīra, 16 kilometres east of Tell al Rimah.

    The two cities at Qaṭṭarā and Karanā appear to have lain close to one another and to have served alternately as...

  36. RAZAMĀ E4.26
    (pp. 748-749)

    The city of Razamā, which lay not far from ancient Qaṭṭarā, was an important city in Old Babylonian times. It was the object of a siege by Ṣillī-Sîn of Ešnunna, who headed a coalition that included Ešnunna, Elam, Andariq, and probably Išme-Dagān of Assyria. The event was used to name one of Ṣillī-Sîn’s years (see A.K. Muḥammad, Studies on the Unpublished Cuneiform Texts, Diyala Region, Ḥamrin Basin, Tell Ḥaddād, M.A. thesis, Baghdad [1985] pp. 81–83).

    One inscription of Šarrum-kīma-kalima, ruler of Razamā, is known. He appears in the documents from Mari and Tell al Rimah in the shorter form...

  37. ŠEḪNĀ E4.27
    (pp. 750-758)

    Recent archaeological research at Tell Leilan coupled with new information from the Mari archives informs us that the ancient name of Tell Leilan was Šeḫnā, and that this city served as capital of the land of Apum. When Šamšī-Adad made the city his capital he re-named it Šubat-Enlil.

    Seal impressions of five rulers who controlled Šeḫnā after the death of Šamšī-Adad have been found on tablets and sealings from Tell Leilan. These are edited here by kind permission of H. Weiss....

  38. ANDARIQ E4.28
    (pp. 759-765)

    The Mari documents reveal the existence of a number of kings of Andariq, an important city in northern Mesopotamia, as yet unlocated....

  39. ILĀNṢURĀ E4.29
    (pp. 766-768)

    The important city of Ilānṣurā was located in northern Mesopotamia somewhere in the Ḫabur triangle. Seals or seal impressions of servants of one of its rulers, Ḫaia-sūmû, are known....

  40. AŠNAKKUM E4.30
    (pp. 769-770)

    The important city of Ašnakkum was located somewhere in the Ḫabur basin....

  41. KAḪAT E4.31
    (pp. 771-772)

    The ancient city of Kaḫat has been located at modern Tell Barri on the Jaghjagh River (see G. Dossin, AAS 11/12 pp. 197–206)....

  42. CARCHEMISH E4.32
    (pp. 773-778)

    The names of three kings of ancient Carchemish, modern Jerablus on the Upper Euphrates, are found in the Mari archives. Seals or seal impressions mentioning one of these rulers are known....

  43. IAMḪAD E4.33
    (pp. 779-797)

    A large number of tablets excavated by Woolley at Tell Atshana on the bend of the Orontes in Syria, ancient Alalaḫ, date back to the 18th century BC. The information from these tablets coupled with that obtained from the Mari archives sheds much light on the rulers of the ancient kingdom of lamḫad....

  44. ALALAḪ E4.34
    (pp. 798-802)

    In addition to information about the rulers of the kingdom of Iamḫad, the Alalaḫ tablets give us the names of various governors of Alalaḫ during late Old Babylonian times. Their inscriptions are edited at this point....

  45. TUBA E4.35
    (pp. 803-806)

    Tuba was a minor city which at some times was part of the kingdom of Alalaḫ. The names of three of its kings are known....

  46. EBLA E4.36
    (pp. 807-808)

    The status of the city of Ebla in Isin-Larsa/Old Babylonian times is uncertain. The finding of a monument of a certain Ibbiṭ-Līm, probably dating to late Ur III times (on the date see D. Owen and R. Veenker in L. Cagni [ed.], Ebla 1975–1985 pp. 269–73), suggests that the city gained its independence at the collapse of the Ur III empire. A seal impression of a son of a certain Indilimgur who ruled Ebla around 1725 BC is known. Later, a year name of Ammī-taqūmma of Alalaḫ records the marriage of a son of Ammī-taqūmma to the daughter...

    (pp. 809-830)

    A number of seals or seal impressions of Old Babylonian date are known in which the owner of the seal appears as the ‘servant’ (ÌR) of another man. Using the principle put forward by E. Weidner in JKF 2 (1953) pp. 127–28, we may assume that the name following the designation ‘servant’ is that of a ruler. The importance of this ruler, however, could vary from that of a petty local ruler to that of the king of Babylon. We have edited in this volume servant seals under the appropriate sections when the rulers were known from other sources....

  48. Index of Museum Numbers
    (pp. 831-843)
  49. Index of Excavation Numbers
    (pp. 844-850)
  50. Concordances of Selected Publications
    (pp. 851-853)